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Naval  Orientation  has  been  prepared  mainly  foi 
programs.  It  is  a  source  of  useful  information,  howev 
the  Department  of  the  Navy  and  the  U.S.  Coast  G 
valuable  background  information  for  all  hands  and  : 
Navy  life  and  the  rules,  customs,  and  traditions  that  g 

This  text  was  prepared  by  the  Naval  Educatior 
Development  Center,  Pensacola,  Florida,  for  the  Q 
and  Training.  Suggestions,  comments,  and  criticisms  a 

Revised  1977 

Published  by 



The  United  States  Navy  is  responsible  for  maintainin 
sea  and  is  a  ready  force  on  watch  at  home  and  over 
strong  action  to  preserve  the  peace  or  of  instant  off* 
win  in  war. 

It  is  upon  the  maintenance  of  this  control  that  our  co 
future  depends;  the  United  States  Navy  exists  to  mak< 


Tradition,  valor,  and  victory  are  the  Navy's  heritage  fr< 
these  may  be  added  dedication,  discipline,  and  \ 
watchwords  of  the  present  and  the  future. 

At  home  or  on  distant  stations  we  serve  with  pride,  c 
respect  of  our  country,  our  shipmates,  and  our  familie 

Our  responsibilities  sober  us;  our  adversities  strengther 

Service  to  God  and  Country  is  our  special  privilege, 




1 .  The  Navy  and  seapower     

2.  Makers  of  Naval  tradition     

3.  The  Naval  Officer's  career 

4.  Naval  terms  and  customs 

5.  Uniforms  and  insignia     

6.  Military  courtesy    

7.  Discipline  and  the  Uniform  Code  of  Militai 

8.  Leadership 

9.  Department  of  the  Navy 

1 0.  Components  and  supporting  elements  of  tt 


20.  Antiair  warfare     

21.  Undersea  warfare 

22.  Antisubmarine  warfare 

23.  Amphibious  warfare     

24.  Logistics 

25.  Naval  telecommunications 

26.  Security     

27.  Naval  intelligence 

28.  Research  and  development 


L  Personnel  records 

II.  Officer  fitness  reports     

III.  Classification  and  distribution  of  officers 

IV.  Morse  code,  semaphore,  and  alphabet  flags 

V.  Honors  and  ceremonies 

VI.  Awards 

VII.  Histoiy  of  the  U.S.  Naval  Academy 

INDEX  .... 



Seapower  as  a  concept  means  more  than 
military  power  at  sea.  According  to  an  OPNAV 

"Seapower  is  the  sum  of  a  nation's 
capabilities  to  implement  its  interests  in 
the  ocean,  by  using  the  ocean  areas  for 
political,  economic,  and  military 
activities  in  peace  or  war  in  order  to 
attain  national  objectives— with  principal 
components  of  seapower  being  naval 
power,  ocean  science,  ocean  industry, 
and  ocean  commerce." 

The  first  use  of  the  term  "seapower"  was  by 
Captain  Alfred  Thayer  Mahan,  USN3  in  his 
principal  work,  The  Influence  of  Seapower 
Upon  History,  1660-1783,  published  in  1890. 
Mahan  explained  seapower  as  a  function  of  a 
nation's  (1)  geographic  position  conducive  to 
the  use  of  seapower,  (2)  physical  conformation, 

sole  detern 
complex.  Ac 
little  if  she 
numerous,  fi 
climate  are 
physical  con 
climate  and 
own  wants, 
England,  lad 
compelled  tc 

of  territory 
adequate  sez 
population  r 
accessible  sh 
seacoasts  am 
nation's  co 
penetration  I 

The  gist 


in  the  forefront  of  the  major  maritime  powers 
endorsed  Mahan's  doctrine  based  on  the  belief 
that  history  provides  clues  to  achieving  maritime 
supremacy.  Mahan's  concept,  therefore,  became 
the  intellectual  force  behind  the  physical 
development  of  the  Navy. 


There  is  evidence  that  seapower  was  an 
important  influence  in  history  as  far  back  as 
4000  years  ago.  The  ancient  Cretans,  who  are 
credited  with  being  the  first  possessors  of  a  navy 
and  a  merchant  marine,  were  at  that  time 
dominating  the  peoples  who  lived  on  the  shores 
of  the  Aegean  Sea-now  Greece  and  Turkey.  The 
Phoenicians  were  next  to  prosper  from  their 
mastery  of  the  sea,  and  they  are  often  referred 
to  as  the  real  pioneers  in  the  use  of  maritime 
power.  Their  sea  rule  was  long,  but  for  various 
reasons  eventually  ended. 

Then  came  the  Greeks.  Greece,  a  land  of 
peninsulas,  was  marked  for  conquest  by  Persia  in 
492  B.C.  The  Greeks  managed  to  repel  the 
invaders  twice  in  ensuing  years,  but  the  Persians 
reigned  supreme  on  the  sea.  Then  the  Greek 
gods  told  the  Athenians  to  put  their  trust  in 
wooden  walls,  which  the  Greek  commander 
Themistocles  interpreted  to  mean  ships. 

In  the  decisive  battle  of  Salamis  in  480  B.C., 
the  Persians  moved  to  bottle  up  the  Greek  fleet, 
thus  falling  into  the  trap  set  by  Themistocles.  In 
order  to  engage  the  Greeks,  Persian  ships  had  to 
transit  a  narrow  opening  between  the  Greek 
mainland  and  the  island  of  Salamis.  This 
maneuver  forced  the  Persians  to  fight  with  just  a 
few  ships  at  a  time,  more  or  less  on  even  terms 
in  spite  of  their  superior  numbers.  For  the  first 
time  in  naval  warfare,  these  tactics  presented  the 
chance  for  one  fleet  to  flank  the  advance  of 
another.  And  this  the  Greeks  did,  closing  and 
ramming  time  and  again.  Badly  outmaneuvered, 
Persian  "King  of  Kings"  Xerxes  witnessed  the 
loss  of  half  his  ships,  and  thus  the  end  of  his 
hopes  to  conquer  Greece.  The  ensuing  period  of 
peace,  prosperity,  and  productivity  in  the  arts, 
known  as  the  Golden  Age  of  Athens, 
lasted— significantly  enough— just  about  as  long 
as  the  Greek  city-states  maintained  their 
collective  seapower. 

Rome,  which  succeeded  to  greatness  first  by 
alliance  with  the  powerful  Greek  city-states,  and 
more  enduringjy  by  absorption  of  Greek  culture, 
found  a  formidable  rival.  This  was  Carthage, 
which  had  been  a  Phoenician  colony. 

At  the  outset  of  the  Punic  wars,  Rome, 
recognizing  the  need  for  seapower,  greatly 
enlarged  her  modest  navy.  At  this  early  age  the 
Romans  were  not  particularly  able  sailors  nor 
were  they  adept  tacticians.  With  ships  superior 
in  size  and  numbers  plus  some  clever 
innovations,  however,  they  eventually  were  able 
to  sweep  the  more  skillful  Carthaginians  in  their 
lighter  vessels  from  the  sea.  Roman  seamanship 
improved  rapidly,  and  it  was  Rome's  seapower 
that  forced  Hannibal  to  take  the  difficult 
overland  route  to  Italy  via  Spain  and  the  Alps, 
thereby  losing  about  half  his  forces.  It  was 
Roman  seapower  also  that  enabled  her  to  move 
her  powerful  legions  over  the  Mediterranean 
almost  at  will,  building  an  empire  which  endured 
for  almost  600  years. 

Following  the  fall  of  Rome,  Constantinople 
on  the  Bosporus— Watergate  between  Europe  and 
the  Near  East— became  the  center  of  ancient 
culture.  Renaissance  Venice  succeeded 
Constantinople  as  a  great  seapower  of  its  era, 
but  much  of  the  Mediterranean  was  now  a 
Moorish  lake.  This  put  a  halt  to  European 
commerce  with  Asia  and  Africa,  except  at  the 
extravagant  risk  of  paying  tribute  to  one  pirate 
ruler  after  another— a  custom  that  was  to  prevail 
until  American  seapower  helped  abolish  it  more 
than  3  50  years  later. 

The  age  of  exploration  and  colonization  was 
the  age  of  seapower  in  its  broadest  applications. 
The  nations  employing  it  became  rich  and 
powerful.  They  profited  by  what  ships  brought 
them,  and  the  world  profited  by  what  they  sent 
forth  in  ships.  Inevitably  there  were  collisions 
between  the  maritime  rivals,  and  many  wars 
were  fought  between  opposing  seapowers.  When 
seapower  meets  seapower,  what  factors 
determine  who  shall  be  the  victor? 

All  other  things  being  equal,  victory  is 
assured  the  contestant  who  has  the  soundest 
knowledge  of  the  sea  and  use  of  ships  on  the  sea. 
It  was  know-how-the  combination  of  technical 


knowledge  and  practical  skill— that  made  Drake 
the  master  of  the  Duke  of  Medina-Sidonia  and 
set  Nelson  above  Villeneuve. 

Three  great  maritime  powers-Spain, 
Portugal,  and  France -each  made  great  and 
enduring  contributions  to  discovery, 
exploration,  and  colonization  overseas,  but 
finally  dwindled  either  because  they  did  not 
fully  understand  the  use  of  the  sea,  or  because 
their  comprehension  was  inferior  to  that  of  their 

Portugal's  gaudy  but  brief  career  as  a 
seapower  was  extinguished  by  her  stronger  rival 
and  enveloping  neighbor,  Spain. 

Spain  gained  through  seapower  an  empire 
that  has  since  been  divided  into  half-a-hundred 
sovereignties,  but  the  Spanish  language  and 
Spanish  customs  still  persist  from  the  Philippine 
Republic  to  Mexico  and  Patagonia. 

Probably  no  investment  in  history  yielded 
greater  dividends  than  the  $5000  or  so  with 
which  Queen  Isabella  financed  the  voyage  of 
Columbus  into  the  western  sea.  Before  long,  the 
steady  stream  of  silver  and  gold  from  distant 
shores  was  pouring  millions  a  year  into  the  royal 
coffers.  Treasure-laden  ships  sailed  not  singly 
but  in  groups  shepherded  by  warships.  This  was 
an  early  example  of  a  protective  convoy. 

From  1492  to  1588  Spain  stood  in  the 
forefront  of  the  nations  of  Europe.  But  Spain 
was  a  classic  example  of  seapower  expressed  in 
terms  of  quantity  rather  than  of  quality. 

In  1588  her  king,  Philip  II,  determined 
finally  to  end  the  successful  English  raids  on 
Spanish  ships  and  ports  and  to  bring  England 
back  into  the  Catholic  fold  by  attacking  her 
with  what  seemed  an  irresistible  military  force. 
A  fleet  of  124  ships,  manned  by  8,000  sailors 
and  carrying  19,000  soldiers,  made  up  the 
Spanish  Grand  Invincible  Armada  when  it 
entered  the  English  Channel.  To  oppose  it,  the 
English  had  only  90  ships,  plus  a  mosquito  fleet 
which  had  never  seen  action.  However,  they  also 
had  the  know-how  personified  in  Sir  Francis 
Drake  and  his  men. 

The  Armada  was  organized  along  the  same 
lines  as  an  army;  it  was  under  the  command  of  a 

general,  the  Duke  of  Medina-Sidonia,  who  knew 
little  of  naval  warfare.  On  the  other  hand, 
Drake,  a  master  mariner,  knew  how  to  use  wind 
and  tide  as  allies.  The  confrontation  that  ensued 
marked  the  turning  point  in  naval  tactics. 
Previously,  naval  battles  had  been  virtually 
infantry  fights  on  floating  platforms.  If  ramming 
did  not  sink  an  enemy  ship,  soldiers  were  sent 
swarming  over  her  side  to  engage  in 
hand-to-hand  conflict.  The  English,  however, 
planned  something  quite  different  on  this 
occasion.  They  maneuvered  to  windward  of  the 
Spaniards  and  pounded  them  with  artillery  from 
a  distance.  This  deprived  the  soldiers  of  the 
opportunity  to  come  to  grips  with  the  enemy. 
The  big  lumbering  Spanish  ships,  with  their 
towering  upper  works,  were  splendid  targets. 

The  Spanish,  ignoring  a  chance  to  attack  the 
English  off  Plymouth,  sailed  on  up  the  Channel. 
The  English  pecked  away  at  the  Armada  on  its 
trip  up  the  Channel,  but  did  little  damage  except 
to  induce  the  Spaniards  to  fire  all  their  heavy 
shot  with  no  telling  effects.  The  Spaniards 
anchored  in  Calais,  and  during  the  night  the 
English  forced  them  out  by  floating  several 
burning  hulks  down  on  them.  The  combined 
English  and  Dutch  fleets  attacked  the  Armada 
the  next  day  and  might  have  crushed  it  if  they 
had  had  ample  powder  and  shot.  As  it  was,  the 
demoralized  Spaniards  fled  north  and  rounded 
the  British  Isles  to  the  Atlantic  where  storms 
nearly  succeeded  in  finishing  what  the  English 
had  started.  The  defeat  of  the  Armada  ushered 
in  the  decline  of  Spain's  world  dominance,  while 
England  went  on  to  become  mistress  of  the  sea. 

While  not  achieving  any  great  destruction  of 
the  enemy,  the  English  demonstrated  superior 
adaptability  of  tactics  to  weapons.  From  that 
time  on,  gunnery  gradually  replaced  shock 
action  in  battles  at  sea.  The  cries  of  "Boarders 
away!"  and  "Stand  by  to  repel  boarders!" 
gradually  became  less  frequent.  The  day  was  still 
far  distant  when  ships  would  become  targets 
while  still  hull  down  on  the  horizon,  but  that 
was  the  direction  of  naval  progress  after  the 
decisive  Armada  defeat. 

The  French  did  not  have  the  compulsion  to 
take  to  the  sea  as  did  the  British  and  Dutch. 
Their  national  policy  was  to  develop  their  rich 


land  and  defend  it  against  predatory  neighbors 
while  expending  minimum  resources  toward 
extending  the  nation's  seapower.  French  naval 
captains  were  ordered  to  avoid  risk-a  policy  not 
designed  to  control  the  seas  by  destruction  of 
enemy  naval  forces,  but  merely  to  dispute  them 
by  commerce  raiding.  In  the  end,  this  policy 
cost  France  both  her  navy  and  her  merchant 
fleets,  and  contributed  to  the  loss  of  Canada  and 
other  overseas  colonies. 

The  American  Revolution  had  elements  of  a 
maritime  war,  and  it  was  seapower  that 
eventually  helped  to  win  independence  for  the 

The  final  and  decisive  battle  at  Yorktown 
would  never  have  occurred  had  not  the  French 
fleet  under  de  Grasse  attained  command  of  the 
sea  in  the  Virginia  Capes  area.  Thus  Cornwallis, 
the  British  commander,  surrounded  on  the 
landward  side  by  the  combined 
Franco- American  army  and  on  the  seaward  side 
by  the  French  fleet,  was  forced  to  surrender. 

General  George  Washington  understood 
seapower  and  appreciated  its  use  as  indicated  in 
his  statements  below: 

"In  any  operation,  and  under  all 
circumstances,  a  decisive  naval 
superiority  is  to  be  considered  as  a 
fundamental  principle,  and  the  basis 
upon  which  every  hope  of  success  must 
ultimately  depend." 

Again,  he  said: 

"Whatever  efforts  are  made  by  land 
armies,  the  navy  must  have  the  casting 

vote     in     the     present    conflict A 

constant  naval  superiority  would 
terminate  the  war  speedily;  without  it,  I 
do  not  know  that  it  will  ever  be 
terminated  honorably." 

Later,  as  President,  Washington  pointed  out 
that  U.S.  commerce  required  a  naval  force  to 
protect  it  and  then  added  something  the 
American  people  promptly  forgot:  that  the  most 
sincere  neutrality  offered  in  itself  little 
protection  against  the  depredations  of  nations  at 
war.  Only  a  navy  organized  and  ready  to 

vindicate  it  from  insult  or  aggression  could  secure 
respect  to  a  neutral  flag.  He  added  that  such  a 
force  might  even  prevent  the  necessity  of  going 
to  war  at  all. 

Napoleon,  although  a  master  strategist  on 
land,  had  little  knowledge  of  war  at  sea.  He 
looked  in  vain  for  a  naval  officer  who  really 
understood  seapower.  He  said: 

"The  great  weakness  of  our  navy  is  that 
the  men  who  command  it  are 
inexperienced  in  all  the  hazards  of 
command.  I  look  increasingly  for  the 
right  naval  officer  without  being  able  to 
find  him.  In  that  profession  there  is  a 
specialty,  a  technicality,  which  put  a 
limit  to  all  my  conceptions." 

Characteristic    of    the     superior     use    of 
seapower  by  the  British  are  the  naval  aspects  of 
the  Napoleonic  Wars.  It  was  the  combined  land 
forces  of  Britain  and  her  allies  that  eventually 
crushed  Napoleon's  armies  and  broke  his  power. 
But  seapower  had  been  working  steadily  and 
relentlessly  to  contribute  to  that  end.  Seapower 
enabled  first  Sir  John  Moore  and  then  the  Duke 
of  Wellington  to  conduct  a  war  on  the  extended 
flanks  of  the  French  in  Spain  and  Portugal,  and 
then  at  the  strategic  moment  to  shift  those  same 
troops  to  Flanders  on  the   way  to  Waterloo. 
Nelson  laid  the  foundations  for  this  mobility  in 
the  great  victories  of  the  Nile,  Cape  St.  Vincent, 
and   Trafalgar,   which   closed    the    sea    to  the 
French  but  made  it  an  open  highway  for  the 
British.  British  land  forces  were  never  more  than 
fractional   compared    with    Napoleon's    Grand 
Army.    But    Napoleonic    strategy    demanded 
troops  stationed  everywhere  in   Europe,  while 
the  British  needed  to  strike  only  in  selected 
spots  of  their  own  choosing.  Seapower  enabled 
the  British  to  apply  concentrated  power  against 
Napoleon's  weak  point  on  his  own  territory. 

It  was  during  the  Napoleonic  Wars  that 
Amencan  seapower  first  was  used  to  implement 
the  foreign  policy  of  the  recently  created  United 
States.  The  United  States,  along  with  other 
nations,  had  for  some  time  been  paying  tribute 
to  the  so-called  Barbary  Powers  in  order  to 
prevent  the  seizure  of  shipping  by  pirates  of 
these  countries.  This  practice  was  ended  when  it 

was   imany   aecmea   inai  gunpower  msieaa  01 
tribute  was  the  best  solution  to  the  problem. 

inn   *jrK.c,.ai 

In  the  war  of  1812,  despite  a  few  highly 
successful  frigate  duels,  the  few  American 
saltwater  warships  and  merchantships  were 
eventually  tightly  blockaded  by  overwhelming 
British  forces.  It  was  American  privateers,  on 
commerce-raiding  missions,  who  achieved 
surprising  success  against  England's  merchant 
marine.  Although  they  by  no  means  inhibited 
the  power  of  the  British  fleet  or  caused  any 
lasting  effect  on  the  British  economy,  the  British 
Government,  heavily  engaged  in  European 
struggles,  felt  it  best  to  negotiate  a  reasonable 

In  the  Civil  War,  control  of  the  sea  was 
overwhelmingly  in  the  hands  of  the  North.  For  4 
years  the  Union  Navy  was  constantly  occupied 
with  the  task  of  blockading  more  than  3000 
miles  of  coastline,  running  down  Southern 
commerce  raiders,  cooperating  with  the  Army  in 
capturing  coastal  strongholds,  and  opening  the 
Mississippi  and  other  waterways  that  led  into  the 
South.  Hie  South  countered  with  commerce 
raiders,  but  the  strangling  effect  of  the  Union 
blockade  eventually  took  its  toll.  It  crippled  the 
finances  of  the  Confederacy,  shut  out  foodstuffs 
and  munitions,  and  proved  a  major  factor  in 
deciding  the  outcome  of  the  war.  The  country 
learned  from  this  war  that  a  navy  could  not  be 
quickly  and  readily  improvised  in  an  emergency. 
Even  then,  the  days  were  past  when  merchant 
vessels  could  be  converted  rapidly  into  efficient 

When  the  Spanish-American  War  broke  out, 
it  was  at  once  recognized  that  the  conflict  would 
be  primarily  naval  and  would  be  won  by  the 
nation  that  secured  control  of  the  sea.  The 
Spanish  Navy  at  that  time,  was  characterized  by 
poor  equipment,  incompetence,  and  lack  of 
trained  personnel,  while  the  U.S.  Navy,  though 
small,  was  soon  prepared  for  aggressive  actions 
at  sea.  Both  at  Manila  Bay  and  Santiago  the 
enemy's  fleet  was  destroyed.  Although  Dewey's 
victory  at  Manila  Bay  had  little  material  effect 
on  the  war,  the  destruction  of  Admiral  Cervera's 
ships  off  Santiago,  Cuba,  established  the  Navy's 
command  of  the  Caribbean. 

In  1907  President  Theodore  Roosevelt 
ordered  the  bulk  of  U.S.  seapower  to  sail  around 
the  world.  This  composite  of  1 6  battleships  was 
designed  to  impress  upon  the  world,  and 
particularly  upon  the  Japanese  who  were  posing 
a  growing  threat  in  the  Pacific,  the  fact  that  the 
U.S.  Navy  was  second  in  strength  only  to  that  of 
Great  Britain.  By  the  time  the  White  Fleet 
finished  its  2-year  cruise,  the  United  States 
already  had  launched  an  even  more  impressive 
addition  to  her  fleet,  the  USS  Delaware,  built  tc 
keep  pace  with  HMS  Dreadnought  which  was 
setting  the  pattern  for  a  new  era  of  naval 


World  War  I  was  similar  to  the  Napoleonic 
Wars  in  that  it  was  a  struggle  between  landpowei 
predominant  on  the  continent  and  naval  powei 
supreme  on  the  seas.  It  should  have  beer 
obvious  that  the  British  Navy,  rather  than  the 
French  Army,  was  the  principal  barrier  tc 
German  success.  A  correct  appraisal  of  this 
situation  as  early  as  1905,  when  Germany  begar 
in  earnest  to  build  up  her  naval  strength,  migh 
have  resulted  in  a  reallocation  of  Germany': 
war-making  resources  in  order  to  provide  a  nav) 
strong  enough  to  defeat  Great  Britain's.  As  i 
was,  Germany's  leaders  were  land  minded,  anc 
the  Imperial  Army  was  the  favored  service— i 
fact  that  caused  Admiral  von  Tirpitz  to  lament 
"We  Germans  do  not  understand  the  sea!"  Toe 
late  the  U-boat  force  was  recognized  a: 
Germany's  deadliest  offensive  weapon.  Althougl 
measures  were  taken  to  expand  the  naval  arm 
the  German  Navy,  planned  and  constructed  b} 
von  Tirpitz,  was  almost,  but  never  quite,  bij 

In  World  War  II  the  Germans  once  mor< 
demonstrated  shortsightedness  and  incapacity  t( 
make  the  best  use  of  their  resources  in  seapowei 
Again  they  failed  to  make  provision  fo 
contesting  control  of  the  sea  by  building  ai 
adequate  number  of  ships.  Even  so,  if  the  Axi 


Powers  had  correctly  estimated  the  strategic 
importance  of  the  Mediterranean  and  if,  early  in 
the  war,  they  had  concentrated  all  possible  naval 
resources  in  that  area  with  the  Italian  fleet  as  the 
main  striking  force  and  with  their  other  military 
forces  operating  in  support,  the  story  might  have 
been  different  and  the  Mediterranean  might  weU 
have  become  an  Axis  lake.  Under  such 
circumstances  the  Allies'  African  campaign 
would  have  faced  almost  insurmountable 

England  held  an  uncertain  tenure  in  the 
Mediterranean  while  U.S.  seapower  was  being 
assembled.  Later,  with  combined  strength,  the 
U.S.  and  England  conducted  the  great 
amphibious  campaigns  that  were  each  a 
steppingstone  to  final  victory-North  Africa, 
Sicily,  Italy,  Normandy,  and  the  Mediterranean 
coast  of  France. 

In  the  Pacific,  with  local  control  of  the  sea, 
Japan  was  able  to  capture  Singapore,  the 
Western  Aleutians,  the  East  Indies,  the 
Solomons,  and  to  threaten  Australia.  When  she 
lost  this  control,  she  was  unable  to  send  men, 
supplies,  and  ships  even  to  the  aid  of  Okinawa, 
threshold  of  the  homeland.  In  the  first  years  of 
the  war,  the  U.S.  range  of  operation  was  limited. 
As  the  United  States  reduced  Japan's  Navy  and 
as  her  own  grew,  especially  with  respect  to  naval 
air  superiority,  it  became  possible  to  range  more 
freely,  to  bypass  enemy  strongholds,  and  to 
omit  many  grueling  campaigns. 

Because  of  the  effects  of  seapower,  U.S. 
landings  in  Leyte  and  Lingayen  were  ahead  of 
schedule.  Inability  to  move  on  the  sea  prevented 
the  Japanese  from  exploiting  their  strength 
in  the  Philippines  and  from  satisfactorily 
reinforcing  their  troops  at  the  point  of  attack. 
Control  of  the  sea  made  it  possible  for  U.S. 
forces  to  bypass  many  islands  and  avoid  waters 
controlled  by  the  enemy. 

Seapower  permits  multiple  use  of  the  same 
force;  a  small  army  becomes  in  effect  many 
armies.  With  a  handful  of  divisions,  the  Pacific 
Area  forces  drove  steadily  toward  the  Japanese 
home  islands.  In  much  of  the  central  and 
western  Pacific,  the  Japanese  had  a  strong 
numerical  superiority,  but  a  large  portion  of  her 

••         •• 

troops  never  got  into  combat.  Without  adequate 
shipping  and  naval  air  power,  the  Japanese 
legions  were  helpless;  with  a  sufficiency,  the  few 
U.S.  divisions  were  superior  to  the  many  that 
opposed  them. 


Seapower  means  more  than  controlling  the 
sea  for  one's  own  use;  it  means  denying  its  use 
to  .the  enemy.  This  can  be  partly  accomplished 
by  blockade-closing  the  sea  roads  to  starve  the 
economy  of  the  nation.  Some  understanding  of 
a  blockade's  numbing  grip  can  be  gained  from 
figures  released  in  a  report  from  General 
MacArthur's  headquarters  in  Japan  following 
World  War  II.  (General  Mac  Arthur  was 
Commander  in  Chief,  Far  East  Command 

The  peak  wartime  production  of  steel  ingots 
in  the  Japanese  Empire  occurred  in  1 943  when 
approximately  9,600,000  tons  were  produced. 
By  1945  Japan's  steel  industry  was  producing  at 
the  rate  of  only  120,000  tons  a  year.  The  report 
indicated  that  1,800,000  tons  of  the  annual 
capacity  were  erased  by  bombing.  The  remaining 
7,680,000-ton  loss  in  production  was  due  to 
naval  blockade. 

Further  tangible  evidence  of  the  manner  in 
which  our  sea  warfare  helped  break  down 
Japan's  economy  is  found  in  another  part  of  this 
report.  In  1 941  a  total  of  4,000,000  tons  of  iron 
ore  was  required  by  the  Japanese  steel  industry. 
Of  this,  some  3,000,000  tons  had  to  be 
imported  from  the  Asiatic  mainland  and  from 
the  Philippines.  As  the  naval  blockade  tightened, 
imports  dropped  off,  and  by  1944  the 
iron  content  of  imported  ores  added  up  to  less 
than  30%  of  the  tonnage  imported  in  1941. 

In  common  with  those  of  other  nations, 
Japan's  sea  and  air  fleets  were  entirely 
dependent  on  petroleum  for  fuel.  Nearly  all  of 
Japan's  petroleum  supply  was  imported.  When 
the  blockade  .applied  by  American  submarines 
cut  this  vital  supply  line  in  1 944,  Japanese  naval 
and  air  forces  were  doomed  to  eventual 



Figure  1-1.— The  day  of  infamy.  Although  the  Japanese  sank  our  battleships  at  Pearl  Harbor,  our  great  force  of 
warships,  transports,  aircraft,  and  other  components  of  United  States  seapower  brought  final  victory. 

paralysis.  The  industrial  atrophy  induced  in 
Japan  by  blockade  was  somewhat  slower  to  take 
effect,  but  it  was  equally  fatal  to  that  nation's 
war  effort.  It  is  axiomatic  that  since  the 
industrial  potential  is  so  essential  in  developing 
seapower,  the  destruction  of  that  potential  in  an 
enemy  nation  is  of  equal  importance  in 
weakening  its  seapower. 

Admiral  Ernest  J.  King,  appointed 
Commander  in  Chief,  United  States  Fleet 
(COMINCH)  2  weeks  after  the  attack  on  Pearl 
Harbor  (figure  1-1),  summarized  the  part  played 
by  seapower  in  World  War  II: 

"In  the  European  war,  seapower  was 
an  essential  factor  because  of  the 
necessity  of  transmitting  our  entire 
military  effort  across  the  Atlantic  and 
supporting  it  there.  Without  command 
of  the  sea,  this  could  not  have  been 
done.  Nevertheless,  the  surrender  of 
land,  sea,  and  air  forces  of  the  German 

Reich  on  8  May  1 945  was  the  direct 
result  of  the  application  of  airpower  over 
land  and  the  power  of  the  allied  ground 

"In  the  Pacific  war,  the  power  of  our 
ground  and  strategic  air  forces,  like 
seapower  in  the  Atlantic,  was  an 
essential  factor.  By  contrast  with 
Germany,  however,  Japan's  armies  were 
intact  and  undefeated  and  her  air  forces 
only  weakened  when  she  surrendered, 
but  her  navy  had  been  destroyed  and  her 
merchant  tleet  had  been  fatally  crippled. 
Dependent  upon  imported  food  and  raw 
materials  and  relying  upon  sea  transport 
to  supply  her  armies  at  home  and 
overseas,  Japan  lost  the  war  because  she 
lost  command  of  the  sea,  and  in  doing  so 
lost— to  the  U.S.— the  island  bases  from 
which  her  warmaking  potential  could  be 
destroyed  by  air." 


Scenes  of  Allied  naval  forces  and  of  the 
ceremonies  aboard  the  L -'V.V  Missouri  on  V-J  Day 
are  shown  in  figures  1-2  and  1-3,  respectively. 


More  recently,  the  U.S.  Navy's  seapower  was 
displayed  in  the  Cuban  quarantine  of  1962.  The 
quarantine  was  ordered  by  the  President  when 
aerial  photography  of  the  island  disclosed  ICBM 
launching  pads  being  constructed,  as  well  as  the 
presence  of  ICBM  missiles.  Since  only  two 
countries  in  the  world  had  a  nuclear 
missile-production  capability,  it  was  obvious 
where  the  missiles  came  from.  The  President  was 

convinced  that  a  missile-launching  capability  in 
Communist-controlled  Cuba  constituted  a  clear 
and  present  danger  to  the  Americas.  He 
therefore,  on  a  unilateral  basis,  imposed  a 
quarantine  to  prevent  the  further  delivery  of 
missiles.  The  Navy  was  alerted  immediately  to 
search  for,  intercept,  and  turn  back  any 
missile-carrying  vessels  that  were  en  route  to  the 
Cuban  area. 

Within  a  matter  of  days,  some  1 80  ships  and 
85,000  men  were  directly  involved.  Ten  Marine 
battalions  were  afloat,  ready  for  whatever 
assignment  they  might  be  given.  Navy  forces 
were  searching,  around  the  clock,  an  area  of 
about  3.5  million  square  miles  for  merchant 


ships  and  submarines.  In  support  of  the 
quarantine,  naval  aircraft  completed  9,000 
flights  during  30,000  flight  hours. 

The  Cuban  quarantine  was  a  dramatic  test  of 
the  readiness  and  ability  of  our  naval  forces  to 


Mahan's  seapower  doctrine  had  its  basis  in  a 
world  that  no  longer  exists.  The  passing  of  that 

world  and  a  reappraisal  of  Mahan's  philosophy, 
in  the  light  of  today's  naval  responsibilities  and 
capabilities,  has  shown  flaws  inherent  in  his 
original  concept.  Mahan  did  not  envision  the 
relative  decline  of  English  seapower  and  the 
corresponding  rise  of  three  competing 
industrialized  seapowers— the  United  States, 
Japan,  and  Germany.  Also,  he  advocated  an 
arrangement  whereby  a  mother  country  was 
enriched  and  supported  by  her  colonies.  This 
concept  has  been  largely  supplanted  in  the  West 
by  capitalistic  industrialization  and  trade.  A 


Figure  1-3.— V-J    Day  aboard  the  USS  Missouri.   Fleet  Admiral  Nimitz  signs  the  Japanese  surrender  document  on 

2  September  1945. 


concomitant  feature  of  industry  allied  with 
science  has  been  the  introduction  of  refined  and 
diverse  methods  of  warfare.  The  submarine,  the 
supersonic  aircraft,  and  the  guided  missile  were 
unknown  in  Mahan s  age;  and  their  introduction 
has  necessitated  changes  in  the  present 
connotation  of  the  term  "seapower."  Finally, 
Mahan  viewed  the  struggle  for  seapower 
supremacy  as  centered  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  and 
looked  upon  the  Pacific  Ocean  as  an  area  of  only 
subsidiary  importance.  A  look  at  World  War  II 
shows  that  this  is  not  so. 

These  apparent  flaws  in  Mahan 's  doctrine 
raise  the  question  whether  a  seapower  concept  is 
still  tenable  and  applicable  to  modem  navies.  A 
close  analysis  will  show  the  growing  importance 
of  seapower  today  and  tomorrow. 

No  nation  has  ever  been  economically 
self-sufficient.  As  in  the  past,  nations  in  the 
future  will  need  the  natural  resources  and 
manufactured  goods  of  other  nations. 

To  get  these  commodities,  it  is  obvious  that 
a  means  of  transportation  is  necessary  to  carry 
the  resources  and  goods  to  a  nation's  homeland. 
Water  transportation  is  presently  the  most 
economical  and  practicable  means  of 
transporting  this  great  bulk  of  material  between 
nations.  In  peace  or  war,  more  than  99%  of  all 
international  trade  moves  on  the  sea. 

Use  of  the  sea  as  a  means  of  transport 
implies  a  control  of  the  sea  when  that  use  is 
opposed  by  other  nations.  Thus,  the  initial  and 
primary  mission  of  a  nation's  navy  is  to  gain 
control  of  the  sea  for  that  nation  and,  if 
necessary,  to  deny  the  use  of  the  sea  to  others. 
The  importance  of  controlling  the  sea  and 
denying  its  use  to  enemies  is  as  great  today  as  it 
was  in  the  past.  The  new  inland  reach  of 
seapower  has  had  a  far-reaching  effect  on  all 
military  strategy.  With  the  advent  of  missiles 
from  beneath  the  ocean,  supersonic  jets  carrying 
nuclear  warheads,  and  the  ability  to  project 
combat-ready  marines  far  inland,  the  strategies 
put  forth  by  Mahan  must  be  drastically  revised 
to  include  the  naval  forces  in  any  consideration 
of  land  hostilities-in  offense  or  defense. 

Marian's  theories  show  a  complete 
absorption  in  the  importance  of  seapower.  He 
entertained  little  hope  of  an  aspiring  landpower 
attaining  world  pre-eminence  in  the  face  of 
opposing  seapowers.  However,  a  philosophy 

diametrically  opposed  to  Mahan's  appeared  in 
1919  with  the  publication  of  Halford  J; 
Mackinder's  Democratic  Ideas  and  Reality. 

Mackinder  did  not  believe  that  past  history 
was  a  record  of  unbroken  seapower  mastery,  but 
rather  that  it  was  a  constant  alternation  of 
landpower  supremacy  and  seapower  supremacy. 

Mackinder's  main  tenet  was  that  a  nation 
situated  in  the  Heartland  of  Eurasia  (i.e., 
European  Russia  and  Siberia)  ^could,  with 
improved  overland  communications  and  a 
developing  industry,  expand  to  the  coastlines  of 
the  continent  and  capture  the  seapower  bases 
from  the  landward  side.  A  nation  controlling  all 
of  Eurasia  could  easily  capture  Africa, 
Therefore,  with  the  combined  resources  and 
manpower  of  the  World  Island  (Eurasia  and 
Africa),  the  world  balance  of  power  would  be 
altered  and  it  would  be  only  a  matter  of  time 
until  the  outlying  lands  (i.e.,  North  and  South 
America,  England,  and  Japan)  would  fall 
beneath  its  domination. 

Mackinder  made  assumptions  that  have  yet 
to  materialize.  He  took  for  granted  that  the 
Heartland  would  be  an  area  of  extensive, 
modernized  overland  communications  and  the 
seat  of  industrial  might.  The  Heartland  has 
developed  since  Mackinder's  time,  but  not  to  the 
extent  where  it  possesses  a  network  of  roads  and 
railroads  necessary  for  the  shifting  of  massive 
landpower  from  point  to  point.  The  Heartland 
today  is  still  a  vast  waste  in  the  outskirts  of 
Siberia  and  the  other  hinterlands  of  the  Soviet 
Union.  The  industrial  progress  of  the  last  few 
decades  has  not  made  Mackinder's  Heartland  a 
center  of  industry. 

From  time  to  time,  other  writers  have 
questioned  the  value  of  seapower  in  establishing 
and  maintaining  a  nation  as  a  world  power.  One 
of  these  is  Robert  Strausz-Hupe.  In  his 
Geopolitics,  the  Struggle  for  Space  and  Power 
(published  in  1942),  he  stresses  the  value  of 
mobility  of  forces,  and  contends  that  landpower 
plus  rail  transport  appeared  to  overwhelm  and 
shatter  the  British  Empire.  To  strengthen  his 
point,  he  cites  several  examples,  one  of  which  is 
the  threat  imposed  on  outlying  British 
possessions  during  World  War  I  by 
German-Turkish  landpower  "operating  along  rail 
lines  flung  to  the  gates  of  Egypt  and  to  the 
shores  of  the  Persian  Gulf." 


While  it  is  true  that  Britain  was  forced  to 
counter  land  force  with  land  force,  the  fact 
remains  that  sea  transport  brought  the  necessary 
troops  within  striking  distance  of  the 
threatening  enemy.  Indeed,  history  does  not 
bear  out  Mr.  Strausz-Hupe  as  can  be  seen  when 
one  considers  the  events  of  World  Wars  I  and  II. 
In  both  cases,  the  pendulum  of  advantage 
commenced  its  swing  to  the  side  of  Britain  upon 
America's  entry  into  the  war.  Without  eventual 
control  of  the  sea,  America  would  have  been  as 
powerless  to  assist  her  as  might  some  tiny  South 
Pacific  island. 

Regardless  of  the  many  theories  presented 
by  various  writers  and  the  merit  or  lack  of  merit 
of  those  theories,  the  reader  must  remember 
that  the  free  world  today  faces  the  most 
ominous  threat  in  history.  To  oppose  this  threat, 
the  United  States  and  her  allies  must  maintain  a 
well-balanced  weapons  system:  sea,  land,  and  air 
power.  Recognizing  this  fact,  the  Congress  and 
Armed  Forces  of  the  United  States  are  dedicated 
to  building  and  maintaining  the  best  system 
possible  for  the  defense  of  the  free  world. 


For  all  practical  purposes,  the  world  today  is 
divided  into  various  camps:  those  nations  under 
Communist  rule  behind  the  Iron  Curtain  and 
those  free  nations  outside  the  Iron  Curtain.  In 
addition,  there  are  many  countries  that  maintain 
a  policy  of  national  neutrality.  Through  various 
agreements  (NATO,  SEATO,  etc.),  the  United 
States  can  assist  with  the  defense  of  the  free 
world.  The  Soviet  Union  and  her  satellites, 
whose  boundaries  correspond  to  those  of  the 
free  world,  occupy  that  portion  of  the  world 
which  Mackinder  called  the  Heartland.  Thus,  the 
area  inside  the  perimeter  is,  essentially,  all  land. 

The  area  outside  the  Iron  Curtain  is  mostly 
water.  However,  added  together,  all  the  lands 
outside  the  perimeter  amount  to  three  times  as 
much  land  area  and  twice  as  many  people 
outside  in  the  free  world  as  inside  in  the 
Communist  world.  The  free  world,  moreover, 
contains  most  of  the  areas  that  are  highly 
developed  industrially  and  agriculturally;  and  it 

provides  every  strategic  material  necessary  for 
the  conduct  of  modern  war. 

Viewed  thus,  the  situation  for  the  free  world 
appears  far  less  critical  than  it  does  in  the  world 
Mackinder  pictured.  In  1947,  Mackinder 
admitted  in  his  last  published  article  that,  if 
enormously  productive  Western  Europe  and 
North  America  combined  forces,  they  could 
offset  the  potential  of  the  Heartland.  These 
areas  and  much  of  the  free  world  are  now  linked 
together  by  an  interlocking  series  of  treaties. 

Militarily,  the  United  States  has 
implemented  these  agreements  with  airbases  in 
friendly  foreign  countries,  and  by  deployment 
of  the  6th  Fleet  in  the  Mediterranean  and  the 
7th  Fleet  off  Asia.  Geographically,  a  major 
unifying  factor  in  the  free  world  is  the  sea,  the 
only  means  in  our  present  state  of  technology 
for  intercontinental  assembly  or  projection  of 
power  involving  many  personnel  and  much 

The  U.S.  Navy's  current  responsibilities,  set 
forth  in  the  Department  of  Defense 
Reorganization  Act  of  1958,  encompass  areas 
inconceivable  at  the  turn  of  the  century. 

The  primary  functions  of  the  Navy  and  the 
Marine  Corps  are  to  organize,  train,  and  equip 
Navy  and  Marine  Corps  forces  for  the  conduct 
of  prompt  and  sustained  combat  operations  at 
sea.  Operations  include  sea-based  aircraft  and 
land-based  naval  air  components.  Specifically, 
the  forces  seek  out  and  destroy  enemy  naval 
forces  and  suppress  enemy  sea  commerce,  gain 
and  maintain  general  naval  supremacy,  and 
control  vital  sea  areas  and  protect  vital  sea  lines 
of  communication.  They  also  establish  and 
maintain  local  superiority  (including  air)  in  an 
area  of  naval  operations,  seize  and  defend 
advanced  naval  bases,  and  conduct  such  land  and 
air  operations  as  may  be  essential  to  the 
prosecution  of  a  naval  campaign. 

The  Navy  also  provides  forces  for  joint 
amphibious  operations  and  is  responsible  for 
training  all  forces  assigned  to  these  operations  in 
amphibious  doctrine  established  by  the  Joint 
Chiefs  of  Staff.  Other  specific  responsibilities 
assigned  to  the  Navy  are  naval  reconnaissance, 
antisubmarine  warfare,  protection  of  shipping, 



Figure  1-4.-Artist's  concept  of  the  guided-missile  frigate  (FFG-7)  Oliver  Hazard  Perry. 


minelaying,  and  controlled  minefield  operations. 
In  conjunction  with  the  other  services,  the  Navy 
must  provide  forces  for  the  defense  of  the 
United  States  against  air  attack. 

It  is  easy  to  see  that  the  Navy's  mission  has 
increased  in  complexity  since  the  time  of 
Mahan.  As  a  result  of  this  in  creased  complexity, 
a  massive  modernization  of  Navy  ships,  aircraft, 
and  weapons  has  been  undertaken.  Basically,  the 
program  has  taken  three  forms:  (1)  the  speedup 
of  research  and  development  in  order  to  find 
new  weapons.  (2)  laying  up  of  old  ships,  in  order 
to  save  operating  and  overhaul  cost,  and  putting 
tills  money  into  new  construction,  (3)  the 
"hi-low  balanced  mix"  concept;  that  is, 
purchasing  a  few  highly  effective  ships  and 
aircraft  (such  as  CVNs,  SSNs,  and  the  F-14 
aircraft)  while  at  the  same  time  developing  new 
classes  of  low-cost  ships  such  as  the 
guided-missile  frigate  and  sea  control  ship.  (See 
figure  1-4.) 

Hie    Navy    has  entered   a   new   phase  of 
scientific  warfare-one  in  which  nuclear  weapons 

and  guided  missiles  are  the  primary  destructive 
weapons.  Conventional  weapons,  of  course,  are 
still  maintained  and  improved.  Such  weapons 
enable  the  Navy,  with  its  Marine  component,  to 
deploy  rapidly  and  to  apply  the  force  necessary 
to  contain  a  limited  war. 

The  Navy's  current  scientific  projects  range 
from  Earth  navigation  and  communication 
satellites  to  the  improvement  of  nuclear 
propulsion  in  which  the  Navy  continues  to  lead 
the  world.  The  Navy's  Polaris  missile, 
operational  in  nuclear-powered  submarines  at 
sea,  was  the  first  IRBM  (intermediate-range 
ballistic  missile)  to  employ  the  solid-propellant 
motor  with  its  greatly  increased  simplicity  and 
reliability.  Following  the  success  of  the  Polaris 
missile,  the  Poseidon  and  Trident  missiles,  with 
extended  range  and  multiple  warheads,  were 

Other  Navy  achievements  include  pioneering 
the  route  from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic 
beneath  the  north  polar  ice  cap  and  the  new 
departures  in  communications,  radar, 


Chapter   1-THJti  NAVY   AND 

underwater  acoustics,  oceanography,  and  a  host 
of  other  scientific  fields. 

Historically,  the  Navy's  radius  of  action  was 
limited  to  the  enemy's  coastline,  plus  the  range 
of  the  ship's  guns.  With  the  development  of 
high-performance  aircraft  and  ballistic  missiles, 
the  Navy's  radius  of  action  now  spans 

Ships,  because  of  their  mobility,  are  not  the 
accessible  targets  that  shore  bases  are. 
Furthermore,  as  a  partial  deterrent  to  the 
destructive  capabilities  of  nuclear  weapons,  the 
dispersal  concept  has  been  added  to  fleet 

The  Navy's  paramount  objective  in  wartime 
is  to  maintain  control  of  the  sea  for  the  United 
States  and  her  allies,  and  to  destroy  the  enemy's 
seapower,  including  access  to  his  ports.  A  sea 
blockade,  which  will  eventually  break  down  a 
hostile  nation's  economic  system,  is  used  to 
accomplish  this  objective.  Should  the  blockade 
fail  to  destroy  the  enemy's  seapower 
completely,  the  fleet  will  still  provide  a 
peripheral  defense  on  the  farthermost  frontier. 

Such  a  peripheral  defense,  composed  of 
surface  ships,  submarines,  and  aircraft,  is  both 
effective  and  economical.  Its  principal  strength 
lies  in  its  ability  to  shift  readily  from  defense  to 
offense  without  long  preparations  and 
accumulation  of  forces. 

At  the  international  level,  treaties  of  mutual 
defense  obligate  the  United  States  to  defend 
distant  parts  of  the  Earth— parts  distant  but 
reachable  by  moving  over  the  sea.  These  treaties 
represent  a  voluntary  association  of  free  people 
to  oppose  attacks  by  hostile  nations. 

In  the  Caribbean,  an  amphibious  ready 
group  with  an  embarked  Marine  Corps  battalion 
landing  team  is  on  station  to  contribute  by  its 
continual  presence  to  maintaining  the  stability 
of  that  area.  A  battalion  of  Marines  also  is 
stationed  in  Guantanamo  for  the  security  of  the 
naval  base. 


Four  American  fleets  (figure  1-5)  stand 
worldwide  watch,  each  serving  the  Navy's  basic 
mission  of  protecting  national  security.  The  2nd 
Fleet,  operating  from  the  world's  largest  naval 

base  at  Norfolk,  Virginia,  patrols  the  western 
Atlantic  across  some  of  the  world's  most 
important  trade  routes.  Ships  and  personnel  of 
the  2nd  Fleet  rotate  with  those  of  the  6th  Fleet, 
which  moves  in  the  nearly  landlocked 
Mediterranean  Sea.  We  could  describe  the  6th  as 
"keeper  of  the  doors." 

The  Mediterranean  has  been  an  influential 
factor  in  world  affairs  since  the  dawn  of  history. 
Gibraltar,  the  front  door  of  the  Mediterranean, 
is  a  vital  commercial  chokepoint.  Whether  it  is 
open  or  closed,  it  affects  the  destiny  of  nations. 
There  is  also  a  side  door  to  the  Mediterranean— 
the  Bosporus  and  Dardanelles— through  which 
Soviet  ships  enter. 

During  the  Arab-Israeli  wars  in  June  1967 
and  November  1973,  there  were  marked 
increases  in  the  size  of  the  Soviet  Mediterranean 
squadron.  From  a  previous  high  of  23  ships, 
Soviet  naval  strength  rose  from  35  to  40  vessels. 
It  was  the  first  time  in  recent  years  that  the 
Soviets  have  so  deliberately  used  their  fleet  to 
support  their  foreign  policy.  Since  the  war  in  the 
Middle  East,  a  stepped-up  program  of 
Mediterranean  port  visits  by  Soviet  ships  seems 
clearly  aimed  at  increasing  Soviet  influence  in 
that  area.  The  level  of  Soviet  naval  activity 
provides  additional  reasons  for  the  continued 
presence  of  a  strong  6th  Fleet.  The  6th  Fleet  is 
built  around  two  attack  carriers  and  an 
amphibious  striking  force  with  an  embarked 
Marine  Corps  battalion  landing  team.  The 
frequency  of  deployment  of  antisubmarine 
groups  to  the  Mediterranean  from  the  Atlantic 
has  been  increased  because  the  Soviets  maintain 
a  submarine  force  in  the  Mediterranean. 

Across  the  world  from  the  Mediterranean, 
the  3rd  Fleet,  operating  off  the  west  coast  of  the 
United  States,  trains  and  shakes  down  the 
personnel  and  ships  that  will  rotate  to  the  7th 
Fleet  in  the  Pacific. 

Like  the  6th  Fleet,  the  7th  is  in  a  forward 
trouble  area— the  whole  of  the  Western  Pacific 
where  raged  the  unforgettable  sea  battles  of 
World  War  II. 

The  Vietnam  conflict  exemplified  the  kind 
of  war  the  Communists  have  promised  in  many 
lands  for  years  to  come— intermingling  the  most 
primitive  guerrilla  operations  with  futuristic 
combat  of  the  electronic  age.  To  counter  this 



i  —  i  Hi-/    i>.n.  v  i 

threat,  the  7th  Fleet  provided  dramatic  evidence 
of  the  Navy's  ability  to  project  the  national 
policy  of  the  United  States  wherever  water 
permits  navigation. 

Five  attack  carriers  were  deployed  to 
WESTPAC,  with  three  of  them  constantly  on 
line  in  the  Tonkin  Gulf  area.  Embarked  carrier 
air  wings,  which  furnished  almost  half  of  the 
total  tactical  effort  in  Vietnam,  destroyed  or 
heavily  damaged  hundreds  of  military  targets  in 
North  Vietnam  and  successfully  interdicted  land 
transport  as  well  as  waterborne  logistic  craft  on 
rivers,  bays,  and  along  the  coastal  routes. 

Sharing  importance  with  attack  carrier 
operations  were  amphibious  operations  on  the 
coast  of  the  Republic  of  Vietnam.  Two 
amphibious  ready  groups  with  embarked  Marine 
special  landing  forces  were  committed  to  the 
Vietnam  effort.  Each  group  was  capable  of 
conducting  assault  over  the  beach  by  landing 
craft  and/or  by  helicopter  envelopment.  More 
than  50  battalion-size  amphibious  operations 
were  conducted  after  the  initial  landings  in 
March  1965.  Hie  mobility  of  the  amphibious 
groups  and  their  readiness  to  strike  on  short 
notice  kept  the  enemy  off  balance,  disrupted  his 
logistical  support,  and  denied  him  profitable 
coastal  areas. 

The  Navy  provided  gunfire  support  from 
May  1965  until  the  end  of  the  United  States 
involvement.  Targets  destroyed  or  damaged 
included  storage  areas,  military  areas,  missile 
sites,  and  railroads.  The  battleship  USS  New 
Jersey  was  recommissioned  in  order  to  provide"  a 
much  needed  punch  in  gun  range  and  explosive 
weight  to  gunfire  support  requirements.  A  heavy 
cruiser,  during  this  era,  could  fire  an  8" 
projectile  about  14  miles.  Any  one  of  the  New 
Jersey's  16"  guns  could  hurl  a  projectile  four 
times  the  weight  of  the  cruiser's,  a  distance  of 
20  miles,  and  it  could  penetrate  30  feet  of 
reinforced  concrete.  After  successfully 
completing  its  mission  the  New  Jersey  was  again 

Other  direct  supporting  operations  included 
coastal  surveillance  (Market  Time)  to  interdict 
Viet  Cong  sea  lines  of  communications  along  the 
coast  of  the  Republic  of  Vietnam;  river  patrol 
(Game  Warden)  operations  along  major 

waterways  from  the  Cambodian  border  to  the 
South  China  Sea  to  exert  pressure  on  insurgents 
in  the  strategically  important  Mekong  Delta;  and 
also  in  the  Mekong  Delta,  an  Army-Navy  riverine 
shallow-draft  strike  force  that  had  the  primary 
function  of  penetrating  Viet  Cong  fortified  areas 
along  the  rivers  and  canals  of  the  Delta. 


To  this  point,  the  main  tenor  of  the  chapter 
has  been  raw  seapower.  Naval  power,  however,  is 
only  a  part  of  total  national  seapower.  Since  the 
ocean  is  the  Navy's  operating  environment,  the 
Navy  is  necessarily  concerned  with  all  of  the 
Nation's  interests  in  that  environment.  There  are 
many  other  facets  to  the  term  "seapower"  that 
could  be  mentioned  here,  but  two  certainly 
must  be  considered.  One,  maritime  commerce 
(mentioned  several  times  previously),  has  been 
in  existence  for  thousands  of  years.  The  other, 
oceanography  (the  study  and  exploitation  of  the 
sea),  is  a  relatively  recent  undertaking. 

Maritime  Commerce 

There  was  a  time  when  Americans  believed 
that  the  country's  raw  materials  were 
inexhaustible  and,  thus,  that  the  United  States 
could  exist  independent  of  other  nations.  The 
increasing  population  and  growing  rate  of 
consumption  of  practically  every  commodity 
has  completely  altered  this  concept.  Today  the 
United  States  is  dependent  on  other  nations  for 
many  commodities  needed  to  keep  the  economy 
strong,  to  keep  people  at  work,  and  to 
manufacture  needed  goods. 

There  are  no  less  than  77  resources  that  the 
United  States  cannot  do  without  if  it  is  to 
maintain  the  present  economy.  For  example, 
manganese  is  needed  to  make  steel;  85%  of  that 
needed  is  imported.  Of  the  columbite  used  in 
the  construction  of  nuclear  reactors,  as  a 
stabilizer  in  stainless  steel,  and  for  the 
manufacture  of  rockets  and  missiles,  90%  is 
imported.  Eighty -six  percent  of  the  country's 
bauxite,  from  which  aluminum  is  refined,  is 
imported.  Ninety  percent  of  the  chromite  used 



,o  toughen  steel  and  other  defense  materials, 
and  more  than  90%  of  the  tjn  needed  «e 
imported  In  addition,  the  United  States 
annually  consumes  one-third  of  the  enure  world 
supply  of  oil. 

Almost  half  of  the  free-world  mineral 
production  is  channeled  to  the  needs  of  the  U£ 
industrial  machine.  Of  the  77  vital  resources 
only  11  are  found  within  her  own  borders,  in 
other  words,  the  United  States  is  a 
raw-materials-deficit  nation,  dependent  upon 
waterborne  commerce  to  bring  to  her  shores 
from  all  corners  of  the  Earth  many  primary 
products  so  essential  to  a  20th-century  industrial 
system.  (The  United  States  could  not  produce, 
in  generations,  enough  planes  to  move  all  the 
goods  that  now  travel  by  ships.)  In  this  context, 
each  of  the  states  individually  depends  on 
shipping.  Illinois,  for  example,  probably  first  in 
exports  of  farm  products,  is  among  the  first  in 
imports  of  other  commodities.  On  the  other  side 
of  the  coin,  foreign  nations  depend  on  American 
raw  materials  to  maintain  healthy  economies  at 

The  doctrine  of  freedom  of  the  sea  is 
acknowledged  by  all  nations  under  international 
law.  Whatever  the  law  of  the  sea,  when  nations 
fight  they  cross  the  sea  at  their  own  risk.  The 
forces  of  each  will  do  their  utmost  to  deny 
passage  of  commerical  shipping  to  the  other(s) 
whenever  and  wherever  they  can.  Throughout 
history,  the  great  and  powerful  nations  have 
been  those  able  to  maintain  control.  Loss  of 
seapower  has  caused  the  fall  of  empires  dating 
from  that  of  Persia,  in  ancient  times,  to  that  of 
Japan  more  recently. 

Because  a  strong  American  defense  posture 
depends  upon  a  modern,  often  revolutionary, 
highly  productive  industrial  system,  shortages  of 
essential  raw  materials  would  strike  a  blow  at 
the  national  security  as  well  as  the  health  and 
stability  of  the  domestic  economy. 

To  ensure  national  security  and  sustain  the 
economic  vitality  of  200-million  Americans,  it  is 
critically  important  that- 

1.  Raw  materials  from  throughout  the 
world  be  fed  into  the  U.S.  industrial  machine  by 
waterborne  commerce. 

2.  Manufactured   products  be  moved  onto 
the  world  marketplace  by  ocean  shipping. 

3.  Sealanes  be  kept  open  and  secure  in  time 
of  peace  and  tension,  and  denied  to  the  enemy 
in  case  of  war. 

Keeping  the  sealanes  open  is  a  vital  mission 
of  the  U.S.  Navy.  These  lanes  are  truly  the 
lifelines  of  America. 

The  Navy's  effort  in  Vietnam  was  a  classic 
portrayal  of  the  effectiveness  and  flexibility  of 
this  facet  of  seapower.  At  least  97%  of  all 
military  equipment  and  supplies  needed  to 
support  the  United  States  and  its  allies  in 
Southeast  Asia  was  provided  by  sealift.  This  was 
possible  only  because  the  U.S.  Navy  controlled 
the  sealanes  to  that  area,  permitting  dozens  of 
cargo  ships  to  enter  Vietnamese  ports  every  day. 


All  the  oceans  on  l-.arth  form  a  single,  vast 
sea  some  40  times  the  si/e  of  tlte  United  States, 
National  interest  in  the  sea  is  growing  rapidly, 
and  attitudes  toward  the  sea  are  changing 

At  varying  depths  extending  to  thousands  of 
feet  live  more  forms  of  animal  life  than  upon 
dry  land.  Many  minerals,  such  as  gold,  iron, 
magnesium,  and  diamonds,  are  available  beneath 
the  waters;  but  to  what  extent  is  not  known. 
Food  has  always  been  known  to  be  there.  Again, 
however,  the  potential  is  not  known;  and  this 
knowledge  could  be  a  vital  element  of  future 

Man  is  increasingly  timiinj1.  to  the  sea  for 
uses  heretofore  restricted  to  the  terrestrial 
environment  food,  freshwater,  minerals, 
energy,  perhaps  a  key  to  weather  control, 
perhaps  even  living  space.  Only  time  will  tell 
what  man's  ventures  on  the  floor  of  the  sea  will 
bring.  His  technology  may  offer  a  whole  new 
world.  Already  there  has  been  conceived  an 
oilfield  on  the  ocean  bottom  where  people  can 
work  and  live.  The  science  of  aquaeulture  may 
in  time  make  possible  underwater  farms  where 
plants  and  fish  are  cultivated  and  processed  fora 
protein-hungry  world. 


As  a  source  of  food  and  resources,  perhaps 
for  future  prosperity  or  survival,  the  sea  has 
become  the  birthplace  of  the  age  of 
oceanography.  To  explore  this  realm,  the  Navy 
has  an  oceanographic  fleet  of  surface  ships  and 
submersibles  that  studies  the  nature  of  the 
bottom,  winds,  weather,  and  migration  of  fish, 
and  that  listens  to  the  nature  of  sounds  within 
the  waters  to  improve  sonar  for  antisubmarine 
warfare  and  to  find  ways  to  communicate  from 
the  ocean  depths. 

The  knowledge  and  technology  gained  by 
the  Navy  in  implementing  its  security  mission 
will  contribute  to  and  accelerate  this  expansion 
into  the  ocean.  The  Navy,  in  effect,  will  exert  a 
large  influence  on  the  move  to  utilize  the  sea.  It 
appears  certain  that  new  Navy  missions,  tasks, 
and  capabilities  will  develop.  The  Navy  will 
require,  and  in  fact  is  working  toward,  a 
capability  to  operate  anywhere  in  the  world 
ocean  at  any  time.  Scientific  knowledge  of  the 
ocean  has  become  a  prerequisite  to  operations  as 
a  global  seapower. 

The  sea  belongs  to  all  people  and  all  nations. 
Just  as  the  protection  of  great  navies  nourishes 
seaborne  commerce,  so  today  the  Navy  uses  and 
enhances  its  seapower  to  protect  and  encourage 
the  right  to  explore  and  prospect  this  newest  of 
man's  frontiers  on  Earth. 


Balanced  seapower  is  an  essential  ingredient 
of  a  flexible  national  strategy.  Seapower  is 
selective  of  time  and  place  in  its  application  and 
discriminate  in  the  means  and  degree  with  which 
it  can  be  used.  It  is  not  constrained  by  any  one 
course  of  action.  U.S.  naval  forces  can 
contribute  significantly  to  the  entire  spectrum 
of  warfare,  from  counterinsurgency  to  and 
including  general  war.  Exploitation  of  the  sea  as 
an  effective  dispersal  area  is  increasingly 
desirable  and  necessary. 

The  forces  of  today's  Navy  can  meet  any 
type  of  aggression  from  the  most  primitive  to 
the  most  sophisticated.  The  variety  of  options 
inherent  in  U.S.  naval  forces  is  in  itself  a  strong 
deterrent.  If  deterrence  fails,  however,  these 
same  forces  will  permit  the  United  States  to 
control  a  conflict  within  selected  limits  or  to 
escalate  the  conflict,  if  so  ordered. 

Remembering  the  lessons  of  World  War  II,  of 
Korea  and  Lebanon  and  Cuba  and  Vietnam,  the 
United  States  has  learned  that  strength  has  a 
logic  of  its  own.  Being  right  is  not  sufficient;  it 
takes  might  to  preserve  that  right.  The  power  of 
the  U.S.  fleet  reflects  the  power  of  the  land  it 
must  defend  and  of  all  lands  that  join  with  her 
in  a  mutual  need.  The  United  States  Navy  is  a 
result  of  past  lessons  learned,  of  a  troubled 
present,  and  of  an  unpredictable  future. 



A  visitor  to  the  Naval  Academy  at  Annapolis 
is  impressed  by  the  innumerable  reminders  of 
our  naval  heritage.  Here  is  found  the  memorial 
to  John  Paul  Jones,  which  keeps  alive  his 
memory  so  that  those  who  follow  may  go  on 
with  lasting  inspiration.  In  Bancroft  Hall  hangs 
Perry's  flag  of  blue,  bearing  in  rough,  white 
muslin  letters  Lawrence's  famous  slogan,  "Don't 
give  up  the  ship."  On  all  sides  appear 
monuments  commemorating  the  names  and 
deeds  of  great  American  naval  heroes.  There  is 
the  wide  brick  walk,  called  Decatur  Walk,  that 
leads  to  the  Tripoli  Monument;  the  gymnasium, 
known  as  Macdonough  Hall;  and  the  massive 
armory— Dahlgren  Hall.  There  are  Luce  Hall, 
Mahan  Hall,  Maury  Hall,  and  Sampson  Hall, 
which  contain  the  recitation  rooms  for  the 

These  men  who  have  been  so  honored,  and 
many  others,  are  the  makers  of  naval  tradition. 


The  Revolutionary  War  presents  the  only 
period  in  its  history  when  the  United  States 
stood  in  desperate  straits  because  of  lack  of 
imported  strategic  materials.  Thanks  to  the  low 
state  of  efficiency  of  the  usually  invincible 
Royal  Navy  and  to  the  resourcefulness  of  the 
little  American  Navy  and  other  Yankee 
mariners.  General  Washington  was  able  to  secure 
what  he  needed  from  beyond  the  seas.  Also,  in 
1778,  France,  sympathetic  from  the  first  with 
the  revolting  colonies,  openly  entered  the  war 
on  our  side,  and  she  was  soon  followed  by  Spain 
and  Holland.  British  possessions  in  every  quarter 
of  the  world  were  attacked  by  the  powerful 
French  forces,  and  Britain's  internal  struggle 

against  her  colonies  was  transformed  into  a 
world  war  in  which  all  the  great  maritime 
powers  were  engaged.  The  chief  theater  of  naval 
activity  was  the  West  Indies,  where  British 
interests  clashed  with  those  of  her 
enemies-France,  Spain,  and  Holland. 

Unlike  the  Navy  of  today,  the  Continental 
Navy  that  fought  America's  war  for 
independence  was  small  and  weak.  It  was 
handicapped  by  coming  into  existence  only  after 
fighting  had  begun.  In  this  makeshift  force, 
two-thirds  of  the  ships  were  converted 
merchantmen.  The  crews  were  drawn  from 
merchant  vessels,  fishing  craft,  and  even  from 
the  Army.  In  addition,  there  were  state  navies, 
but  these  vessels  were  small  and  were  designed 
for  river  and  harbor  defense.  There  were  also 
swarms  of  American  privateers  (privately  owned 
craft  outfitted  for  war),  which  engaged  primarily 
in  the  capture  of  British  prizes.  But  the 
American  ships  were  pitifully  few  compared 
with  the  hundreds  flying  the  white  ensign  of  the 
Royal  Navy. 


Emerging  from  this  war  was  one  of  the 
Navy's  greatest  heroes  and  tradition-makers- 
John  Paul  Jones  (figure  2-1).  There  were  others, 
among  them  John  Barry,  Lambert  Wickes,  and 
Gustavus  Conyngham.  But  Jones  embodies 
many  of  the  attributes  that  a  nation  traditionally 
assigns  to  a  great  leader. 

Of  his  many  contributions  to  the  Navy's 
great  traditions,  none  stands  out  more 
conspicuously  than  his  refusal  to  acknowledge 
defeat.  After  the  classic  action  between  Jones' 
ship,  the  Bonhommc  Richard,  and  the  British 




frigate  Serapis,  Jones  reported  that  he  faced  an 
enemy  of  greatly  superior  force.  Bonhomme 
Richard  was  an  old,  converted  merchant  hull 
mounting  about  40  guns,  only  six  of  which  were 
18-pounders.  James  Fenimore  Cooper  in  his 
History  of  the  \ary  of  the  United  States  of 
America  conceded  that  without  the 
1 8-pounders,  so  far  as  her  guns  were  concerned, 
she  was  about  the  equal  of  a  32-gun  frigate. 
Serapis,  rated  as  a  44-gun  frigate,  then  mounted 
50  guns.  She  was  new  and  superior  to 
Bonhomme  Richard  in  maneuverability. 

Upon  firing  the  first  broadside,  two  of 
Jones'  18-pounders  burst  causing  the  rest  to  be 
abandoned.  At  this  point  the  battle  became  a 
contest  between  a  battery  of  1  2-pounders  and  a 
battery  of  18-pounders.  Several  more  broadsides 
delivered  at  close  range  soon  reduced 
Bonhomme  Richard  to  a  critical  state.  Her  hold 
was  flooded  with  three  feet  of  water;  her  heavy 
guns  were  out  of  commission;  half  the  crew  had 
been  killed  or  wounded;  her  rudder  and  rigging 
had  been  shot  away;  and  fires  were  fast 
approaching  the  magazine.  It  was  at  this  point 
that  Captain  Pearson  of  the  Serapis  called  to 
Jones,  asking  whether  he  had  struck  his  colors. 
Though  barely  able  to  keep  afloat,  Jones 
thundered  back  his  famous  answer,  "I  have  not 
yet  begun  to  fight."  These  fighting  words 
inspired  his  men  with  his  own  determined  will  to 

After  fighting  for  nearly  4  hours,  the  British 
surrendered;  and  since  no  one  else  dared  venture 
on  deck,  Captain  Pearson  himself  hauled  down 
the  colors  on  his  battered  ship.  The  spirit  of  the 
offensive,  the  will  to  victory,  was  never  better 
demonstrated  than  by  John  Paul  Jones.  His 
immortal  "I  have  not  yet  begun  to  fight" 
inspires  Americans  today  as  it  did  nearly  200 
years  ago. 

Jones'  victories  were  not  accidents.  In 
moments  of  stress,  he  mingled  with  his  crew, 
cheering  them  on.  He  declared,  "I  like  my  men, 
and  I  know  how  to  make  them  like  me."  A 
shipmate  once  said  of  Jones:  "He  was  in 
everybody's  watch  and  everybody's  mess  all  the 
time.  In  fact,  I  may  say  that  any  ship  Paul  Jones 
commanded  was  full  of  himself  all  of  the  time." 

After  losing  the  Serapis,  Captain  Pearson  at 
his  court-martial  made  the  amazing  and 
illuminating  statement  about  Jones: 

"Although  more  than  half  the  crew 
were  French-at  any  rate  not 
Americans-long  before  the  close  of  the 
action  it  because  apparent  that  the 
American  ship  was  dominated  by  a 
commanding  will  of  the  most  unalterable 
resolution,  and  there  could  be  no  doubt 
that  the  intention  of  her  commander 
was,  if  he  could  not  conquer,  to  sink 
alongside.  And  this  desperate  resolve  was 
fully  shared  and  fiercely  seconded  by 
every  one  of  his  ship's  company.  And  if 
the  Honorable  Court  may  be  pleased  to 
enter  an  expression  of  opinion,  I  will 
venture  to  say  that  if  French  seamen  can 
ever  be  induced  by  their  own  officers  to 
fight  in  their  own  ships  as  Captain  Jones 
induced  them  to  fight  in  his  American 
one,  the  future  burdens  of  His  Majesty's 
Navy  will  be  heavier  than  they  have 
heretofore  been." 

Lord  Sandwich,  first  Lord  of  the  british 
Admiralty,  wrote  to  one  of  his  commanders, 
"For  God's  sake  get  to  sea  immediately.  If  you 
take  Paul  Jones  you  will  be  as  high  in  the 
estimation  of  the  public  as  if  you  had  beat  the 
combined  fleets."  Such  was  the  British 
evaluation  of  the  American  Navy's  greatest 
combat  leader. 

This  sailor  of  fortune  was  born  in  Scotland 
in  1747.  As  a  youth  he  served  several  years  as 
midshipman  in  the  Royal  Navy  and  studied  both 
seamanship  and  English  by  the  forecastle  lamp. 
His  concept  of  what  an  American  naval  officer 
should  be  is  evident  in  his  statement,  "None 
other  than  a  gentleman  as  well  as  a  seaman  both 
in  theory  and  practice  is  qualified  to  support  the 
character  of  a  commissioned  officer  in  the  navy 
nor  is  any  man  fit  to  command  a  ship  of  war 
who  is  not  also  capable  of  communicating  his 
ideas  on  paper,  in  language  that  becomes  his 

His  attitude  on  peace  and  war  appears 
frequently  in  his  writings:  "In  time  of  peace  it  is 
necessary  to  prepare,  and  be  always  prepared, 



for  war  at  sea."  He  added,  however,  "I  have 
always  regarded  war  as  the  scourge  of  the  human 



After  the  Revolutionary  War  the  fortunes  of 
the  Navy  declined,  and  by  1 785  its  last  ship  had 
been  sold.  Little  remained  except  fighting 
traditions.  When  the  new  Federal  Constitution 
went  into  effect  in  1789,  the  War  Department 
was  charged  with  both  the  Army  and  the  Navy, 
a  burden  then  consisting  of  a  few  hundred 
soldiers— and  no  ships  or  marines. 

This  absence  of  naval  strength  soon  proved 
disastrous,  because  Barbary  pirates  began 
capturing  our  merchant  ships  and  imprisoning 
their  crews.  In  1794  public  sentiment  moved 
Congress  to  authorize  the  building  of  six  frigates 
to  protect  our  interests.  Here  was  the  beginning 
of  the  permanent  Navy  of  the  United  States. 


President  Washington  allocated  the  task  of 
designing  these  ships  to  Joshua  Humphreys,  a 
Philadelphia  Quaker,  who  thus  became  our  first 
naval  constructor.  Not  only  a  technical  genius, 
Humphreys  was  also  a  farseeing  student  of  naval 
history  and  exerted  a  tremendous  influence 
upon  the  American  Navy.  He  believed  that  our 
'Vessels  should  combine  such  qualities  of 
strength,  durability,  and  swiftness  of  sailing,  and 
force,  as  to  render  them  superior  to  any  frigate 
belonging  to  the  European  Powers."  He 
departed  from  the  conventional  standards  and 
designed  the  best  frigates  that  sailed  the 
seas-frigates  that  could  run  or  fight  at  will, 
frigates  that  could  fight  on  their  own  terms.  The 
chief  innovations  were  provisions  for  heavier 
batteries,  thicker  timber,  finer  lines,  and  longer, 
stouter  spars  than  those  of  frigates  of  other 
powers.  Several  years  later  the  Royal  Navy  paid 
a  compliment  to  Humphreys'  skill  by 
constructing  frigates  according  to  his  designs. 

Humphreys  drew  up  plans  for  the  six  famous 
frigates,  the  United  States,  Constitution,  (figure 
2-2),  Constellation,  President,  Chesapeake,  and 
Congress.  Two  of  these  ships,  the  Constitution 

and  the  Constellation,  are  still  afloat!  In  building 
them,  Humphreys  broke  sharply  with  current 
naval  ideas,  displaying  virtues  tremendously 
valuable  to  any  nation— a  friendliness  to 
innovation,  a  willingness  to  experiment. 


Enemies  other  than  the  Barbary  pirates  soon 
harassed  the  defenseless  United  States,  for  both 
France  and  England,  then  in  a  death  struggle, 
began  to  plunder  American  merchantmen.  While 
a  treaty  with  Great  Britain  relieved  the  friction 
with  that  country,  our  relations  grew  worse  with 
France,  who  charged  us  with  treaty  violation. 
Captures  continued,  and  when  French  privateers 
began  operating  off  American  harbors,  even  the 


Figure  2-2.— The  new  and  radical  USS  Constitution, 
built  for  speed  and  firepower,  helped  to  rid  the 
Mediterranean  of  the  Barbary  pirates. 


patient   Congress  was  aroused  and  decided  to 
take  immediate  and  vigorous  action. 

Hie  Navy  Department  was  established  in 
1798  and  Benjamin  Stoddert  of  Georgetown, 
Md.,  was  appointed  the  first  Secretary  of  the 
Navy.  Again,  as  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  a  fleet 
had  to  be  created  with  war  already  in  progress. 
Our  small  Navy,  therefore,  was  immediately 
expanded;  numerous  naval  officers  were 
appointed  for  active  duty;  recruiting  officers  in 
the  principal  ports  along  the  Atlantic  coast  put 
on  a  drive  for  seamen.  John  Adams  wrote  for 
the  service  a  set  of  Navy  regulations. 

The  Marine  Corps  was  formally  organized. 
Although  no  actual  declaration  of  war  was 
made,  Congress  authorized  the  Navy  to  retaliate 
and  to  seize  armed  French  vessels  within  the 
jurisdictional  limits  of  the  United  States  or  on 
the  high  seas.  The  quasi-war  with  France  was  on. 

A  naval  war,  this  conflict  was  waged  for  the 
most  part  in  the  Caribbean.  The  cost  to  France 
proved  so  high  that  the  French  Directory  was 
ready  to  sue  for  peace  by  1801.  American 
victory  was  largely  due  to  another  leader  who 
endowed  the  Navy  with  great  traditions. 


"Care  for  your  men;  see  that  each 
understands  his  duties;  exact  instant  obedience; 
superintend  everthing;  practice  daily  with  the 

This  simple  formula  for  victory  over  an 
enemy  fleet  was  devised  by  Thomas  Truxtun, 
the  outstanding  officer  in  the  war  with  France. 
An  expert  seaman  and  a  strict  disciplinarian, 
Captain  Truxtun  (figure  2-3)  was  one  of  the  first 
to  work  out  a  basic  philosophy  on  the  relations 
of  officers  and  men  that  still  is  applicable  today, 

Although  his  fame  is  derived  principally 
from  two  decisive  victories  that  he  attained  over 
the  French,  he  may  best  be  remembered  by  the 
examples  he  set  in  the  handling  of  men.  The 
bluejackets  who  today  look  up  to  their  officers, 
and  the  officers  who  interest  themselves  in  the 
well-being  and  work  of  their  men  are  following 


practices  initiated  by  Captain  Truxtun.  One 
hundred  and  fifty  years  ago,  when  enlisted  men 
were  often  punished  savagely  and  without 
justice-and  looked  upon  as  fighting  mechanisms 
rather  than  as  human  beings-he  insisted  that  his 
officers  treat  their  men  courteously  but  firmly 
and  that  the  men  respect  and  obey  their  officers. 
In  language  that  could  not  u- 
misunderstood,  Captain  Truxtun  wrote: 

"It  is  not  to  be  expected  that  the 
Lieutenants  of  Ships  are  to  remain  idle 
and  indifferent  spectators  of  what  is 
going  on,  but  on  the  contrary  it  is 
absolutely  necessary  that  they  overlook 
the  duty  of  every  department  on  board. 

"An  officer  in  carrying  on  his  duty 
should  be  civil  and  polite  to  everyone, 
for  civility  does  not  interfere  with 


Figure  2-3.-"Take  care  of  your  men."  Captain  Truxtun 
insisted  on  justice  and  consideration  for  enlisted 


"An  officer  is  never  to  lose  sight  of 
the  humanity  and  care  that  is  due  to 
those  who  may  really  be  sick  or 
otherwise  stand  in  need  of  his 

Truxtun's  attitude  toward  his  men 
developed  as  a  result  of  his  experience  during 
the  Revolutionary  War  when  he  was  a  successful 
privateer  captain  working  closely  with  the  Navy. 
He  could  not  help  noticing  and  regretting  that 
many  naval  officers,  slack  and  indolent,  cared 
too  little  about  a  taut  ship.  As  a  captain  of  the 
Constellation  during  the  war  with  France  in 
1799,  he  defeated  L'Insurgente  (figure  2-4)  and 
the  Vengeance  and  found  here  an  opportunity 
to  instill  his  own  martial  spirit  in  his  crews. 

The  battle  against  the  Vengeance  began  at 
2000  and  lasted  until  0100.  In  it,  a  teen-aged 
boy,  a  midshipman,  lived  up  to  what  the  Navy 
today  calls  "the  highest  traditions  of  the  naval 
service."  When  a  sailor  told  Midshipman  Jarvis 
that  the  mainmast  was  tottering  and  that  he 
should  come  down  before  he  be  killed,  Jarvis 
replied,  "If  the  mast  goes,  we  go  with  it.  Our 
post  is  here." 

The  next  roll  of  the  ship  sent  the  mast 
crashing  and  splintering  over  the  side  and  threw 
Jarvis  to  his  death,  far  out  into  the  black  water. 
In  tribute  to  the  courage  and  magnificent 
discipline  that  characterized  this  boy's  act, 
Congress  passed  the  following  resolution:  "The 
conduct  of  James  Jarvis,  a  midshipman  of  the 
Constellation,  who  gloriously  preferred  certain 


Figure  2-4.-No  rangefinder  was  needed  in  this  slugging  match.  The  Constellation,  under  Truxtun,  defeated  L'Insurgente 
in  1799.  Strict— but  fair— discipline  and  daily  gun  practice  were  partly  responsible  for  the  ship's  efficiency 
in  battle. 



death  to  the  abandoning  of  his  post,  deserves  the 
highest  praise;  and  the  loss  of  so  promising  an 
officer  is  a  subject  of  national  regret." 

Good  leadership  means  good  followership. 
Dedicated  to  his  duty,  Truxtun  evoked  a  similar 
response  from  his  men. 


Tempted  by  the  lure  of  unprotected 
American  commerce  and  dissatisfied  with  the 
small  tributes  the  United  States  was  paying 
under  the  terms  of  an  earlier  treaty,  the  Bashaw 
of  Tripoli  in  1801  declared  war  on  the  United 

In  answer  to  this  challenge,  Commodore 
Hdward  Preble  in  the  Constitution  was  sent  to 
the  Mediterranean  in  command  of  a  squadron. 


During  the  war  with  the  pirates  in  the 
Mediterranean,  a  dramatic  incident  occurred 
that  was  influential  in  molding  the  traditions  of 
our  youthful  Navy.  The  frigate  Philadelphia  had 
fallen  into  the  hands  of  Tripolitans  and  was  now 
an  important  addition  to  their  harbor  defenses. 
It  was  young  Lieutenant  Stephen  Decatur  who 
went  to  Commodore  Preble  and  volunteered  to 
destroy  this  captive  frigate,  built  by  popular 
subscription  in  his  home  city  and  first 
commanded  by  his  father.  He,  with  74 
comrades,  including  Charles  Morris,  James 
Lawrence,  and  Thomas  Macdonough,  stealthily 
entered  the  harbor  at  night  in  a  small  ketch; 
they  were  guided  by  Salvadore  Catalano,  a 
Sicilian  pilot  who  knew  the  harbor  of  Tripoli 
and  could  speak  Arabic.  Within  minutes  they 
had  complete  possession  of  the  ship,  the  foe 
having  been  cut  down  or  driven  into  the  sea. 
Combustibles  were  passed  aboard,  and  soon  the 
ship  was  burning  fiercely.  Several  minutes  later 
the  boarders,  with  but  one  man  wounded,  were 
back  in  their  ketch  and,  under  fire  from  shore 
batteries,  they  left  the  illuminated  harbor. 

Perhaps  no  act  in  the  first  half  of  the  1 9th 
century  thrilled  Americans  more  than  the 
destruction  of  the  Philadelphia.  This  spectacular 
feat  made  Decatur  the  most  striking  figure  of 
the  time  and  prompted  Admiral  Nelson  to  call  it 
"the  most  daring  act  of  the  age."  Spectacular 
exploits  were  commonplace  in  Decatur's  career, 

but  they  were  not  the  feats  of  a  reckless  warrior. 
He  was  a  thoughtful  strategist  and  an  expert 
tactician.  He  was,  as  well,  an  adept  diplomat  and 
a  skilled  administrator.  Like  Paul  Jones  (who 
could  turn  an  excellent  phrase)  and  Truxtun 
(who  wrote  a  book  on  navigation),  Decatur  was 
not  one-sided.  Versatility,  too,  is  a  Navy 


Commodore  Edward  Preble  (figure  2-5) 
fought  as  a  lieutenant  in  the  American 
Revolution  and  later  in  the  war  with  France.  He 


Figure  2-5.— "Take  care  of  your  officers."  Commodore 
Edward  Preble  commanded  the  American  squadron 
that  smashed  the  might  of  the  Barbary  pirates  in  the 
Mediterranean  during  1803-4.  The  training  that  he 
gave  his  young  subordinates  (who  came  to  be  known 
as  Preble's  boys)  at  that  time  paid  dividends  in  the 
War  of  1812,  when  they  achieved  17  out  of  the  total 
of  18  naval  victories. 



believed  in  Truxtun's  ideas  and  expanded  them. 
Having  served  during  the  Revolution,  he,  too, 
realized  the  need  for  justly  administered 
discipline.  Like  Truxtun,  he  was  keenly 
interested  in  his  bluejackets;  their  care  and  fair 
treatment  absorbed  his  attention.  Preble  also 
shared  responsibility  with  his  officers  and 
encouraged  them  to  offer  new  ideas.  He  was 
generous  in  giving  his  subordinates  due  credit  for 
achievements  in  the  squadron  and  in  urging 
promotions  and  honors  for  those  who  had 
earned  them.  The  mutual  regard  between  the 
commodore  and  his  young  officers  (all  the 
captains  and  lieutenants  were  under  30  years  of 
age)  made  the  fleet  singularly  united  in  spirit. 

Preble  taught  his  subordinates  the  necessity 
for  absolute  obedience,  unyielding  courage,  and 
24-hour-a-day  efficiency,  which  have  continued 
to  be  the  standards  of  the  American  Navy.  Proof 
of  Preble 's  stellar  leadership  was  attested  in  the 
War  of  1812,  when  his  "boys"  scored  17  of  18 
victories  won  by  the  American  Navy  in  combat. 

WAR  OF   1812 

Although  the  Navy  was  outnumbered  40  to 
1  in  the  second  war  with  Great  Britain,  and  by 
1814  had  suffered  severe  reverses  (our  coast  was 
tightly  blockaded,  our  ships  were  driven  from 
the  high  seas,  and  our  capital,  Washington,  had 
been  burned),  nevertheless,  early  in  the  war  it 
fought  a  series  of  frigate  and  sloop-of-war  duels 
that  resulted  in  astounding  victories  and  gained 
for  the  Navy  a  world  reputation.  The  reasons  for 
these  victories  are  not  hard  to  find.  We  had  the. 
best  frigates  in  the  world -the  tradition  of 
Humphreys;  we  had  the  best  gunnery  in  the 
world— the  tradition  of  Truxtun;  our  moral  was 
high -the  tradition  of  Preble;  and  our  Navy  had 
a  great  fighting  spirit— the  tradition  of  John  Paul 

These  brilliant  frigate  victories  on  the  high 
seas  had  little  effect  on  the  course  of  the  war 
itself,  but  they  contributed  much  to  the  building 
of  traditions  in  our  Navy. 


Captain  Isaac  Hull,  commanding  the 
Constitution  gained  first  honors  when  he  met 
the  Guerriere  under  Captain  Dacres.  During  the 
battle,  Hull  quietly  moved  among  the  officers 

and  men,  addressing  to  them  words  of 
confidence  and  encouragement.  "Men,  now  do 
your  duty."  And  every  man  stood  firm  to  his 

Within  45  minutes  the  Guerriere  had  been 
reduced  to  a  wreck— a  feat  which  astonished 
both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  It  was  in  this  battle 
that  our  most  famous  and  historic  ship,  the 
Constitution,  won  her  sobriquet  "Old  Ironsides" 
as  enemy  shot  bounced  harmlessly  off  her  thick 
wooden  hull. 


As  already  pointed  out,  Decatur  (figure  2-6) 
received  his  training  in  Preble 's  "school"  in  the 


Figure  2-6.— Praise  can  be  a  motivating  force.  Captain 
Stephen  Decatur  substituted  praise  for  oaths  and 
flogging— and  his  gunners  poured  100  shots  at  long 
range  into  the  enemy  Macedonian  in  the  War 
of  1812. 


Mediterranean.  Now  in  command  of  the  United 
States,  he  faced  the  Macedonian,  one  of  the 
finest  ships  of  her  class  in  the  Royal  Navy. 
Decatur,  choosing  his  position  well,  decided  to 
fight  at  long  range  and  gradually  wear  down  his 

Quickly  analyzing  the  battle  situation, 
Decatur  saw  that  the  greater  range  of  his  guns 
would  enable  him  to  outshoot  and  cripple  the 
British.  He  cleverly  maneuvered  his  ship  and 
prevented  the  enemy  from  closing  in.  His 
gunners  fired  rapidly  and  accurately,  and  more 
than  a  hundred  shots  penetrated  the 
Macedonian's  hull.  Down  came  her  mizzenmast. 
Both  the  fore  and  main  topmasts  were  shot  off. 
After  2  hours  of  fighting,  the  battle  was  over. 
The  victory  was  a  great  exhibition  of  leadership 
by  Decatur,  who  possessed  to  an  exceptional 
degree  the  ability  to  infuse  his  own  spirit  into 
his  men.  The  spirit  he  describes  as  follows:  "The 
enthusiasm  of  every  officer,  seaman,  and  marine 
on  board  this  ship,  on  discovering  the  enemy, 
their  steady  conduct  in  battle,  and  precision  of 
their  fire,  could  not  be  surpassed." 

Decatur  was  popular  with  his  men.  He 
deplored  oaths  and  flogging-trie  customary 
methods  of  gaining  discipline  at  that  time.  He 

often  addressed  his  men,  explaining  the  kind  of 
conduct  that  he  expected  of  them.  Decatur  won 
respect  not  by  demanding  it,  but  by  deserving  it. 


This  was  an  era  when  fighting  slogans  were 
coined.  And  James  Lawrence's  dying  words 
uttered  in  the  ill-fated  Chesapeake,  "Don't  give 
up  the  ship!"  became  the  battle  cry  of  the  Navy. 
Oliver  Hazard  Perry  carried  them  to  Lake  Erie 
where  he  hoisted  on  his  ship  (named  in  honor  of 
Lawrence)  a  flag  upon  which  was  stitched  the 
legend,  "Don't  give  up  the  ship." 

During  the  Battle  of  Lake  Erie,  with 
four-fifths  of  the  crew  dead  or  wounded,  and  his 
ship,  the  Lawrence,  crippled,  Perry  faced  defeat. 
He  made  a  "cliffhanger"  passage  in  an  open  boat 
to  another  ship,  the  Niagara,  under  the  guns  of 
the  enemy.  Using  a  surprise  maneuver,  he  sailed 
the  Niagara  aggressively  through  the  enemy's 
lines  (figure  2-7)  and  within  1 5  minutes  the 
battle  was  won— an  exhibition  of  extraordinary 
acumen  and  courage.  The  Navy  will  long 
remember  Perry's  famous  dispatch:  "We  have 
met  the  enemy  and  they  are  ours." 


Figure  2-7.-A  surprise  maneuver  turns  defeat  into  victory.  Leaving  the  crippled  Lawrence,  Perry  boarded  the  Niagara 
sailed  through  the  British  lines,  and  attained  victory  in  15  minutes. 



Perry  really  won  the  Battle  of  Lake  Erie  in 
the  months  before  he  faced  the  fire  of  the 
British  fleet— won  it  when  he  was  working  night 
and  day  to  build,  equip,  and  man  a  squadron 
stronger  than  the  enemy's.  He  used  sound 
judgment  and  foresight  in  his  preparations.  The 
night  before  the  battle  he  went  over  his  plans  of 
attack  repeatedly  with  his  officers  until  he  was 
convinced  that  each  knew  the  part  he  was  to 
play.  It  was  his  preparation  and  forehanded  ness, 
as  much  as  his  dramatic  crossing  of  the  line  of 
fire  in  an  open  boat,  that  place  him  in  the 
forefront  of  our  tradition-makers. 


A  hero  and  tradition-maker,  but  seldom 
mentioned  in  descriptions  of  the  Battle  of  Lake 
Erie,  was  Dr.  Usher  Parsons,  the  only  surgeon 
available  for  duty  during  the  fight. 

Dr.  Parsons  served  under  Perry  on  board  the 
Lawrence.  Since  this  ship  was  shallow  built  and 
had  no  protected  cockpit,  as  was  customary,  the 
doctor  received  the  wounded  on  the  wardroom 
floor,  which  was  nearly  level  with  the  surface  of 
the  water.  Here,  in  this  unprotected,  crowded 
spot,  Parsons  and  his  assistants  carried  on  their 

It  was  hot  work  and  bloody,  and  at  combat's 
height,  when  all  able  men  were  needed  on  deck 
to  fight  the  guns,  the  doctor  carried  on 
single-handed.  During  the  battle  five  cannon 
balls  crashed  through  the  wardroom,  one  of 
them  killing  two  men  lying  on  the  operating 
table.  In  all,  Dr.  Parsons  amputated  six  limbs  and 
dressed  the  wounds  of  many  men  before  he 
finally  transferred  with  Perry  to  the  Niagara. 

Of  the  96  men  wounded  in  the  battle,  only  3 
died-a  remarkable  tribute  to  the  skill  of  the 
25-year-old  surgeon.  In  a  letter  to  the  Secretary 
of  the  Navy,  Perry  wrote:  "Of  Dr.  Parsons, 
surgeon's  mate,  I  cannot  say  too  much."  But  Dr. 
Parsons  was  only  one  of  many  doctors  who 
composed  naval  tradition.  During  the  quasi-war 
with  France  and  the  War  of  1  812,  the  names  of 


Figure  2-8.— The  greatest  naval  victory  of  the  War  of 
1812  and  perhaps  the  most  decisive  of  all  battles 
fought  on  land  or  sea  in  that  conflict  was  won  by 
Captain  Thomas  MacDonough,  "The  hero  of  Lake 
Champlain."  The  action  halted  a  British  invasion  of 
New  York  that  stood  little  chance  of  defeat  at  the 
hands  of  the  American  Army. 


Of  perhaps  greater  importance  than  Perry's 
victory  was  Thomas  Macdonough's  brilliant 
triumph  over  the  British  tleet  on  Lake 
Champlain.  As  the  enemy  ships  stood  in,  "young 
Macclonough,  who  feared  his  foes  not  at  all,  but 
his  God  a  great  deal,  knelt  for  a  moment  with 
his  officers  on  quarterdeck." 

Macdonough  (figure  2-8)  was  everywhere 
during  the  battle,  trying  to  instill  organization 
and  fighting  spirit  into  his  crew.  His  calm 
determination  was  remarkably  contagious.  It  is 
not  too  much  to  say  that  the  credit  of  this 


position  that  imposed  upon  the  British  an 
approach  under  a  raking  fire,  he  won  the 
opening  gambit  of  the  battle.  Meantime,  he  was 
wise  enough  to  hold  several  tactical  tricks  in 
reserve.  With  these  he  managed  to  rally  when  the 
enemy  thought  him  beaten. 

Macdonough's  Champlain  victory 
characterized  the  American  naval  effort  in  the 
War  of  1812.  Pitted  against  the  greatest  naval 
power  in  the  world,  our  miniature  Navy  fought 
with  monumental  valor.  In  accomplishing  much 
with  little,  it  bequeathed  the  service  another 
tradition-one  expressed  by  the  Navy's  slogan  in 
World  War  II:  We  must  all  do  all  that  we  can 
with  what  we  have. 


The  naval  history  of  the  Civil  War  vividly 
portrays  the  employment  of  sea  forces  against 
an  enemy  economically  dependent  on  shipping. 
The  Confederate  States  were  a  consolidated  land 
power  with  the  advantage  of  interior  lines,  and 
they  possessed  many  sea  and  river  ports 
affording  access  to  world  commerce  which  they 
vitally  needed.  But  war  imports  were  denied 
them  by  an  effective  Union  blockade.  The 
spectacular  Confederate  achievements  were 
accomplished  with  shoestring  resources  which 
were  soon  expended. 

The  Union  Navy  simultaneously  assumed 
three  huge  strategic  tasks,  largely  amphibious  in 
nature.  It  attempted  to  blockade  the  whole 
southern  coast,  to  force  its  way  into  various 
southern  ports,  and  to  cooperate  with  the  Army 
on  the  Mississippi  front.  Union  naval  forces  were 
also  called  upon  to  protect  northern  shipping 
from  enemy  raiders.  A  graphic  illustration  of  the 
Navy's  ability  to  adjust  itself  to  new  conditions 
may  be  found  in  the  way  in  which,  both  afloat 
and  ashore,  it  met  the  complex  demands  of  the 
Civil  War.  To  complicate  matters,  naval  warfare 
was  at  that  time  in  a  transitional  period,  a 
veritable  naval  revolution.  Although  steam  had 
been  introduced  some  time  earlier,  armor  was 
just  coming  into  use.  In  the  field  of  ordnance, 
rifled  guns  and  shell  ammunition  demanded  new 
methods  of  fire  control. 

Produced  by  this  rapid  transition  was  one  of 
the  oddest  assortments  of  warships  ever 

assembled.  The  Union  fleet  contained  old 
wooden  frigates  like  the  Constitution,  converted 
East  River  ferryboats,  scores  of  armed  steamers 
and  a  number  of  experimental  ironclads.  The 
South  used  armored  vessels,  steam  commerce 
raiders,  electrical  mines,  and  even  primitive 

Under  the  superior  leadership  of  Secretary 
of  Navy  Gideon  Welles,  and  his  able  assistant, 
Gustavus  V.  Fox,  who  was  first  to  hold  the 
newly  created  office  of  Assistant  Secretary  of 
the  Navy,  the  naval  establishment  rose 
magnificently  to  the  occasion.  The  Nation's 
scientists  and  inventors  contributed  many 
innovations,  and  by  war's  end  the  U.S.  Navy  was 
technically  the  equal  of  any  on  the  sea. 

The  most  famous  naval  battle  of  the  war  was 
significant  as  a  preview  of  things  to  come.  This 
was  the  battle  between  the  USS  Monitor  and 
CSS  Virginia  (ex-USS  Merrimac).  It  has  been 
said  that  probably  no  naval  conflict  in  the 
history  of  the  world  attracted  as  much  attention 
as  did  this  one.  Fighting  the  first  action  of  its 
kind  in  history,  the  ironclads  conclusively 
demonstrated  the  superiority  of  metal  over 
wood.  The  futility  of  the  long  and  furious 
cannonade,  contrasted  with  the  outstanding 
victories  of  the  Virginia  over  the  unarmored 
ships  Cumberland  and  Congress,  on  the  previous 
day,  made  the  battle  a  significant  step  in  the 
development  of  the  warship. 


The  outstanding  battle  leader  of  the  Civil 
War  was  our  first  admiral,  David  G.  Farragut 

Like  many  others  in  the  early  days  of  the 
Navy,  Farragut  (figure  2-9)  entered  the  service  as 
a  lad.  He  was  a  midshipman  before  he  was  10 
years  old  and  had  command  of  a  ship  (for  a  brief 
time)  at  the  age  of  12.  By  the  time  he  reached 
his  majority,  he  was  experienced  at  shiphandling 
and  leadership. 

When  the  Civil  War  broke  out  in  1861, 
Farragut,  then  aged  60,  had  already  served  49 
years  in  the  Navy  and  at  this  time  was  awaiting 
orders  in  Norfolk  where  he  and  his  wife  had 
made  their  home  for  almost  17  years.  Southern 




Figure  2-9.— The  statement  of  David  G.  Farragut, 
tactician  and  strategist,  that  "the  best  defense  is  a 
well-directed  fire  from  your  own  guns,"  became  a 
Navy  axiom. 

At  Mobile  Bay  occurred  the  incident  for 
which  Farragut  is  best  remembered.  The 
Admiral  was  stationed  on  the  Hartford,  and 
during  the  critical  phase  of  the  battle,  mines 
(then  called  torpedoes)  were  reported  ahead. 
Farragut  knew  that  the  monitor  Tecumseh,  with 
almost  all  hands,  had  just  gone  down  in  that 
area.  His  response  would  echo  through  history  as 
a  slogan  for  driving  leadership.  "Damn  the 
torpedoes!  Full  speed  ahead!"  As  Farragut 
suspected,  most  of  the  enemy's  underwater 
weapons  had  deteriorated  from  long  submersion. 
And  the  fleet  got  through. 

The  engagement  affords  another  example  of 
Farragut's  genius  for  planning.  He  had  spent  2 
days  making  sure  that  his  ships  were  prepared 
for  the  run.  Heavy  anchor  cables  were  fastened 
alongside  the  wooden  sides  to  serve  as  "chain 
armor"  for  the  engines  and  boilers.  The  ships 
were  daubed  with  mud  (primitive  camouflage), 
and  water  buckets  were  readied  for  firefighting. 
As  a  tactician  and  strategist  Farragut  was 
unexcelled  by  any  contemporary.  And  his 
statement  "the  best  protection  against  the 
enemy's  fire  is  a  well-directed  fire  from  your 
own  guns"  became  a  Navy  axiom.  But  Farragut 
bequeathed  the  service  something  more  than 
valiant  slogans.  He  left  us  a  reminder  that  major 
plans  are  composed  of  minor  details.  And  even 
so  minute  a  detail  as  water  buckets  received 
Farragut's  attention. 


friends,  urging  him  to  espouse  the  Confederate 
cause,  were  left  in  no  doubt  as  to  his  sympathies 
and  convictions.  "I  would  see  every  man  of  you 
damned  before  I  would  raise  my  hand  against  the 
flag."  With  this  declaration  of  allegiance,  he 
hurried  North  to  serve  with  the  United  States 

Farragut's  New  Orleans  campaign  was  one  of 
the  most  brilliant  of  the  war.  Where  logistics  was 
concerned,  Farragut  displayed  an  impressive 
knowledge  of  the  art  of  moving  men  and 
supplies.  He  is  credited,  too,  with  being  the  first 
American  officer  who  fully  comprehended  the 
strategic  deployment  of  a  fleet  and  coordinated 
the  operations  of  his  vessels  accordingly. 

David  D.  Porter  (figure  2-10),  son  of  the 
famous  David  Porter  who  commanded  the  raider 
Essex  during  the  War  of  1812,  saw  more 
continuous  fighting  than  any  American  naval 
officer  of  note  during  the  Civil  War-much  of  it 
on  the  Mississippi  River.  Competent,  aggressive, 
and  resourceful,  Porter  rose  from  the  rank  of 
lieutenant  at  the  beginning  of  the  conflict  to 
that  of  rear  admiral  at  its  close.  It  was  through 
Porter's  urging  that  Farragut  was  chosen  to  lead 
the  New  Orleans  expedition.  Porter  himself 
devised  and  led  the  famous  mortar  flotilla  that 
did  much  to  crack  the  Delta  defenses. 

It  is  not  surprising  that  juniors  were  eager  to 
serve  under  the  dynamic  Porter.  Besides  being  a 



fine  seaman  and  able  administrator,  he  possessed 
many  personal  traits  that  contributed  to  the 
spectacular  success  of  his  naval  career.  He  was 
impulsive,  frank,  and  honest.  He  was  endowed 
with  a  creative  imagination.  He  abhorred  sham, 
and  valued  performance  above  protocol.  His 
sense  of  humor  was  unquenchable;  situations 
never  became  so  desperate  that  he  could  not 
find  an  opportunity  for  a  jest.  He  was  able  to 
estimate  accurately  the  potentialities  of  his 
subordinates  and  never  failed  to  praise  them 
when  they  lived  up  to  his  expectations.  Above 
all,  he  was  unafraid  of  innovation.  Not  satisfied 
with  "good  enough,"  he  was  open-minded 
toward  anything  which  might  be  better.  His 


Rgure  2-10.- Rear  Admiral  David  D.  Porter  was  the 
second  admiral  in  the  U.S.  Navy,  preceded  only  by 
Farragut.  Porter  commanded  the  Mississippi  River 
Flotilla  in  its  campaign  down  the  big  waterway  that 
climaxed  at  Vicksburg.  Later  he  inflicted  a  brilliant 
and  crushing  defeat  on  the  Confederates  at  Fort 
Fisher  in  1865. 

progressive  outlook  kept  him  a  step  ahead  of  his 


A  miniature  of  this  distinguished 
Confederate  naval  leader  conveys  an  impression 
best  described  by  the  term  "knightly."  Few 
warriors  of  this  stamp  ever  existed  outside  the 
pages  of  fiction,  but  Semmes  (figure  2-11)  lived 
the  part  in  the  best  Paul  Jones'  tradition. 
Captaining  raiders  Sumter  and  Alabama,  he  left 
a  record  that  reads  like  a  saga  of  valor  and 
derring-do.  Like  Jones  he  refused  to  be  defeated 
by  adversity.  Deprived  of  Sumter  at  Gibraltar, 
he  wrote,  "I  could  sweep  the  whole 
Mediterranean  in  from  1 5  to  20  days  if  I  had  the 
means  of  locomotion."  Eventually  he  acquired 
the  means,  and  his  raiding  cruiser  Alabama 
struck  the  North  harder  blows  than  any  other 
Confederate  vessel. 


Figure  2-11. -Raphael  Semmes,  while  skipper  of  the 
Confederate  raider  Alabama,  ruthlessly  burned  ship 
after  ship,  virtually  driving  merchantmen  flying  the 
Stars  and  Stripes  off  the  seas. 



In  peacetime  many  officers  have  served  their 
nation  and  their  Navy  with  distinction.  They, 
too,  have  added  breadth  and  depth  to  the  great 
current  of  tradition. 


Chief  among  these  peacetime  contributors 
was  Matthew  Fontaine  Maury  (figure  2-12).  In 
the  field  of  science  no  officer  in  the  19th 
century  rendered  a  service  equal  to  that  of  the 
"Pathfinder  of  the  Seas." 

Starting  as  a  midshipman  in  1825,  Maury 
served  a  number  of  years  at  sea.  During  this 
period  he  was  distressed  to  learn  that  practically 
no  helpful  information  was  available  to  the 
mariner  on  such  matters  as  winds,  currents,  and 
best  courses.  In  1839  Maury  sustained  an  injury 
that  rendered  him  unfit  for  further  sea  duty. 
Refusing  to  bow  to  misfortune,  he  turned  his 
talents  to  science. 

When  he  was  in  his  mid-thirties,  the  Navy 
Department  appointed  him  Superintendent  of 
the  Depot  of  Charts  and  Instruments  in 
Washington.  He  soon  conceived  the  unique  idea 
of  collating  available  data  found  in  the 
numberless  old  log  books  stored  in  the  Navy 
Department.  These  he  supplemented  with 
observations  made  several  times  daily  by  ships  in 
our  Navy  as  well  as  by  American  and  foreign 
merchant  ships.  Soon  more  than  1000 
shipmasters  in  every  ocean  were  making  day  and 
night  observations  according  to  a  uniform  plan. 
The  temperature  of  air  and  water,  direction  of 
wind,  set  of  currents,  and  height  of  barometer 
were  recorded.  Navigators  were  instructed  to 
cast  overboard  at  stated  periods  bottles 
containing  a  record  of  ship's  latitude,  longitude, 
and  date.  They  were  requested  to  pick  up  similar 
bottles  wherever  found,  noting  the  exact 
position  and  time,  and  to  forward  these  data  to 
Washington.  On  the  basis  of  this  information, 
Maury  drew  important  conclusions  about  winds 
and  currents,  paths  of  storms,  quickest  routes 
between  great  shipping  ports,  and  other 
fundamentals  of  modern  navigation.  To  this  day, 
Maury's  pilot  charts,  brought  up  to  date,  are 

indispensable  in  making  ocean  travel  safe  and 
expeditious.  His  studies  of  the  little-known  Gulf 
Stream,  then  termed  the  "river  in  the  ocean," 
provided  science  with  much  valuable  data  on 
that  phenomenon. 

The  Navy  also  profited  by  his  interests  in 
other  areas.  He  outlined  the  original  system  of 
naval  education  adopted  by  the  Naval  Academy. 
When  the  Atlantic  cable  was  laid,  Cyrus  W.  Field 
said,  "Maury  furnished  the  brains,  England  gave 
the  money,  and  I  did  the  work."  Geography, 
mineralogy,  geology,  astronomy,  occupied 
Maury's  interest.  "Navies  are  not  all  for  war,"  he 
wrote.  "Peace  has  its  conquests,  science  its 
glories;  and  no  Navy  can  boast  of  brighter 
chaplets  than  those  which  have  gathered  in  the 
fields  of  geographical  exploration  and  physical 

Maury's  contribution  gave  impetus  and 
direction  to  the  Navy's  collateral  work  during 
times  of  peace.  It  has  been  followed  by 


Figure  2-12.— Maury  learned  secrets  of  tides,  reefs, 
currents,  and  storms,  and  in  his  charts  made  the 
information  available  to  navigators. 


continuous  effort  in  exploration,  oceanography, 
astronomy,  and  other  fields.  Commander  Peary, 
for  example,  discovered  the  North  Pole.  Admiral 
Byrd,  who  flew  over  both  the  North  and  South 
Poles,  was  the  first  person  to  fly  over  either  one 
of  them. 

Today's  Oceanographic  Office  has  continued 
with  navigational  and  astronomical  studies,  and 
the  distribution  of  its  publications  furnishes 

evidence  of  the  Navy's  continuing  interest  in  the 
program  pioneered  by  Matthew  Fontaine  Maury. 


Another  officer  whose  greatest  contribution 
was  made  in  peacetime  (in  the  main  before  the 
Civil  War)  was  John  A.  Dahlgren  (1809-70), 
often  called  the  father  of  modern  ordnance  and 
gunnery  (figure  2-13). 

Figure  2-13.-Rear  Admiral  John 

t  xu  134>14 



After  gaining  sea  experience,  Dahlgren 
entered  the  Navy  in  1826  as  a  midshipman.  He 
was  plagued  with  ill  health,  particularly  in  his 
early  years  (for  a  time  he  was  threatened  with 
total  blindness).  Nevertheless,  he  wrote  many 
books  and  articles  and  contributed  numerous 
inventions  to  the  field  of  ordnance.  Dahlgren 's 
naval  duties  before  the  Civil  War  included, 
beside  his  sea  duty,  heading  the  Bureau  of 
Ordnance  in  Washington,  instructing  in  gunnery 
at  Annapolis,  and  commanding  the  Washington 
Navy  Yard.  He  was  successful  in  renovating 
naval  ordnance  and  established  a  regular  system 
of  ordnance  workshops,  gun-carriage  shops,  a 
cannon  foundry,  and  an  experimental 

Against  strong  protest  from  the  service,  he 
persisted  in  demanding  improved  weapons.  He 
designed  a  new,  reinforced  gun-breech, 
advocated  the  first  real  sights,  and  urged  the 
rifling  of  cannon.  Indirectly,  he  was  partly 
responsible  for  the  construction  of  ironclads. 
The  Dahlgren  gun  was  the  most  widely  used 
type  in  the  Union  fleet  during  the  Civil  War. 
This  gun  was  a  major  technological  contribution 
to  the  Union  naval  victory  in  the  Civil  War.  An 
account  in  a  London  paper  of  the 
Kearsarge- Alabama  duel  said  that  it  was  a 
"contest  for  superiority  between  the  ordnance 
of  Europe  and  America"  in  which  the  Dahlgren 
guns  of  the  Kearsarge  showed  marked 

A  scientist  and  an  inventor,  Dahlgren  devoted 
himself  to  blueprints  instead  of  charts.  His 
career  was  not  a  romantic  story,  nor  was  he 
a  popular  hero,  but  his  enthusiasm  and  his  love 
for  the  Navy  have  rarely  been  surpassed.  He, 
too,  created  tradition.  And  the  Navy  would  not 
forget  his  admonition,  "The  officer  should  wear 
his  uniform,  as  the  judge  his  ermine,  without  a 
stain."  This  observation  could  be  applied  to  few 
more  fittingly  than  to  Dahlgren  himself. 


Stephen  B.  Luce  (figure  2-14),  one  of  the 
Navy's  outstanding  educators,  was  born  in  1 827 
and  entered  the  service  as  a  midshipman  at  the 
age  of  14.  During  most  of  the  Civil  War  he 

served  with  the  Atlantic  coast  blockaders  and, 
for  a  time,  commanded  a  monitor  at  the  siege  of 
Charleston,  South  Carolina.  Luce  was  deeply 
interested  in  training  of  personnel,  and  in  1 862, 
while  on  a  tour  of  duty  at  the  Naval  Academy, 
he  prepared  one  of  the  best-known  seamanship 

After  the  war,  Luce  commanded  the  Naval 
Academy  Practice  Squadron  for  5  years,  and  in 


Figure  2-14.— One  of  the  foremost  seamen  of  his  day, 
Rear  Admiral  Luce  was  the  driving  influence  behind 
the  institution  of  the  U.S.  Naval  War  College  in  1884 
and  the  use  of  Fleet  exercises  as  battle  practice  for 
our  expanding  naval  armada. 


1875  lie  ortiani/ed  the  Navy's  apprentice 
training  system.  Its  purpose  was  to  train 
American  boys  to  take  their  places  in  the  fleet  as 
seamen  and  petty  officers.  Throughout  his  life 
Luce  insisted  that  the  Navy  should  be  an 
educational  institution  for  all  hands-with  all 
hands  working  to  get  ahead  and  with 
advancement  always  open  to  trained  personnel. 

Captain  Luce  was  appointed  Inspector  of 
Training  Ships  from  1878  to  1881,  and  as 
Commodore,  he  commanded  the  United  States 
Training  Squadron  from  1 88 1  to  1 884,  hauling 
down  the  flag  when  he  was  transferred  to 
command  the  North  Atlantic  Squadron.  By  this 
time  the  training  system  had  been  firmly 
established,  and  its  later  development  into  the 
Naval  Training  Stations  at  Newport,  Great 
Lakes,  and  elsewhere,  followed  directly  from 
Luce's  pioneer  work. 

Luce  took  the  lead  in  urging  the 
establishment  of  a  war  college  where  senior 
officers  might  study  the  art  of  war-strategy  and 
tactics.  He  once  said  that  good  gunners,  good 
engineers,  and  good  communicators  are  found 
abundantly  in  every  navy  in  time  of  war,  but 
that  good  admirals  are  always  too  few  in 
mini  her. 

Finally,  in  1884,  Luce  was  successful  in 
having  the  Naval  War  College  established  at 
Newport,  R.I.  The  primary  function  of  this 
institution  was  to  train  senior  officers  to  think 
in  terms  of  up-to-date  fleet  evolutions;  to  study 
and  master  broad  strategic  concepts;  to  prepare 
themselves  for  the  handling  of  modern  fleets  in 
battle.  It  was  the  first  institution  of  its  kind  in 
the  world. 

During  his  professional  life  and  until  he  died 
in  1917  at  the  age  of  90,  Admiral  Luce  fought 
tirelessly  for  improvement  in  ship  and  gun 
design;  for  the  introduction  of  efficient  methods 
of  administration  into  the  Navy  Department.  His 
work  contributed  immeasurably  to  bracing  the 
morale  of  the  service  in  the  letdown  period 
which  followed  the  Civil  War.  Today's  naval 
training  program  stems  directly  from  the  efforts 
of  this  farsighted  officer. 


Alfred  T.  Mahan  is  a  notable  example  of  a 
naval  officer  who  gained  worldwide  fame  but 


Figure  2-15.— A  philosopher  of  naval  strategy,  Mahan 's 
researches  in  military  history  proves  that  the  nation 
controlling  the  oceans  is  the  nation  that  maintains 
its  supremacy  in  war  or  peace. 

not  in  battle;  it  was  achieved  in  his  regular  line 
of  duty  in  the  pursuit  of  his  profession  in  peace. 
He  occupies  a  supreme  position  in  the  Navy  as  a 
writer.  His  particular  theme  is  seapower. 

Born  at  West  Point  in  1 840,  Mahan  (figure 
2-15)  attended  Columbia  University  for  2  years, 
and  in  1856  he  was  admitted  to  the  second  year 
at  the  Naval  Academy  at  Annapolis.  Graduating 
second  in  his  class,  he  served  at  sea  during  the 
Civil  War,  and  this  duty  was  followed  by  routine 
and  uneventful  service  until  1885.  At  the 
request  of  Stephen  B.  Luce,  his  former 
commanding  officer,  he  was  called  to  duty  as  a 
lecturer  at  the  Naval  War  College  at  Newport 
R.I.  ' 

Mahan  entered  his  new  work  with 
consuming  zeal.  He  felt  that  the  War  College 
should  train  officers  to  go  beyond  the  mere 
mechanics  of  their  profession;  that  it  should 



seek  through  historical  studies  to  develop  the 
rarer  and  more  intangible  qualities  of  "the  artist 
in  war  ....  intuition,  sagacity,  judgment,  daring, 
inspiration -which  place  great  captains  among 
creators,  and  war  itself  among  the  fine  arts." 

In  1 890  he  published  the  first  of  his  many 
great  works.  Titled  "The  Influence  ofSeapower 
upon  History,  1660-1783,"  it  was  based  upon 
his  lectures  on  naval  history  and  seapower. 
Mahan's  volume  stressed  the  theme  that  victory 
for  a  nation  at  war  ordinarily  depends  upon 
control  of  the  sea.  It  was  one  of  the  most 
influential  books  ever  written  and  was  received 
with  great  enthusiasm  throughout  the  entire 
world.  In  Germany  the  Kaiser  wrote,  "I  am  just 
now  not  reading  but  devouring  Captain  Mahan's 
book;  and  I  am  trying  to  learn  it  by  heart.  It  is  a 
first-class  work  and  classical  in  all  points.  It  is  on 
board  all  my  ships  and  constantly  quoted  by  my 
captains  and  officers." 

Mahan's  writings  were  promptly  translated 
by  the  Japanese  and  it  is  said  that  Japanese 
midshipmen  read  him  in  the  original  to  learn 
English.  His  work  was  studied  also  by 
contemporary  Secretaries  of  the  Navy,  by  the 
Congress,  and  by  President  Theodore  Roosevelt. 

Mahan's  work  marked  the  final  transition 
from  sail  to  steam,  not  only  in  naval 
construction  but  in  naval  thinking.  He  believed 
the  best  time  to  stop  an  attack  was  before  it 
arrived.  A  shore-hugging  navy,  he  foresaw,  could 
no  longer  be  considered  a  worthy  defense.  As  a 
consequence,  the  buildup  of  our  Navy, 
commenced  under  President  Cleveland,  was 
continued  under  President  Theodore  Roosevelt. 
By  1898,  the  Navy  was  in  a  position  to  assure 
the  United  States  a  role  as  a  world  power. 


The  Spanish- American  War  in  1 898  resulted 
from  a  long  series  of  incidents  arising  in  part 
from  unsettled  conditions  in  Spain's  Caribbean 
possessions.  It  was  evident  from  the  first  that 
the  war  would  be  primarily  naval,  and  would  be 
decided  in  favor  of  the  nation  able  to  establish 
control  of  the  western  Atlantic.  While  the  naval 
strength  of  the  two  countries  was  about  equal 

on  paper,  Spain's  ships  were  poorly  equipped, 
her  personnel  lacked  training,  and  her  officers 
displayed  incredibly  incompetent  leadership. 

Theodore  Roosevelt,  Assistant  Secretary  of 
the  Navy  in  1 897,  and  an  enthusiastic  disciple  of 
Mahan,  was  influential  in  getting  the  Navy  into 
shape  for  the  war.  In  the  overwhelming  victory 
won  by  the  United  States,  the  Navy  played  a 
notable  part. 


Perhaps  the  outstanding  exploit  of  the 
Spanish-American  War  was  Commodore  George 
Dewey's  seizure  of  Manila  Bay.  The  Spanish 
admiral  knew  that  Dewey's  fleet  was  somewhere 
in  the  vicinity.  However,  he  did  not  suspect  that 
the  American  would  have  the  audacity  to  steam 
in  during  the  night,  with  forts  on  either  side  and 
the  Spanish  squadron  ready  to  receive  him 
(figure  2- 16). 

While  laying  his  plans,  Dewey  said  he  tried 
to  figure  out  what  Farragut  would  have  done 
when  so  confronted,  for  Farragut  had  been  the 
inspiration  of  his  life.  The  influence  of  a  great 
leader  is  borne  out  in  Dewey's  statement: 
"Valuable  as  the  training  of  Annapolis  was,  it 
was  poor  schooling  beside  that  of  serving  under 
Farragut  in  time  of  war."  Dewey's  dramatic 
decision  to  force  Manila  Bay  was  inspired  by  his 
admiration  for  Farragut. 

As  it  eventuated,  this  unexpected  blow,  so 
timed,  was  half  the  victory.  "We  shall  enter 
Manila  Bay  tonight,"  Dewey  informed  his 
subordinates,  "and  you  will  follow  the  motions 
and  movements  of  the  flagship,  which  will  lead." 

At  0540,  when  the  range  had  been  reduced 
to  2-1/2  miles,  Dewey,  standing  on  the  bridge  of 
the  Olympia,  quietly  gave  the  order  to  the 
commanding  officer  of  his  flagship,  "You  may 
fire  when  you  are  ready,  Gridley."  By  noon, 
every  enemy  ship  was  sunk,  burned,  or 
abandoned.  While  it  was  true  that  the  enemy 
defense  was  weak,  this  was  nonetheless  a  signal 
victory.  In  one  morning,  Dewey  eliminated 
Spanish  naval  strength  in  the  Pacific  without  the 
loss  of  one  American  life. 

Dewey  stressed  preparedness.  Before  leaving 
the  United  States  he  had  obtained  all  the 


information  available  on  the  Spanish  fleet;  he 
secured  charts  and  other  data  on  the  Philippines 
and  made  a  detailed  study  of  international  law. 
Before  the  battle  he  discussed  with  his  officers 
every  detail  of  tactics  and  strategy.  Every  ship 
captain  knew  each  detail  of  how  and  when  to 

"It  was  the  ceaseless  routine  of  hard  work 
and  preparation  in  time  of  peace,"  wrote 
Dewey,  "that  won  Manila  and  Santiago." 


From  the  Spanish-American  War  the  United 
States  emerged  with  the  majority  of  her 
present-day  insular  possessions:  Hawaii  (annexed 
before  end  of  war),  Puerto  Rico,  Guam, 
Midway,  and  Wake.  In  addition,  we  had  gained 
control  of  the  Philippines  and  assumed  a 
protectorate  over  Cuba. 

Immediately  following  every  war  there 
comes  the  cry  to  do  away  with  armaments. 
Beginning  with  the  Revolution  it  became  the 
rule,  upon  the  termination  of  hostilities,  to 

decrease  the  naval  establishment  drastically  both 
in  men  and  ships.  The  Spanish-American  War 
stands  out  as  the  conspicuous  exception.  Instead 
of  drifting  into  a  decline,  the  new  Navy  sailed 
forward.  Two  reasons  for  this  continued 
expansion  were  the  obvious  need  for  a  large 
Navy  to  protect  our  new  possessions,  and  the 
enthusiasm  of  President  Theodore  Roosevelt  for 
the  Navy— an  enthusiasm  entertained  especially 
since  his  holding  of  the  office  of  Assistant 
Secretary  of  the  Navy.  A  big  navy  gave 
Roosevelt  the  opportunity  of  carrying  out  his 
policy  of  "speaking  softly  and  carrying  a  big 

Programs  of  the  various  navies  of  the  world 
between  1 900  and  the  beginning  of  World  War  I 
were  based  primarily  on  the  development  of  the 
capital  ship  theory  and  the  development  of  the 
submarine  and  airplane.  Although  the  ideas  of 
these  innovations  were  the  result  of  American 
genius,  the  Navy  was  not  always  prompt  in 
recognizing  their  potentialities. 


Admiral  William  S.  Sims  was  a  driver  in  the 
naval  service  both  in  peace  and  in  war.  Like 

of  the  Phillip,-™*. 

past  *•  shore  i— 

al  Mont°l°.  °P'iing  the  way  for  the  American  occupation 




Figure  2-1 7. —To  improve  gunnery,  Sims  developed  a 
keen  competitive  spirit  in  the  Fleet.  He  raised  the 
accuracy  of  Fleet  gunnery  to  near-perfection  during 
the  years  that  he  served  as  Inspector  of  Target 

Maury,  Dahlgren,  Luce,  and  Mahan,  Sims  (figure 
2-17)  encountered  opposition  in  his  progressive 
ideas  from  the  Navy  itself.  It  is  not  surprising 
that  many  of  his  superiors,  comfortably  settled 
in  conventional  routine,  regarded  him  as  an 
intolerable  nuisance.  He  was  always  seeing 
something  that  needed  correction  and  he  was 
not  afraid  to  speak  up  with  constructive 

At  the  turn  of  the  century  our  deplorable 
showing  aj  target  practice  worried  Lieutenant 
Sims.  Analysis  revealed  that  at  Santiago  1  20  hits 
were  scored  and  9000  projectiles  fired.  The 
rationalization,  "Well,  we  annihilated  them  at 
Manila  and  Santiago,  didn't  we?"  was  not 
convincing  to  Lieutenant  Sims.  He  agreed  with 

Mahan 's  wise  comment  that  "We  cannot  expect 
ever  again  to  have  an  enemy  so  entirely  inept  as 
Spain  showed  herself  to  be."  The  climax  came  in 
the  Far  East,  where  Sims  was  serving  as  fleet 
intelligence  officer  of  the  Asiatic  Squadron. 
There  the  fleet's  target  practice  was  so 
indifferent  that  he  became  convinced  the 
gunnery  of  the  United  States  Navy  could— and 
should -be  improved.  So  effective  were  his 
suggestions  that  he  was  ordered  home  in  1903 
and  installed  as  inspector  of  target  practice. 
Pitching  in  to  rectify  a  deplorable  situation, 
Sims  revolutionized  fleet  gunnery. 

Improved  methods  of  rangefinding  and 
spotting  were  adopted.  A  keen  competitive  spirit 
in  the  gun  crews  was  developed.  Gunnery  prizes 
were  offered  and  records  for  all  calibers  were 
broken  every  year.  In  1 903  the  fleet  average  for 
all  guns  was  approximately  40%;  in  1906  it  was 
almost  78%.  When  Sims  left  the  Target  Practice 
Office  in  1909,  the  United  States  Navy  led  the 
world  in  gunnery. 

By  publicizing  an  urgent  need  for 
modification  in  ship  construction,  Sims  was 
instrumental  in  bringing  about  other  important 

He  was  admired  and  supported  by  many  of 
the  fleet's  ablest  officers,  among  them 
Commander  (later  Admiral)  Bradley  A.  Fiske, 
one  of  the  Navy's  foremost  scientists  and 
inventors.  Back  in  the  1890's  Fiske  invented  the 
telescopic  sight,  the  stadimeter  for  rangefinding 
and  station  keeping,  the  electric  rangefinder,  and 
the  turret  rangefinder.  In  1912  he  spurred  the 
development  of  the  torpedo-carrying  airplane. 
An  innovator,  Fiske  worked  well  in  harness  with 

Selected  to  command  United  States  naval 
forces  in  European  waters  during  World  War  I, 
Sims  successfully  coordinated  American  and 
British  naval  operations,  and  played  a  major  role 
in  the  development  of  the  convoy  system,  an 
offensive-defensive  system  against  the  German 
submarine  threat.  Like  Farragut,  Dewey,  and 
other  great  leaders,  he  had  the  capacity  for 
securing  the  enthusiastic  and  loyal  support  of  his 




Several  days  after  our  declaration  of  war 
aguniNt  Germany  in  April  1917,  Rear  Admiral 
Sims,  who  had  just  come  from  Newport  where 
lie  had  served  as  President  of  the  Naval  War 
College,  arrived  in  London  to  confer  with  British 
First  Sea  Lord,  Admiral  Jellicoc.  Explaining  the 
status  of  the  submarine  war,  Jellicoe  revealed 
that  available  Allied  shipping  had  been  depleted 
by  one-fourth,  and  that  losses  were  mounting  at 
an  appalling  rate.  April  losses  alone  threatened 
to  reach  the  unprecedented  figure  of  900,000 
tons.  Sims  realized  that  at  this  rate  England, 
with  only  a  month's  grain  supply  on  hand,  must 
starve  or  surrender  within  a  few  weeks  time. 
Germany  was  winning  the  war. 

With  Germany  building  U-boats  at  the  rate 
of  three  a  week,  it  was  obvious  that  the 
submarine  menace  had  to  be  drastically  dispelled 
if  the  Allies  were  to  survive.  Sims  appealed  to 
the  Navy  Department  for  immediate  dispatch  of 

all  available  destroyers  and  other  antisubmarine 
craft,  auxiliaries,  and  merchantmen.  (See  figure 
2-18.)  Within  a  month  after  our  entry  into  the 
war,  the  first  American  naval  forces  began  to 
arrive  in  Britain  ready  for  duty. 

From  a  naval  point  of  view,  World  War  I  was 
a  conflict  of  two  blockades-the  Allies 
maintaining  a  long-distance  blockade  of  German 
ports,  and  the  Germans,  with  the  submarine, 
trying  to  blockade  British  and  French  ports  by 
attacking  Allied  shipping.  The  unrestricted 
sinking  of  neutral  American  merchant  ships  was 
one  reason  for  our  entry  into  the  war.  And  the 
cruiser,  the  destroyer,  and  the  newly 
constructed  sub-chaser  performed  yeoman 
service  in  this  campaign  against  German 

The  Allied  victory  resulted  in  part  from  the 
Sims-inspired  convoy  system  employed  in 
transporting  about  2  million  American  fighting 
men  to  France.  Navy  convoys  also  transported 

Sims  and   Rodman  „ 

for  world  domination. 

the  munitions  and  supplies  needed  to  sustain 
Pershing's  armies  and  the  Allies. 


In  October  1917,  the  destroyer  Cassin  was 
patrolling  off  the  Irish  coast.  Gunner's  Mate 
O.  K.  Ingram  suddenly  sighted  a  German 
torpedo  racing  toward  the  stern  of  the  Cassin. 
He  realized  that  if  the  "fish"  struck  the  vessel 
where  the  depth  charges  were  stowed,  the  ship 
would  be  blown  up.  Instead  of  saving  himself,  he 
deliberately  rushed  aft  to  throw  the  charges 
overboard.  The  torpedo  found  its  mark— and  the 
explosion  killed  Ingram  and  temporarily 
disabled  the  ship.  But  this  bluejacket's  sacrifice 
saved  his  ship  and  the  lives  of  the  officers  and 
men  on  board.  The  destroyer  Ingram 
commemorates  his  name. 

others  live.  Their  heroism  lives  on  in  traditions 
that  become  the  motivating  force  of  future 
generations— traditions  of  courage,  hard  work, 
lightning  and  shrewd  judgment,  and  generous 


When  he  hoisted  his  flag  as  Commander  in 
Chief,  U.S.  Pacific  Fleet  on  31  December  1941 
aboard  the  submarine  Grayling  in  a  harbor 
littered  with  the  wreckage  of  American 
warships,  Admiral  Nimitz  (figure  2-19)  was 
faced  with  one  of  the  most  difficult  tasks  ever 
presented  a  man.  The  Japanese  on  7  December 
had  successfully  perpetrated  one  of  the  most 
damaging  air  raids  in  history.  Of  eight 


Another  incident  that  occurred  in  World  War 
I  contributed  to  our  store  of  memorable  naval 
traditions.  The  transport  Antilles,  bound  for  the 
United  States  from  Europe  in  October  1917, 
was  sunk  by  torpedo  attack.  Radio  Electrician 
Ausburne  at  the  wireless  station  frantically  sent 
out  distress  signals.  The  ship  was  sinking  rapidly, 
but  Ausburne,  disregarding  his  own  safety,  stuck 
to  his  post  to  the  end,  vainly  attempting  to 
obtain  help.  Ausburne's  sacrifice,  like  Ingram 's, 
was  in  keeping  with  the  highest  traditions  of 
naval  service.  The  heroism  of  such  men  reminds 
us  that  the  bluejackets  we  command  are  worthy 
of  the  best  in  leadership. 


Deeds  of  yesterday  furnish  the  inspiration 
for  today.  In  warfare  the  immediate  stakes  are 
death  and  life,  and  the  long-term  stakes  are  the 
survival  of  a  way  of  life  and  of  a  civilization. 
Men  are  forced  for  a  period  to  show  their 
supreme  best.  During  such  crises  they  must  work 
beyond  their  strength;  hit  harder  and  faster  than 
their  opponents;  make  split-second -and 
correct-decisions;  and  risk  their  own  lives  to  let 


Figure  2-1 9. -By  his  brilliant  leadership  and  skill  as  a 
strategist.  Admiral  Nimitz  moved  his  forces  in  the 
Pacific  from  a  series  of  peripheral  engagements  to 
strategic  encirclement  of  the  enemy,  cutting  the 
enemy's  lines  of  supply  and  isolating  his  land  forces. 



battleships  in  Pearl  Harbor,  Arizona  was 
wrecked,  Oklahoma  capsized,  and  six  were 
damaged,  of  which  three  were  resting  on  the 
bottom.  Ail  told,  19  ships  were  hit.  The 
Japanese  had  practically  eliminated  the  Navy's 
striking  air  power  there,  knocking  out  150  of 
202  planes.  The  Navy  and  Marine  Corps  suffered 
2117  dead  plus  779  wounded. 

Despite  a  tragic  shortage  of  ships,  aircraft, 
and    supplies.    Admiral    Nimitz   organized   his 
remaining    forces    and    carried    on    defensive 
warfare,  trying  to  delay  the  enemy's  advance 
until  such  time  as  we  could  muster  sufficient 
strength  to  put  up  any  real  resistance.  As  rapidly 
as  ships,  personnel,  and  material  became  avail- 
able, however,  he  shifted  to  the  offense.  By  his 
brilliant  leadership  and  outstanding  skill  as  a 
strategist,  he  enabled  units  under  his  command 
to   defeat   the   enemy   in    the  Coral   Sea,  off 
Midway,  and  in   the  Solomons,  as  well  as  to 
conduct     offensive     raids    on     Japanese-held 
territory    such   as   the    Gilbert   and    Marshall 
Islands.    The  battle  of  Midway  was  the  first 
decisive  defeat  suffered  by  the  Japanese  Navy  in 
350  years.  It  put  an  end  to  the  long  period  of 
Japanese    offensive   action,   and   restored    the 
balance  of  naval  power  in  the  Pacific. 

Gradually,  Admiral  Nimitz's  forces  fought 
their  way  across  the  Pacific  to  the  Japanese 
mainland.  Initiating  the  final  phase  in  the  battle 
for  victory,  he  attacked  the  Marianas  and 
inflicted  a  decisive  defeat  in  the  battle  of  the 
Philippine  Sea,  and  captured  Guam  and  Tinian. 
Continuing  onward,  his  forces  isolated 
enemy-held  bastions  (the  strategy  of 
island-hopping)  in  the  Central  and  Eastern 
Carolines.  An  engagement  with  Japanese  task 
forces  then  resulted  in  a  historic  victory  in  the 
Battle  of  Leyte  Gulf.  His  long-range  strategy  was 
culminated  by  successful  amphibious  assaults 
on,  among  other  landings,  Iwo  Jima  and 
Okinawa,  the  outstanding  operations  of  this 
type  during  the  last  months  of  the  war. 

Finally,  Nimitz  placed  representative  forces 
of  the  U.S.  Navy  in  the  harbor  of  Tokyo  for  the 
capitulation  of  the  Japanese  Imperial 
Government.  The  formal  surrender  document 
was  signed  on  2  September  1945  aboard  the 
battleship  Missouri  in  Tokyo  Bay.  General  of  the 

Army  Douglas  MacArthur  signed  as  Supreme 
Commander  for  Allied  Powers;  Fleet  Admiral 
Nimitz  signed  as  representative  for  the  United 

On  1 1  December  1 944,  Congress  authorized 
the  establishment  of  the  grades  of  Fleet  Admiral 
and  General  of  the  Army  (the  highest  grades 
ever),  with  the  proviso  that  four  Navy  and  four 
Army  officers  could  be  elevated  to  that  5-star 
grade.  The  President  immediately  recommended 
Admirals  Nimitz,  William  D.  Leahy  (Chief  of 
Staff  to  the  President),  and  Ernest  J.  King 
(Commander  in  Chief/CNO,  U.S.  Fleet)1  for  the 
grade.  Congress  approved  the  recommendations, 
and  Nimitz  took  his  oath  of  office  on  19 
December.  (Admiral  Halsey,  the  fourth  Navy 
recipient  of  the  new  grade,  received  his 
promotion  the  following  year.) 

Following  the  surrender  of  Japan,  Fleet 
Admiral  Nimitz  took  over  the  top  naval  post, 
relieving  Fleet  Admiral  King  as  Chief  of  Naval 
Operations  on  1 5  December  1 945. 

Nimitz  received  some  15  decorations  and 
awards  from  foreign  governments.  After  his 
release  from  active  duty,  he  served  for  8  years  as 
Regent  for  the  University  of  California,  and 
received  honorary  degrees  from  19  universities 
and  colleges,  including  Notre  Dame,  Columbia, 
Northwestern,  Syracuse,  Tulane,  Harvard,  and 


Admiral  Nimitz  was  fortunate  to  have  under 
his  command  many  extremely  resourceful, 
intelligent,  dedicated,  and  courageous  officers. 
There  are  too  many  to  be  listed  here,  but 
anyone  familiar  with  operations  in  the  Pacific 
during  World  War  II  will  have  no  difficulty 

An  interesting  sidelight  to  his  title  was  that 
King  thought  the  original  abbreviation- 
CINCUS-was  hardly  appropriate  in  view  of 
the  successful  raid  on  Pearl  Harbor.  Conse- 
quently, he  changed  it  on  12  March  1942  to 
COMINCH.  During  World  War  II,  he  also 
was  CNO. 


recalling  the  feats  of  such  commanders  as 
Raymond  A.  Spruance,  Thomas  C.  Kinkaid, 
Marc  A.  Mitscher,  John  S.  McCain,  and  R.  K. 
Turner,  to  name  a  few.  Probably  the  most 
famous  sea  fighter  of  the  war,  however,  was 
Admiral  William  F.  "Bill"  Halsey  (figure  2-20). 
(Although  reporters  tagged  him  with  the 
nickname  "Bull,"  Halsey  disliked  it  as  seeming 

During  the  attack  on  Pearl  Harbor,  Halsey 
was  about  200  miles  at  sea,  returning  to  Pearl  in 
his  flagship  Enterprise  from  Wake  Island  where 
he  had  delivered  Marine  Fighter  Squadron  221. 
He  took  no  part  in  the  action  except  to  launch 
aircraft  in  a  fruitless  search  for  the  enemy. 

Halsey's  actions  were  characteristically 
audacious  and  brilliantly  planned,  exemplifying 
his  slogan  to  "Hit  hard,  hit  fast,  hit  often!"  As 
an  example  of  his  determination  to  succeed,  he 
was  designated  a  Naval  Aviator  at  the  age  of  52, 
a  prerequisite  to  being  assigned  as  captain  of  an 
aircraft  carrier. 

Early  in  1 942,  Admiral  Nimitz  chose  Halsey 
to  conduct  the  first  offensive  raid  in  the  Central 
Pacific.  Halsey's  force  of  2  carriers,  5  cruisers, 
and  10  destroyers  made  a  bold  foray  beginning 
on  1  February  against  the  Japanese-held  Gilbert 
and  Marshall  Islands,  bombing  and  bombarding 
enemy  bases  on  nine  separate  islands.  During  the 
action,  the  heavy  cruiser  Chester  took  one  bomb 
hit;  the  flagship  Enterprise  was  grazed  on  the 
flight  deck  by  a  suicide  pilot.  No  other  ships 
were  damaged  during  the  entire  operation. 
Among  other  benefits,  the  raid  reestablished 
offensive  spirit  within  the  Navy,  and  answered  a 
question  being  asked  at  home— "Where  is  the 

Within  4  months  of  the  "Day  of  Infamy," 
Halsey's  forces  conducted  a  unique  and 
dangerous  carrier  operation  by  transporting  16 
B-25  Army  bombers  across  an  ocean  and 
launching  them  off  enemy  shores.  The  squadron 
of  planes,  led  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  James 
Doolittle,  took  off  from  the  Hornet  while  650 
miles  from  the  Japanese  mainland  for  the  initial 
bombing  raid  on  Tokyo.  Whatever  the  damage 
inflicted  by  the  raid,  the  attack  was  a  shot  in  the 
arm  for  American  morale,  which  at  that  time 
was  at  a  very  low  ebb. 


Figure  2-20.— Admiral  Halsey  was  an  exceptional  com- 
mander. Although  he  had  a  flair  for  doing  the 
spectacular  in  a  dashing  way,  his  valor  and  audacity 
were  tempered  by  tactical  discretion.  Admiral 
Nimitz,  then  CSNCPAC,  once  said  of  him,  "He  .  . . 
can  calculate  to  a  cat's  whisker  the  risk  involved." 

Halsey's  flagship,  the  Enterprise,  was  the 
first  carrier  awarded  a  Presidential  Unit  Citation 
in  World  War  II.  It  was  presented  for 
consistently  outstanding  performance  and 
distinguished  achievements  during  repeated 
action  against  Japanese  forces.  The  Enterprise 
under  Halsey's  leadership,  participated  in  nearly 
every  major  carrier  engagement  in  the  first  year 
of  the  war.  Exclusive  of  the  damage  and 
destruction  of  hostile  shore  installations 
throughout  the  battle  area,  she  sank  or  damaged 
35  enemy  ships  and  shot  down  185  aircraft.  She 
was  reported  sunk  by  the  Japanese  so  many 
times  she  became  known  as  "the  galloping  ghost 
of  the  Oahu  coast." 

On  1 8  October  1 942,  Halsey  was  appointed 
Commander  South  Pacific  Force  and  South 


Pacific  .Area.  Starting  with  the  decisive  American 
victory  in  November  at  Guadalcanal,  which 
stopped  the  Japanese  advance  in  the  South 
Pacific  (although  sporadic  action  on  or  near 
Guadalcanal  continued  into  the  following 
February),  Halsey  conducted  a  brilliantly 
planned  and  consistently  sustained  offensive 
through  December  1943,  driving  the  enemy 
steadily  northward,  and  occupying  strategic 
positions  through  the  Solomons,  thereby 
securing  the  South  Pacific  area. 

After  Halsey  lead  his  forces  to  victory  at 
Guadalcanal,  President  Roosevelt  nominated 
him  for  the  unheard-of  fourth  star  (it  was 
unheard  of  to  have  more  than  four  full  admirals 
on  active  duty  in  the  Navy,  and  we  already  had 
them-King,  Nimitz,  Stark,  and  Ingersoll).  A 
grateful  Congress  approved  the  nomination 

In  June  1 944,  Halsey  assumed  command  of 
the  Third  Fleet.  Beginning  in  August,  his  forces 
left  a  trail  of  enemy  ruin  and  destruction  from 
the  Palaus  (a  small  group  of  islands  north  of 
New  Guinea')  and  the  South  Qiina  Sea  up 
through  the  Philippines,  Formosa,  and  Okinawa, 
inflicting  greater  loss  on  the  Japanese  Navy  than 
had  ever  before  been  suffered  by  any  fleet.  In  a 
magnificent  sweep  into  enemy  waters  between 
August  1944  and  January  1945,  the  Third  Fleet 
destroyed  4370  enemy  aircraft  and  sank  82 
combatant  ships  and  327  auxiliaries  against  a 
loss  in  combat  of  449  aircraft  and  the  light 
cruiser  Princeton, 

After  the  Okinawa  campaign,  Halsey  headed 
for  Tokyo  to  conduct  pre-invasion  operations. 
His  fast  carrier  task  force  comprised  the  greatest 
mass  of  seapower  ever  assembled  (three  task 
groups,  each  consisting  of  five  carriers  and  a 
battleship-cruiser-destroyer  screen).  In 
operations  conducted  with  military  precision 
and  characteristic  aggressiveness,  ships  and 
planes  of  Task  Force  38  blasted  every  industry 
and  resource  which  enabled  Japan  to  make  war, 
and  knocked  out  remnants  of  the  once  mighty' 
Japanese  fleet  hiding  in  camouflaged  nets 
throughout  the  length  of  the  Honshu  Island. 
When  the  "Cease  fire"  order  was  flashed  on  15 
August,  Halsey's  forces  (including  units  of  the 
Bntish  Pacific  Reet  that  joined  him  in  July 

with  Halsey  in  overall  command)  had  destroyed 
or  damaged  nearly  3000  aircraft  and  sunk  or 
disabled  1650  combatant  and  merchant  ships. 

In  recognition  of  his  exceptional  war  record, 
Admiral  Halsey  was  nominated  for  the  grade  of 
fleet  admiral  in  November  1945,  his  nomination 
was  confirmed  by  the  Senate,  and  he  took  the 
oath  as  fleet  admiral  on  11  December  1945, 
becoming  the  fourth,  and  last,  officer  to  hold 
that  grade. 

After  his  return  to  the  United  States  in 
October  1945,  Halsey  made  a  6-week  trip 
through  Central  and  South  America,  serving  as  a 
good-will  ambassador.  He  was  given 'numerous 
awards  in  the  form  of  parades,  reviews,  gifts,  and 
military  decorations. 

At  his  own  request,  he  was  transferred  to  the 
Retired  List  of  the  Navy  on  1  March  1947. 


In  1943  Seaman  Johnnie  Hutchins  took  his 
place  among  the  tradition-makers  of  the  United 
States  Navy.  At  that  time  the  LST  473,  carrying 
men,  tanks,  and  supplies,  was  part  of  a  landing 
force  that  was  heading  for  a  Japanese  position 
on  New  Guinea.  Stiff  opposition  was  being  met, 
and  as  the  ship  advanced,  shells  were  dropping  in 
the  water  close  aboard.  Suddenly  a  Jap  torpedo 
plane  dived  low  out  of  the  sky  and  launched  its 
torpedo  directly  at  the  LST.  In  the  pilothouse 
the  steersman  saw  the  torpedo  coming,  as  did 
Seaman  Hutchins  who  stood  at  his  battle  station 
nearby.  Before  the  steersman  could  swing  the 
ship  out  of  the  torpedo's  path,  he  was  killed  by 
a  bomb  that  hit  the  pilothouse.  Although 
Hutchins  was  fatally  wounded,  he  summoned 
enough  strength  to  stagger  to  the  wheel  and  turn 
the  ship  clear  of  the  torpedo.  The  ship  was 
saved,  but  Hutchins  died  a  short  time  later.  In 
the  face  of  death  this  man's  last  thought  was  not 
of  himself  but  of  others. 


The  unrelaxed  vigilance,  skill,  and  daring  of 
the  submarine  service  furnished  many 
tradition-makers  in  World  War  II.  The  story  of 
Commander  Howard  W.  Gilmore  is  classic. 



In  command  of  the  submarine  Growler  in 
:he  Southwest  Pacific,  he  had  just  sunk  one 
Japanese  freighter  and  damaged  another,  when 
le  found  himself  fighting  a  surface  engagement 
tfith  a  Japanese  gunboat. 

Gunfire  had  badly  wounded  Gilmore  and 
lad  seriously  damaged  his  submarine.  To  save 
iis  ship  he  calmly  gave  the  order  to  clear  the 
Bridge,  knowing  that  his  own  life  would  be 
sacrificed,  since  time  did  not  permit  even  the 
*ew  seconds'  delay  needed  to  help  him  below. 
Jnhesitatingly  he  voiced  the  order  "Take  her 
lown."  The  well-trained  crew,  inspired  by 
jilmore's  fighting  spirit,  brought  the  damaged 
submarine  to  port. 

3N  IWO  JIM  A 

Iwo  Jima  goes  down  in  history  as  one  of  the 
nost  costly  and  frightful  battles  ever  waged, 
tfen  had  to  die  and  keep  on  dying,  for  the 
Japanese,  hidden  in  caves  and  camouflaged 
)lockhouses,  possessed  plenty  of  ammunition 
ind  courage  and  knew  just  what  the  attack 
itrategy  would  be.  United  States  Marines  from 
SOO  invasion  ships  lying  off  the  island  had  to 
leliver  the  knockout  blows;  had  to  go  in  and 
)our  out  their  sweat  and  blood  to  take  the 

Landing  on  a  most  difficult  beach,  the 
Marines  dug  in  and  inched  forward,  while  the 
apanese,  sheltered  in  concrete  pillboxes  and 
mderground  caves,  continued  to  slaughter  them 
vith  a  murderous  fire  that  kept  raking  the 
anding  beaches  from  the  very  flanks  of  Mount 
Suribachi.  The  peak  had  to  be  captured,  and  the 
smelling  battle  continued  for  days. 

The  symbol  of  victory  is  perpetuated  in  the 
;roup  of  six  men-five  marines  and  a 
)harmacist's  mate-who  raised  an  American  Flag 
>n  the  first  piece  of  Japanese  territory  captured 
n  World  War  II  (figure  2-21).  The  date  was  23 
"ebruary  1945. 

These  six  men  (Sergeant  Michael  Strank  of 
Jennsylvania,  Corporal  Harlan  H.  Block  of 
rexas,  Privates  First  Class  Franklin  R.  Sousley 
>f  Kentucky,  Rene  A.  Gagnon  of  New 
lampshire,  and  Ira  H.  Hayes  of  Arizona;  and 
'harmacist's  Mate  Second  Class  John  H.  Bradley 

of  Wisconsin)  are  singled  out  to  stand  as 
representatives  of  what  Admiral  Chester  W. 
Nimitz  called  the  "uncommon  valor"  shown  by 
the  Marines  on  Iwo  Jima  at  a  cost  of  501 7  dead 
and  17,145  wounded. 

These  sacrifices  live  on  in  the  minds  and 
hearts  of  Americans.  A  monument  and  flagstaff 
were  dedicated  to  those  heroes  on  top  of  Mount 
Suribachi,  and  The  United  States  Marine  Corps 
War  Memorial  (a  bronze  statue  with  figures  32 
feet  high),  immortalizing  their  deed,  stands  just 
outside  Arlington  National  Cemetery,  Arlington, 


The  Korean  War  had  its  acts  of  heroism  also. 
There  are  innumerable  accounts  of  men  of  the 
Navy  and  Marine  Corps  who  gave  their  lives  in 
this  conflict. 


Figure   2-21.— Raising  the  colors   under  fire  after  the 
charge  up  Mount  Suribachi. 



Representative  of  their  stories  is  that  of 
Private  First  Gass  Walter  C.  Monegan,  Jr.,  who 
when  his  battalion  encountered  six  I-J4 
medium  tanks  destroyed  one  and  halted  the 
advance  of  the  other  five  tanks  with  his  rocket 
launcher.  A  few  days  later,  North  Korean  tanks 
again  menaced  his  battalion.  Monegan  snatched 
up  his  rocket  launcher  and  started  toward  the 
enemy.  He  spotted  three  T-34s.  He  sent  a  round 
slamming  into  the  nearest  tanks,  piercing  its 
armored  hull,  and  spraying  the  crew  with 
fragments  of  steel.  Turning  quickly,  he  fired  on 
the  second,  and  it  erupted  in  flames.  Caught  in 
the  light  of  this  roaring  fire,  he  raised  his 
weapon  and  advanced  upon  the  third  vehicle. 
Just  as  he  was  about  to  touch  the  trigger,  he  was 
killed  by  fire  from  an  enemy  machinegun. 


Most  heroes  are  very  much  like  the  boy  next 
door-nice  guys,  but  not  particularly  unusual 
until,  in  time  of  crisis,  they  do  most 
extraordinary  things. 

This  section  describes  the  actions  of  four 
men  who  distinguished  themselves  in  combat  in 
Vietnam  by  gallantry  and  intrepidity  at  the  risk 
of  their  own  lives  above  and  beyond  the  call  of 
duty.  All  four  were  awarded  the  Nation's  highest 
award-the  Medal  of  Honor;  only  one  (James 
Williams)  lived  to  receive  the  award  personally. 


Marvin  G.  Shields,  CMS,  was  a  Seabee 
attached  to  Mobile  Construction  Battalion  1 1  at 
Dong  Xoai.  Near  midnight  on  9  June  1965  the 
Viet  Cong  lobbed  a  mortar  shell  (or  perhaps  it 
was  a  rocket)  over  the  compound.  Everyone 
immediately  grabbed  his  weapons  and  manned 
the  defenses. 

The  attack  was  a  heavy  one,  and  although 
Shields  was  wounded  early  in  the  action,  it 
didn't  seem  to  slow  down  his  fighting  ability. 
When  ammunition  ran  low,  it  was  Shields  who 
made  several  resupply  trips  to  the  ammo  trailer, 
crossing  1 50  feet  of  ground  exposed  to  mortar 
fire.  When  the  VC  came  pouring  in  and  the 

defenders  fell  back  to  new  positions,  Shields  and 
another  man  took  the  time  to  move  an  officer 
with  both  legs  broken  through  a  hail  of  bullets 
to  the  relative  safety  of  the  district  headquarters 

The  attack  continued  through  the  night. 
Shields,  although  by  now  wounded  three  times, 
stayed  in  the  action,  repeatedly  exposing  himself 
to  the  enemy  while  tossing  grenades.  During  the 
morning  hours,  a  lieutenant  asked  for  one 
volunteer  to  go  with  him  and  knock  out  a 
machine  gun  that  was  spraying  the  building  with 
lethal  effect.  Shields,  the  boy  next  door, 
immediately  offered  his  services.  Although  the 
two  men  accomplished  what  they  set  out  to  do, 
both  men  were  hit,  Shields  fatally. 


During  much  of  his  tour  of  duty  in  Vietnam, 
James  E.  Williams,  BM1 ,  directed  operations  of  a 
group  of  four  PBRs  (Patrol  Boat  Riverine)  along 
the  Mekong  River  as  part  of  the  River  Patrol 

On  31  October  1966,  Williams'  patrol  was 
suddenly  taken  under  fire  by  two  Viet  Cong 
sampans.  The  patrol's  return  fire  killed  the  crew 
of  one.  Pursuing  the  other,  the  PBRs 
maneuvered  through  a  heavy  volume  of  small 
arms  fire  from  VC  forces  hidden  along  the  river 
bank,  only  to  be  confronted  in  a  nearby  inlet  by 
two  junks  and  eight  more  sampans.  The  patrol 
immediately  came  under  savage  attack 
augmented  by  heavy  automatic  weapons  fire 
from  ashore. 

To  make  matters  worse,  when  Williams 
deployed  his  group  to  await  reinforcements  in 
the  form  of  armed  helicopters,  it  ran  into  a 
much  larger  force  of  enemy  craft.  It  being  fairly 
obvious  that  the  PBRs  were  not  going  to  be 
permitted  the  luxury  of  simply  waiting  around 
for  help,  Williams  counterattacked.  During  the 
ensuing  action,  he  exposed  himself  to  enemy  fire 
with  complete  disregard  for  his  own  safety. 
Leading  his  patrol  through  intense  fire,  the 
patrol  damaged  or  destroyed  50  sampans  and  7 
junks  before  the  helicopters  arrived.  Williams 
then  directed  the  attack  on  the  remaining  craft 
and  the  enemy  ashore. 



Demonstrating  indomitable  courage 
hroughout  the  3-hour  battle,  Williams  was 
esponsible  for  the  loss  or  destruction  of  no  less 
han  65  enemy  boats  and  numerous  VC 

During  his  8-month  tour  of  duty,  the  57 
nen  serving  on  the  4  boats  Williams  directed 
arned  a  total  of  131  combat  decorations  plus 
50  Purple  Heart  awards. 


On  1 2  July  1 965,  a  reconnaissance  patrol  led 
>y  company  commander  First  Lieutenant  Frank 
>.  Reasoner,  USMC,  had  deeply  penetrated 
leavily  controlled  enemy  territory  when  the 
>atrol  came  under  fire  from  50  to  100  Viet 
]ong  insurgents  in  concealed  positions, 
leasoner  at  the  time  was  with  the  advance  party 
.nd  point;  the  slashing  fury  of  the  VC 
nachinegun  and  automatic  weapons  fire  made  it 
mpossible  for  the  main  body  to  move  up. 
fo  provide  covering  fire,  Reasoner  repeatedly 
;xposed  himself  to  the  devastating  attack. 
Shouting  encouragement  to  his  men,  he 
>rganized  a  base  of  fire  for  an  assault  on  enemy 
>ositions.  He  killed  two  VC  and  silenced  an 
Automatic  weapons  position  in  an  attempt  to 
iffect  evacuation  of  a  wounded  man. 

When  his  radio  operator  was  hit,  Lieutenant 
leasoner  himself  tended  his  wounds.  The 
adioman  then  tried  to  reach  a  covered  position 
>ut  was  hit  again.  In  the  face  of  almost  certain 
leath,  Reasoner  left  cover  to  help  him  a  second 
ime,  and  in  the  attempt  was  cut  down  'by 
nachinegun  fire. 

The  first  Navy  ship  to  be  named  after  a 
Marine  Corps  Medal  of  Honor  recipient  in 
/ietnam,  USS  Frank  S.  Reasoner  (DEI  063),  was 
:ommissioned  in  1971. 


During  Operation  Beacon  Hill  on  26  March 
.967,  the  platoon  of  which  Douglas  E.  Dickey, 
>FC,  USMC  was  a  member  engaged  in  a  fierce 

battle  with  the  Viet  Cong  at  close  range  in  dense 
jungle  foliage. 

Dickey  had  come  forward  to  replace  a 
wounded  radio  operator.  Without  warning,  an 
enemy  grenade  fell  in  the  middle  of  the  group  of 
men  that  included  the  immobilized  radio 
operator,  the  Corpsman  treating  him,  Dickey, 
and  several  other  Marines.  Fully  realizing  that  it 
meant  certain  death,  Dickey  unhesitatingly 
threw  himself  on  the  grenade,  absorbing  with  his 
own  body  the  full  and  complete  force  of  the 
explosion.  PFC  Dickey's  personal  heroism, 
extraordinary  valor,  and  selfless  courage  saved 
his  comrades  from  certain  injury  and  possible 

Another  boy  from  next  door  had  done  a 
most  extraordinary  thing. 


At  mid-afternoon  on  September  4,  1967, 
Company  M,  3rd  Battalion,  5th  Marines  made 
contact  with  North  Vietnamese  Army  Forces  in 
Quang  Tin  Province,  Republic  of  Vietnam.  The 
5th  Marines  Regimental  Chaplain,  Vincent  R. 
Capodanno,  LT,  CHC,  USNR,  who  was 
accompanying  this  element  of  his  regiment,  was 
positioned  with  the  Command  Group.  When 
word  was  received  that  one  of  the  platoons  had 
made  contact  and  was  in  danger  of  being 
overrun,  Chaplain  Capodanno  ran  directly  to  the 
beleagured  Marines.  He  proceeded  to  assist  the 
Corpsmen,  provide  comfort  and  reassurance  to 
the  wounded,  and  administer  Last  Rites  to  the 
dying.  In  the  midst  of  heavy  mortar  and 
automatic  weapons  fire,  he  ministered  to  his 
men  calmly  and  without  faltering.  Although 
wounded,  he  refused  treatment  for  himself. 
When  it  became  necessary  to  use  gas  masks,  he 
gave  his  own  to  a  Marine.  At  a  point  of 
particularly  heavy  attack,  he  placed  himself 
directly  in  the  line  of  fire  in  order  to  protect  a 
wounded  Navy  Corpsman.  In  this  act  he 
gallantly  gave  his  life  in  the  service  of  his 
fellowman,  his  God,  and  his  country.  For  his 
selfless  courage,  Chaplain  Capodanno  was 
posthumously  awarded  the  Medal  of  Honor. 



What  moves  an  individual  to  become  a  naval 
officer?  A  representative  and  fully  honest  listing 
of  motivating  factors  must  include  not  only 
varying  shades  of  patriotism  and  the  desire  to 
serve,  but  also  a  number  of  other  reasons  that 
demand  examination.  Rarely  is  anyone  impelled 
to  any  action  by  a  single  force.  As  people  are 
complicated,  so  also  are  the  things  that  influence 
them  to  act. 

That  there  must  be  dedication  is  obvious. 
That  a  naval  officer  is  a  professional  in  the  truest 
sense  of  the  word  is  equally  obvious.  Dedication 
will  smooth  the  rough  spots  that  invariably  lie  in 
the  path  of  any  endeavor.  Professional 
knowledge  and  competence  must  exist  if  the 
complex  and  perplexing  problems  and  situations 
that  often  are  the  naval  officer's  lot  are  to  be 
properly  resolved. 

Individuals,  upon  entering  the  Navy,  are 
administered  an  oath  by  which  they  swear  to 
uphold  and  defend  the  Constitution  against  all 
enemies;  to  bear  true  faith  and  allegiance;  and  to 
faithfully  discharge  the  duties  of  their  office. 
There  is  little  doubt  as  to  what  is  demanded  of 
an  individual  making  such  an  oath. 

When  a  man  or  woman  is  commissioned, 
they  reaffirm  the  basic  oath  but  there  is  a  good 
deal  that  is  added  by  the  fact  of  their 
commission;  many  newly  commissioned  officers 
are  not  certain  of  the  total  implications  of  their 
new  responsibility.  The  President,  as  a 
representative  of  the  people  of  the  United 
States,  having  "special  trust  and  confidence"  in 
the  abilities  of  the  officer,  has  granted  them 
extensive  authority.  These  officers  have  become 
party  to  a  contract  with  the  Nation.  The  terms 
have  been  previously  spelled  out.  The  Nation 
will  keep  its  bond;  it  expects  no  less  from  them. 

The  most  concise  way  of  expressing  the 
officer's  responsibility  is  to  say  that  they  acquire 
a  strict  moral  obligation  to  do  all  in  their  power 
to  render  themselves  fully  capable  of  leading 
men  and  women  in  war.  These  are  the 
irreducible  terms  of  the  commission. 

Career  officers  are  of  necessity  aware  of 
their  tremendous  responsibility,  and  it  must 
constitute  at  least  a  part  of  their  justification  to 
themselves  for  choosing  this  way  of  life.  Their 
measure  of  dedication  will  be  closely 
proportional  to  their  full  understanding  of  what 
lies  at  the  base  of  the  authority  vested  in  them. 

We  are  a  Nation  that  has  finally  learned  that 
possessing  strength  of  arms  is  a  necessary  part  of 
ensuring  security.  We  never  seek  war;  but,  by 
staying  prepared  and  vigilant,  we  offer  any 
aggressor  the  spectre  of  his  defeat,  and  in 
retaliation  for  aggression,  the  solid  prospect  of 
his  destruction.  If  armed  conflict  becomes 
necessary,  the  officer  will  be  called  upon  to  lead 
into  battle  the  Nation's  most  prized 
possession-her  young  men. 

In  the  uneasy  peace  in  which  we  live,  the 
officer's  responsibility  is  similarly  impressive, 
They  are  charged  with  doing  everything  in  their 
power  to  maintain  and  increase  national 
strength.  This  they  accomplish  by  proficiency  in 
professional  skills,  proper  training  and  guidance 
of  their  subordinates,  development  of  improved 
devices  and  methods,  and  by  exercising  the  most 
exacting  and  unremitting  care  of  the  men, 
women,  and  materials  placed  in  their  trust. 

In  considering  the  demanding  nature  of  the 
calling,  the  career  officer  is  entitled  to  ask:  "How 
do  I  conduct  myself  so  that  while  following  the 



clear  line  of  duty  I  may  ensure  some  benefit  to 
myself?"  This  question  passes  to  the  other  major 
aspect  of  our  postulated  "dedicated  career." 
Naval  service  must  have  some  attraction  beyond 
the  selfless  ideals  of  patriotism.  Later  in  this 
chapter  we  will  discuss  this  aspect  in  some 
detail.  Here  only  the  most  general  comment  will 
be  made. 

First  of  all,  career  officers  may  expect  the 
gratitude  of  their  Nation.  This  gratitude  is 
expressed  in  tangible  ways.  Their  pay  and 
allowances  are  established  and  maintained  by 
law.  In  the  event  of  their  sickness  or 
disablement,  their  welfare  is  ensured.  By  virtue 
of  their  status  as  officers,  they  are  held  in 
respect  by  their  fellow  citizens  and  have  an 
inherent  prestige  that  few  other  professions  can 
equal.  Second,  they  will  find  in  their  tours  of 
duty  a  varied  and  challenging  life.  Their  active 
duty  eventually  takes  them  to  many  parts  of  the 
world  and,  regardless  of  their  position  as  a  line 
or  staff  officer,  they  will  be  called  upon  to 
perform  a  great  number  of  different  tasks.  They 
have  educational  opportunities  that  not  only 
will  enhance  their  career  but  also  may  serve 
them  upon  their  eventual  return  to  civilian  life. 
They  serve  and  become  comrades  with  an  almost 
infinite  variety  of  men  and  women.  They 
encounter  a  minimum  of  personal  favoritism  and 
consequently  a  continuing  opportunity  to 
advance  by  virtue  of  their  own  merits  and 
abilities.  In  short,  their  lives  are  seldom  routine 
and  never  dull.  It  is  not  a  haphazard  existence, 
despite  its  intriguing  variety.  The  leveler  is  the 
fact  of  membership  in  a  competently 
administered,  well-organized  professional  Navy. 


The  current  requirement  for  naval  officers 
on  active  duty  is  about  63,000.  Approximately 
8,000  persons  are  commissioned  as  Regular  or 
Reserve  officers  and  ordered  to  active  duty  each 
year.  The  Navy's  active  duty  officer  programs 
are  aimed  at  the  fulfillment  of  established  goals 
based  on  projected  requirements.  Because  the 
Regular  officer  procurement  programs  do  not 
provide  sufficient  officers  to  maintain  the  USN 
structure,  qualified  Reserve  officers  who  apply 

are    selected    for    USN    status    as    needed    to 
maintain  the  career  officer  cadre  of  the  Navy. 


In  the  Navy  of  several  decades  past,  it  was 
axiomatic  that  the  only  path  to  flag  rank  started 
with  a  Naval  Academy  education.  While  it  is  true 
that  there  were  career  officers  who  had  come  up 
from  enlisted  status,  it  was  equally  true  that  if  a 
person  aspired  to  high  positions  of  command 
responsibility,  they  had  almost  perforce  to  be  an 
Academy  graduate. 

This  is  no  longer  true.  The  Naval  Academy 
still  holds  a  preeminent  position  as  a  source  of 
career  officers;  but  because  of  the  continuing 
increase  in  the  Navy's  size  and  complexity,  there 
now  exist  other  programs  to  supplement  the 
Academy  as  a  primary  source  of  educated  and 
basically  trained  officers.  (See  figure  3-1 .) 

United  States 
Naval  Academy 

An  outstanding  weakness  of  the  service  in 
the  early  days  was  lack  of  adequate  training  for 
young  officers.  Although  chaplains  and 
schoolmasters  were  carried  aboard  ship, 
midshipmen  frequently  received  rudimentary 
and  haphazard  instruction.  The  advent  of  steam 
warships  and  the  need  for  midshipmen  who 
could  qualify  in  engineering,  together  with  the 
threat  of  a  war  with  Mexico,  played  their  part  in 
the  founding  of  the  Naval  Academy  in  1845. 
The  major  credit  for  establishing  this  institution 
goes  to  Secretary  of  Navy  George  Bancroft,  who 
had  earlier  distinguished  himself  as  an  educator, 
diplomat,  and  historian. 

The  Naval  Academy  was  a  major  reform  in 
the  training  of  young  men  as  future  officers. 
Prior  to  the  Academy's  founding,  midshipmen 
had  secured  most  of  their  training  aboard  ships 
of  the  fleet.  There  were  no  accepted  standards 
of  performance  nor  governing  regulations  on 
training.  Though  many  acquired  a  reasonably 
good,  practical  education  under  the  guidance  of 
well-intentioned  ship's  captains,  there  were  at 

















LOO  (T) 

Figure  3-1. -A  number  of  programs  exist  to  supplement  the  Naval  Academy  as  a  source  of  trained  officers. 


least  an  equal  number  who  suffered  the  ill 
effects  of  the  haphazard  training  and  bad 
example  inherent  in  such  a  system. 

The  Naval  Academy  is  located  on  the  site  of 
Old  Fort  Severn  in  Annapolis,  Maryland.  It  has 
been  there  since  its  inception,  except  for  a 
temporary  move  to  Newport,  Rhode  Island 
during  the  Civil  War  as  a  measure  to  avoid 
capture  by  the  Confederates.  It  has  grown  into 
an  impressive  array  of  buildings  and  facilities 
located  where  the  Severn  River  flows  into 
Chesapeake  Bay.  Its  enrollment,  like  its  physical 
growth,  has  been  dynamic.  From  an  initial 
enrollment  of  50  students,  there  are  now  more 
than  4000  midshipmen  in  the  Brigade. 

In  general,  candidates  for  the  Academy  must 
be  United  States  citizens,  between  the  ages  of  1 7 

and  22,  of  good  moral  character,  and  unmarried. 
A  small  number  of  nationals  from  certain 
foreign  countries  are  permitted  by  law  to  attend. 
They  are  not  eligible  for  commissions,  but 
receive  the  same  training  and  are  governed  by 
the  same  regulations  as  are  other  students. 

Candidates  receiving  Vice  Presidential  and 
Congressional  appointments,  and  those  who  are 
sons  of  holders  of  the  Medal  of  Honor  are 
appointed  directly.  The  Vice  President  and  each 
Congressman  may  have  five  of  their  appointees 
m  the  Academy  at  any  one  time.  They  may 
allocate  these  on  the  basis  of  one  principal  and 
nine  alternates  on  an  appointive  basis  or  award 
them  competitively  with  ten  applicants  vying  for 
each  vacancy  existing  at  that  time. 

Remaining  appointments  are  strictly 
competitive  and  are  awarded  on  the  basis  of 



those  considered  best  qualified  as  set  in  the 
Academy's  "Whole-Person  Evaluation." 
Competitive  appointments  are  available  in  the 
following  general  classes: 

1.  Presidential 

2.  Regular  Navy 
and  Marine  Corps 

3.  Naval  and  Marine 
Corps  Reserve 

4.  NROTC  students, 
and  graduates  of 
honor  military  and 
naval  schools 

5.  Deceased  and 
disabled  veterans 

6.  District  of 

7.  Virgin  Islands, 
Guam,  American 
Samoa,  Puerto 
Rico,  and  Canal 

100  available  each  year 
to  sons  and  daughters  of 
members  of:  the  regular 
and  reserve  components 
of  the  armed  services 
who  are  on  active  duty 
and  have  served 
continuously  on  active 
duty  for  at  least  8  years; 
retired  personnel;  and 
those  who  died  while  in 
receipt  of  retired  pay. 

85  enlisted  members  a 

85  enlisted  members  a 

20  annually  (normally 
1 0  from  each  category). 

40  vacancies  are  set 
aside  for  the  sons  and 
daughters  of  members 
of  the  Armed  Forces 
who  were  killed  in 
action  or  died  of,  or 
have  a  100  per  cent 
disability  resulting 
from,  wounds  or 
injuries  received  or 
diseases  contracted  in, 
or  preexisting  injury  or 
disease  aggravated  by, 
active  service. 

5  at  any  one  time. 

1  at  any  one  time. 


9.  Congressional 

20  at  any  one  time;  no 
more  than  3  from  any 
country . 

The  first  150  vacancies 
of  an  unfilled  class 
quota  are  reserved  for 
congressionally  ap- 
pointed alternates. 

To  bring  an  entering  class  up  to  strength,  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy  (SECNAV)  may  appoint 
additional  nominees  from  the  remaining 
qualified  alternates  and  competitors  in  order  of 
merit.  Three-fourths  of  these  appointments  must 
be  filled  by  Congressional  Qualified  Alternates. 

To  gain  admission  to  Annapolis  a  candidate 
must  (1)  meet  general  eligibility  requirements, 
(2)  obtain  a  nomination,  and  (3)  qualify  both 
scholastically  and  medically. 

During  the  4  years  at  the  Academy, 
midshipmen  receive  an  excellent  academic  and 
professional  education.  Every  attempt  is  made 
to  supplement  classroom  and  laboratory  work 
with  practical  application  at  Academy  facilities 
and  on  summer  cruises.  Each  midshipman 
participates  in  summer  training  periods  with  the 
exception  of  women  candidates  which  last 
about  5  weeks  and  introduce  the  future  officer 
to  the  personnel— methods,  facilities,  and 
problems  of  the  service.  During  summer 
indoctrination  periods,  midshipmen  are 
introduced  to  all  areas  of  the  service  including 
submarines,  aviation  and  the  Marine  Corps. 

The  academic  life  is  complemented  with  a 
variety  of  athletic  and  social  activities  to  round 
out  the  individual's  personality  and  develop  the 
comradeship  that  is  the  basis  for  Brigade  and 
Navy  esprit  de  corps.  Considerable  emphasis  also 
is  placed  on  the  religious  life  of  the  midshipmen. 
Services  of  every  denomination  are  available  at 
the  Academy  or  in  Annapolis. 

Upon  graduation,  the  new  officer  receives  a 
bachelor  of  science  degree  and  a  commission  as 
an  ensign  in  the  United  States  Navy  or,  if 
desired,  as  a  second  lieutenant  in  the  Marine 


Naval  Reserve  Officer  Training 
Corps  Scholarship  Program 

The  NROTC  Scholarship  Program  (the 
College  program  is  discussed  in  a  later  section) 
produces  Regular  Navy  officers  from  NROTC 
units  in  operation  at  many  colleges  and 
universities  throughout  the  United  States.  It  is 
the  most  highly  competitive  officer  candidate 
procurement  program  in  the  Navy,  only  about 
10  percent  of  those  applying  being  selected  for 
enrollment.  The  annual  output  is  approximately 
1 200  new  officers  commissioned  mainly  in  the 
unrestricted  line. 

The  Naval  Science  courses  which  the 
students  take  are  in  addition  to  the  courses 
required  for  graduation  in  their  majors.  A  basic 
concept  of  this  program  is  that  the  output 
complements  the  Naval  Academy,  which  lacks 
the  capacity  to  produce  all  of  the  Regular  offi- 
cers necessary  to  meet  strength  requirements. 

Applications  for  NROTC  scholarships  are 
accepted  annually.  A  qualified  applicant  will  be 
required  to  undergo  a  physical  examination  and 
a  series  of  interviews  at  a  naval  recruiting  station. 
If  physically  qualified,  the  application,  which 
contains  the  results  of  college  board  test  scores, 
physical  exam,  and  comments  of  the 
interviewers,  plus  complete  academic 
background  information,  is  forwarded  to  a 
selection  committee  for  determination  of  those 
to  be  awarded  principal  and  alternate 
appointments.  The  selection  committee  selects 
candidates  within  a  fair  share  limitation  based 
on  the  total  number  to  be  appointed  nationally. 
Successful  candidates  indicate  their  college 
choices  and  usually  will  be  nominated  to  their 
first  choice  (if  a  principal  candidate).  If  not 
admitted  by  the  college  under  the  quota 
authorized,  they  will  be  nominated  to  the 
highest  of  their  choices  where  NROTC  vacancies 
exist.  If  accepted  they  are  officially  sworn  into 
the  Navy  and  appointed  midshipmen,  USNR. 
Alternates  are  chosen  in  the  event  principal 
selectees  resign  from  the  program  before  the 
academic  year  begins. 

Eligibility  requirements  are  that  a  candidate 

1 .  Be  a  citizen  of  the  United  States. 

2.  Have  reached  the  seventeenth  anniversary 
of   birth   by   1    Sept   of   the   year    in   which 
application  is  made. 

3.  Not    have     reached     the     twenty-first 
anniversary  of  birth  by  30  June  of  the  year  in 
which     application     is     made.     (Those 
contemplating    a    baccalaureate     degree    that 
requires  five  years  to  complete  must  not  have 
reached  their  twentieth  anniversary  of  birth.) 

4.  Be   physically    qualified    in    accordance 
with  the  standards  prescribed  for  midshipmen. 

5.  Be  a  high  school  graduate  or  possess  an 
equivalent  certificate. 

6.  Plan  to  participate  not  less  than  four 
years  in  the  program;  that  is,  must  successfully 
complete  four  years  of  naval  science  and  all 
requirements  for  commissioning. 

7.  Have  no  moral  obligations  or  personal 
convictions  that   will   prevent    conscientiously 
bearing  arms  and  supporting  and  defending  the 
Constitution  of  the   United   States  against  all 
enemies,  foreign  and  domestic. 

The  NROTC  organization  of  the  college  or 
university  is  centered  in  a  Department  of  Naval 
Science  normally  headed  by  a  Navy  captain  or 
Marine  Corps  colonel  with  the  title  of  Professor 
of  Naval  Science.  The  instructors,  Navy  and 
Marine  Corps  officers,  hold  academic  ranks  as 
assistant  professors.  A  dominant  factor  in 
selecting  officers  for  this  important  duty  is  that 
they  must  possess  academic  ability  and  have  had 
diversified  duty  experience.  The  latter  adds  to 
the  store  of  academic  knowledge  that  they 
impart  to  the  midshipmen  and  provides  a 
realistic  framework  from  which  they  can  instill 
in  their  students  a  highly  motivated  interest  in 
the  naval  service. 

Normally,  eight  naval  professional  courses 
(Navy  faculty  taught)  are  taught  along  with 
weekly  laboratory  periods  for  practical  work  in 
the  naval  courses  studied.  In  the  early  fall  and 
late  spring,  this  time  is  utilized  for  close  order 

Future  Marine  lieutenants  make  their  choice 
during  the  first  two  years.  For  the  last  two  years 
their  program  of  instruction  and  training  differs 
from  that  given  prospective  ensigns.  (See 
chapter  1 1 .) 

NROTC  Scholarship  students  are  permitted 
to  select,  with  the  approval  of  academic 

uiapter  6— LtitL  JNAVAJL  <jrjt<u_£JK. 

authorities,  a  field  of  study  leading  to  a 
baccalaureate  degree,  subject  to  certain 
limitations.  Exempted  as  majors,  for  example, 
are  studies  in  such  academic  fields  as  music, 
theology,  and  others  deemed  of  limited  value  to 
naval  officers. 

The  Navy  requires  that  midshipmen  acquire 
a  background  in  physics  and  mathematics,  and  a 
general  proficiency  in  written  and  oral 
expression.  Students  are  encouraged  to 
participate  in  any  of  the  extracurricular 
activities  offered  by  the  school  as  long  as  they 
do  not  directly  conflict  with  the  schedule  of 
Navy  classes  and  drills. 

The  NROTC  midshipman  has  approximately 
equal  summer  cruise  obligations  as  the 
contemporary  from  the  Naval  Academy.  The 
student  receives  tuition,  laboratory  and 
administrative  fees,  uniforms,  and  a  $100  a 
month  subsistence  to  defray  other  expenses. 

Upon  graduation  and  commissioning,  a 
student  is  required  to  serve  on  active  duty  for 
four  years.  At  the  end  of  this  period  the  officer 
is  retained  in  the  Regular  Navy  or  Marine  Corps 
unless  he/she  requests  release  from  active  duty 
and  a  Reserve  commission. 

Augmentation  Program 

The  Augmentation  Program  provides  an 
avenue  for  Reserve  and  temporary  officers  to 
transfer  to  the  Regular  Navy.  The  program  has 
two  objectives:  (1)  to  increase  the  total  number 
of  officers  in  the  Regular  Navy,  and  (2)  to  meet 
deficiencies  in  (augment)  numbers  of  officers 
existing  in  certain  year  groups. 

Eligibility  requirements  and  application 
processing  procedures  are  set  forth  in  the  Bureau 
of  Naval  Personnel  Manual.  The  program  is 
essentially  competitive  and  selection  is  based  on 
past  performance  of  duties  as  well  as  career 

Officers  desiring  augmentation  apply 
through  their  commanding  officer,  including  in 
the  request  information  pertaining  to  their 
backgrounds,  training,  and  experience.  The 
commanding  officer's  endorsement  discusses  the 
applicant's  motivation  and  potential,  and  makes 

a    specific    recommendation    concerning    the 

Selection  is  made  by  a  SECNAV-convened 
continuous  selection  board  that  meets  at  least 
quarterly.  A  successful  candidate  normally  is 
designated  in  the  same  category  requested  and 
with  the  same  date  of  rank  that  he/she  holds  on 
the  date  the  Regular  Navy  appointment  is 

NESEP.-The  NESEP  is  an  uninterrupted 
4-y ear-maximum  college  education  program 
available  to  outstanding  petty  officers  (men  and 
women)  in  the  Regular  Navy  or  Naval  Reserve 
serving  on  active  duty.  The  program  leads  to  a 
baccalaureate  degree  in  engineering,  science,  or 
mathematics.  A  Bureau  of  Naval  Personnel 
(BUPERS)  selection  board  nominates  only  those 
candidates  who  are  considered  capable  of 
high-level  college  performance  and  qualified  to 
be  future  line  officers. 

In  the  summer  before  entering  college, 
selectees  receive,  at  one  of  two  naval 
preparatory  schools,  about  nine  weeks  of 
refresher  training  in  mathematics,  chemistry, 
physics,  and  English,  plus  orientation  in  college 
academic  requirements. 

Upon  completion  of  the  preparatory  training 
and  acceptance  at  a  participating  college  or 
university,  the  trainees  obligate  themselves  to 
serve  for  six  years  in  the  Regular  Navy.  While  in 
school,  students  maintain  their  enlisted  status 
and  receive  full  pay  and  allowances.  They  pay 
for  their  subsistence,  lodging,  tuition  and  books. 
The  student  can  obtain  assistance  in  paying 
these  expenses  by  utilizing  their  in  service 

Having  completed  an  officer  indoctrination 
course  at  OCS  in  the  summer  prior  to  graduation 
and  after  receiving  their  degrees,  NESEP 
graduates  are  appointed  ensigns,  primarily  in  the 
unrestricted  line. 

The  minimum  service  payback  requirement 
for  participation  in  NESEP  is  four  years.  NESEP 
participants  who  terminate  or  complete  their 
undergraduate  training  after  commencement  of 
the  third  academic  year  will  be  required  to  serve 
on  active  duty  for  five  years. 



NOTE:  The  Navy  canceled  the  NESEP 
program  in  September  1977. 

mounting  sophistication  of  ships,  aircraft,  and 
weapons  requires  not  only  capable  enlisted 
technicians  but  also  commissioned  officer 
specialists  who  can  closely  supervise  complicated 
machinery  and  weapons  and  the  persons  who 
maintain  and  operate  them. 

A  warrant  officer,  although  commissioned 
from  the  enlisted  ranks,  may  be  considered  as 
the  person  who  bridges  the  gap  between  the 
enlisted  and  commissioned  structures.  The  WO 
structure  provides  flexibility  in  at  least  two 
areas:  (1)  a  warrant  officer  grows  in  the  level 
and  scope  of  competence  during  his  or  her 
progression  through  the  enlisted  and  warrant 
fields,  but  remains  within  the  specialization 
category;  and  (2)  can  be  assigned  repeatedly  to 
similar  billets  largely  irrespective  of  grade  within 
the  structure.  A  WO  is  not  "promoted-out"  of 
billet  levels;  regardless  of  grade  or  assignment, 
he/she  remains  an  officer-technician-supervisor. 

The  WO  program,  open  to  both  men  and 
women,  provides  a  path  of  advancement  to 
warrant  status  for  outstanding  chief  and  first 
class  petty  officers  of  the  Regular  Navy  and 
Naval  Reserve  for  the  performance  of  duty  in 
the  technical  fields  indicated  by  their  enlisted 
ratings.  All  applicants  must  take  the  officer 
selection  battery  test.  They  must  be  on  active 
duty  to  be  considered  by  the  selection  board, 
and,  if  selected,  remain  on  active  duty  until  the 
time  the  appointments  are  tendered.  Selectees 
receive  six  or  eight  weeks'  training  (depending 
on  their  categories)  at  an  officer  indoctrination 
school,  followed  by  technical  training  as 
appropriate.  (Supply  Corps  personnel,  however, 
receive  six  months'  training.) 

The  appointment  of  each  chief  and  senior 
chief  petty  officer  will  be  to  the  grade  of  chief 
warrant  officer,  W-2.  Master  chief  petty  officers 
will  also  be  appointed  to  W-2  but  can  be 
recommended  for  appointment  to  W-3  if  they 
fulfill  the  following  requirements: 

1.  Must  have  served  a  minimum  of  two 
years  during  the  20  to  24  years  of  service  period 
performing  duties  which  equate  to  those  of  a 
chief  warrant  officer,  W-2. 

2.  Must  have  performed  such  duties  in  the 
warrant  technical  speciality  for  whic}l 
application  is  made. 

PROGRAM.-The  most  attractive  asset  of  the 
LDO  Program  is  that,  somewhat  like  the  W0,jf 
permits  an  officer  the  opportunity  to  continue 
working  in  the  broad  technical  field  associated 
with  his  rating. 

Inputs  are  limited  to  selected  male  warrant 
officers  and  senior  male  enlisted  personnel.  The 
appointment  of  each  selected  commissioned 
warrant  applicant  will  be  in  the  temporary  grade 
of  lieutenant  (junior  grade).  Selected  enlisted 
applicants  will  be  appointed  to  the  temporary 
grade  of  ensign. 


Reserve  officers  on  active  duty  are  those 
serving  under  an  obligation  and  those  who  have 
voluntarily  agreed  to  remain  on  active  duty 
beyond  their  initial  obligation. 

In  general,  applicants  for  commissions  in  the 
Reserve  programs  must  have  baccalaureate 
degrees  or  higher.  Those  who  have  not 
completed  their  military  service  obligations 
under  the  law  (see  chapter  1  2)  are  eligible  to 
apply  only  for  a  program  that  leads  to 
immediate  active  duty  on  appointment  (unless 
they  are  medical,  dental,  or  theological  students 
and  certain  licensed  officers  of  the  merchant 
marine).  Applicants  who  have  completed  their 
military  obligation  are  eligible  for  direct 
appointments,  but  they  must  agree  to 
participate  in  inactive  duty  Reserve  training, 
Officers  directly  appointed  may  volunteer  for 
recall  to  active  duty,  and  orders  are  issued  if 
there  is  a  need  for  their  services. 

Reserve  officers,  active  and  inactive,  are  vital 
to  the  successful  accomplishment  of  the  Navy's 
mission.  Their  backgrounds  are  tremendously 
varied,  but  they  all  have  one  common 
denominator -a  preference  to  serve  their 
country  in  a  Navy  uniform. 

Programs  for  appointing  officers  in  the  staff 
corps  that  are  not  discussed  here,  and  for 
appointing  women  officers  in  the  unrestricted 
line  and  some  staff  corps  can  be  found  in  the 
Career  Counseling  Manual  (NAVPERS  15878), 

uiapter  J—  iHJb  INAVAJL 


The  following  are  brief  descriptions  of  the 
major  programs  that  produce  Reserve  officers  of 

the  Navy. 


The  NROTC  College  Program  is  very  similar 
to  the  NROTC  Scholarship  Program.  The 
differences  that  exist  pertain  mainly  to  selection 
methods  and  requirements,  amount  and  kind  of 
academic  subsidization,  and  active  duty 
obligation  upon  commissioning. 

The  selection  of  student  candidates  is  made 
by  the  Professor  of  Naval  Science  of  the  NROTC 
unit  from  newly  enrolled  freshmen  or 
sophomores  in  4-  or  5-year  courses.  The  students 
participate  in  one  summer  cruise.  They  receive 
their  uniforms,  naval  texts,  and  a  subsistence  of 
$100  a  month  in  the  last  two  academic  years. 
Graduates  are  commissioned  in  the  reserve  of 
the  line,  and  currently  must  serve  on  active  duty 
for  not  less  than  three  years. 


Candidates  selected  for  the  Two-Year 
Contract  NROTC  Program  must  successfully 
complete  a  six-week  course  of  instruction  at  a 
Naval  Science  Institute  during  the  summer  prior 
to  enrollment;  the  Science  Institute  fulfills  the 
requirements  of  the  first  two  years  of  the 
program  missed  by  selectees.  The  remaining 
junior  and  senior  years  of  the  Two-Year  College 
Program  are  identical  to  other  NROTC 

Two- Year  NROTC  College  students  receive 
the  same  benefits  as  Four-Year  NROTC  College 
students.  They  receive  Reserve  commissions  in 
the  unrestricted  line,  and  Marine  Corps,  and 
they  are  required  to  serve  on  active  duty  for 
three  years. 

Officer  Candidate 
School  Program 

The  Officer  Candidate  School  was 
established  in  February  1951  as  a  temproary 

means  of  providing  a  source  of  Reserve  officers 
to  meet  increasing  personnel  demands 
occasioned  by  the  Korean  conflict.  Continuation 
of  the  "Cold  War"  and  consequent  maintenance 
of  a  Navy  requiring  an  officer  output  greater 
than  the  USNA  and  NROTC  sources  could 
provide  has  resulted  in  continuous  operation  of 
OCS.  OCS  produces  the  largest  share  of  the  great 
pool  of  trained  Reserve  officers  upon  which 
rapid  emergency  expansion  depends.  It  is  a 
pathway  to  a  commission  for  two  important 
groups— the  college  graduate  and  the  enlisted 
member  with  the  required  academic 

The  pace  of  OCS  is  strenuous  in  that  officer 
candidates  are  required  to  complete  a  highly 
concentrated  course  in  Naval  Science  in  19 
weeks;  the  fundamentals  of  Naval  Science  are 
crammed  into  approximately  470  classroom 
hours.  This  is  a  large  order,  but  it  can  be  done 
inasmuch  as  officer  candidates  have  already 
received  their  baccalaureate  degrees  and  are  not 
concerned  with  academic  subjects  as  are  Naval 
Academy  and  NROTC  midshipmen.  Students 
can  concentrate  on  Naval  Science  utilizing  the 
study  habits  sharpened  in  4  years  of  college. 

Among  the  Naval  Science  subjects  taught  are 
seamanship,  navigation,  naval  weapons,  naval 
operations,  engineering,  principles  of  leadership, 
military  justice,  management,  communications, 
and  naval  orientation. 

Between  classroom  instruction  periods 
candidates  have  at  least  1  hour  per  day  of  close 
order  drill,  first  aid  instruction,  pistol  practice, 
swimming,  or  some  of  the  other  skills  that  are  a 
part  of  a  naval  officer's  training. 

Leadership,  as  an  art,  is  stressed  at  OCS. 
Thus,  the  officer  candidate  is  closely  evaluated 
for  the  qualities  upon  which  leadership  is  based. 

Upon  successful  completion  of  OCS,  the 
officer  candidate  is  commissioned  an  ensign  in 
the  Naval  Reserve  and  serves  3  years  on  active 
duty.  If  he  or  she  desires,  they  may 
subsequently  apply  for  a  Regular  Navy 
commission.  If  they  do  not  choose  to  make  the 
Navy  a  lifetime  career,  they  can  return  to 
civilian  life  at  the  end  of  their  active  duty  and 
complete  the  remainder  of  their  military 
obligation  on  inactive  duty  in  the  Naval  Reserve. 



AOC  and  NFOC 

The  Aviation  Officer  Candidate  and  Naval 
Flight  Officer  Candidate  Programs  are  basically 
similar  except  for  the  last  part  of  training.  The 
AOC  Program  is  designed  for  those  who  wish  to 
become  Naval  Aviators;  the  NFOC  for  those 
desiring  billets  in  airborne  technical  specialities 
such  as  Radar  Intercept  Officers  (RIOs), 
Advanced  Radar  Navigators  (ARNs),  Celestial 
Navigators  and  Airborne  Tactical  Data  Systems 
Operators  (ATDs). 

Applicants  for  either  program  must  be  at 
least  19  years  of  age  and  either  recent  college 
graduates  or  in  their  senior  college  year.  Selected 
candidates  are  ordered  to  the  Aviation  Officer 
Candidate  School  at  Pensacola,  Florida  for  16 
weeks  of  indoctrination  training,  upon 
successful  completion  of  which  they  receive 
their  commissions  as  ensigns.  They  then  receive 
basic  and  advance  training,  the  AOC  for  16 
months  and  the  NFOC  for  from  7  to  1 1  months, 
depending  on  the  type  of  billet  for  which  in 

Reserve  Officer 
Candidate  Program 

The  Reserve  Officer  Candidate  Program  is 
open    to     college    undergraduates,    including 
enlisted    members   of  the   Naval    Reserve   on 
inactive  duty.  Selected  candidates  are,  if  not 
already  members,  enlisted  in  the  Naval  Reserve 
for  6  years.  College  students  participating  in  the 
program  attend  OCS  for  two  periods  of  9  weeks 
each:    once   for   their   basic   training,   usually 
during  the  summer  between  junior  and  senior 
year;  and  again  upon  graduation  from  college  for 
advanced  training.  In  essence,  the  program  of 
studies  offered  the  ROC  students  is  identical 
with  that  of  Regular  officer  candidates  except 
that  it  is  carried  over  two  different  training 
periods.    Successful    completion    of  the    two 
training  periods  and  receipt  of  a  baccalaureate 
degree   is   required    prior  to   appointment   as 
ensign,    USNR.    Participation    in    the    Naval 
Reserve  program  in  a  drill  status  is  not  required 
Satisfactory   performance   in   the   program 
defers   candidates   from  induction  into  active 

military  service.  Each  candidate  must  agree  in 
writing  to  accept  a  commission,  if  tendered,  and 
to  serve  on  active  duty  for  a  period  of  3  years 
following  appointment.  ROCs  who  have  fulfilled 
the  requirements  of  the  Military  Selective 
Service  Act  of  1967  (discussed  in  chapter  12) 
are  not  required  to  serve  on  active  duty. 
Disenrolled  ROCs  must  fulfill  the  obligation 
incurred  upon  enlistment  in  the  Naval  Reserve. 

Direct  Appointment 

Civilian  college  graduates  who  are  qualified 
in  appropriate  specialties  may  be  appointed 
directly  from  civilian  life  in  certain  categories  of 
the  line  and  staff  corps. 

Specific  requirements  for  and  availability  of 
direct  appointment  programs  vary  according  to 
needs  of  the  Navy.  Current  information 
concerning  such  programs  may  be  obtained  from 
Navy  Recruiting  Main  Stations. 


The  Navy  prior  to  1 940,  as  compared  with 
that  of  today,  was  a  relatively  small  and  stable 
organization.  The  officer  corps  was  comprised 
nearly  100%  of  career  officers.  Their  assignment 
and  rotation  followed  an  established  pattern 
that  was  common  knowledge  to  all.  World  War 
II,  the  Korean  conflict,  complex  international 
commitments,  and  modern  technological 
advances  have  resulted  in  a  change  in  the 
composition  of  our  officer  corps,  our  fleets,  and 
in  the  establishment  of  joint  defense  commands 
in  which  the  Navy  plays  a  key  role.  These 
factors  necessitate  a  larger  and  more  complex 
Navy  than  that  which  existed  prior  to  World  War 

The  Navy,  therefore,  makes  its  personnel 
predictions  based  on  the  expectation  of 
remaining  at  or  very  near  its  present  manning 
level  and,  at  the  same  time,  retaining  a  sufficient 
cadre  of  career  officers  so  that  it  can  expand 
rapidly  in  the  event  that  international  tensions 
erupt  into  armed  conflict. 

Because  many  junior  officers  return  to 
cmhan  life  after  completing  their  minimum 


Chapter  j-mt  JNAVAL 

active  duty  obligations,  there  is  a  large  drop  in 
numbers  between  the  grades  of  LTJG  and  LT. 
Career- wise,  this  results  in  an  unprecedented 
opportunity  today,  and  in  the  foreseeable 
future,  for  young  officers  to  reach  the  top  of  the 
promotion  ladder.  Juniors  have  unparalleled 
chances  to  assume  positions  of  leadership  and 
responsibility.  Many  lieutenants  junior  grade 
and,  at  times,  ensigns,  are  ordered  to  billets 
normally  filled  by  more  senior  officers. 

Regulations  governing  officer  promotions 
are  the  result  of  an  evolutionary  process. 
Beginning  in  1947,  with  passage  of  the  Officer 
Personnel  Act,  several  major  pieces  of  legislation 
have  been  collected  and  codified  in  Title  10  of 
the  United  States  Code.  Laws  pertaining  to 
promotion  represent  the  product  of  much 
experience  and  progress.  They  are  designed  to 
meet  the  needs  of  the  naval  service  and  to 
provide  an  equitable  opportunity  for  a  full  and 
rewarding  career  for  all  who  cherish  the  naval 

The  following  definitions  and  terms  identify 
the  status  of  officers  as  prescribed  by  Title  10, 
U.S.  Code: 

1.  A  line  officer  is  an  officer  serving  in  the 
grade  of  ensign  or  above  in   the  line  of  the 
Regular  Navy  or  Naval  Reserve. 

2.  A  staff  corps  officer  is  one  serving  in  the 
grade  of  ensign  or  above  in  one  of  the  staff  corps 
of  the  Regular  Navy  or  Naval  Reserve. 

3.  An  officer  restricted  in  the  performance 
of  duty  is  a  line  officer  individually  designated 
by  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  for  special  duty 
(such     as     communications,     intelligence,     or 
cryptology),  or  restricted  duty  (e.g.,  engineering 
duty,  ordnance  engineering);  or  a  line  or  staff 
corps  of  the  Regular  Navy  designated  for  limited 

4.  TAR  is  an  abbreviation  commonly  used 
to  identify   Reserve  officers  serving  on  active 
duty     in     connection     with     the     training, 
administration,  recruiting,  and  organization  of 
the  Reserve  component  of  the  Navy.  The  TAR 
officers  are  excluded  from  the  lineal  list  of  the 

Promotions  are  effected  under  the  dual 
system  which  specifies  that,  initially,  all 
promotions  for  male  commissioned  officers  are 
temporary;  as  vacancies  occur  in  the  permanent 
structure,  an  officer  with  a  temporary 
promotion  receives  a  permanent  one  for  that 
grade.  Pay,  eligibility  rights,  and  retirement 
benefits  are  computed  on  the  basis  of  the  initial 
or  temporary  appointment.  A  temporary 
appointment  may  be  terminated  by  the 
President  and  an  individual  reverted  to  the  grade 
of  their  permanent  appointment.  This  usually 
occurs  only  in  the  event  of  drastic  reductions  in 
the  size  of  the  Navy  that  would  reduce  the 
authorized  numbers  within  each  grade.  A 
permanent  appointment  may  not  be  revoked, 
suspended,  or  canceled  except  by  formal  legal 

The  overall  promotional  picture  is  essentially 
that  of  a  pyramid  rising  from  a  broad  base  of 
junior  officers  to  the  few  senior  flag  officers 
near  the  top  and  to  the  one  Chief  of  Naval 
Operations.  If  there  is  to  be  a  realistic  flow  of 
promotions  up  the  pyramid,  all  who  enter  at  the 
bottom  cannot  reach  the  top,  although  each 
officer  has  the  same  opportunity  as  their 
contemporaries  to  vie  for  the  top  grades. 

In  the  area  of  officer  promotions,  there  are 
three  interdependent  controls:  distribution,  flow 
rate,  and  attrition.  Promotion  controls  are 
necessary  to  ensure  that  those  who  reach  the 
senior  grades  are  best  fitted  to  perform  the 
military  requirements  of  those  grades,  and  that 
they  reach  those  grades  at  ages  consistent  with 
the  military  requirements. 

Distribution  refers  to  the  required  number 
of  officers  in  each  grade.  Maximum  ceilings  are 
set  by  law;  but  otherwise  annual  vacancies  are 
prescribed  by  SECNAV,  based  on  current  and 
anticipated  needs  of  the  Navy. 

Flow  rate  is  the  rate  at  which  officers  are 
promoted  to  higher  grades.  It  has  been 
determined  on  the  basic  principle  that,  except 
for  the  relatively  few  officers  selected  to  flag 
rank,  the  maximum  career  will  be  30  years  in 
length  for  those  who  achieve  promotion  to 

By  attrition  is  meant  the  percentage  of 
officers  who  must  be  separated  as  others  in  their 



promotional  group  ascend  to  a  higher  grade. 
Unless  vacancies  were  created  in  the  higher 
grades,  promotions  would  be  slowed  to  an 
unacceptable  degree,  resulting  in  less  than  equal 
opportunities  for  succeeding  year  groups  ot 
officers.  A  number  of  vacancies  are  created 
through  natural  attrition -deaths,  resignations, 
discharges,  voluntary  retirement.  The  rate  is 
fairly  constant,  but  not  great  enough  to  meet 
the  desired  promotion  flow  rate. 

To  maintain  a  normal  promotion  flow  rate 
within  the  limits  of  grade  distribution,  the  Navy 
utilizes  forced  attrition,  which  is  determined  by 
a  long-range  study  that  projects  promotions  over 
a  5-year  period.  An  attrition  percentage  is 
applied,  for  each  grade,  to  the  current  year's 
promotions  to  determine  the  number  of  officers 
who  must  fail  of  selection.  As  a  rule,  rate  of 
attrition  increases  with  grade,  and  may  be 
tabulated  somewhat  as  follows: 

For  promotion  to 

Lieutenant  commander 
Lieutenant  junior  grade 

%  of  attrition 



The  number  of  officers  placed  in  each 
promotion  zone  in  excess  of  the  number  to  be 
selected  represents  the  minimum  number  that 
must  fail  selection  to  provide  the  percentage  of 
forced  attrition  required  by  the  long-range 
studies.  The  size  of  a  promotion  zone,  then, 
reflects  vacancies  that  will  exist  during  the 
ensuing  year  plus  application  of  the  forced 
attrition  variable. 

This  might  better  be  explained  by  an 
example.  Assume  that  the  promotion 
opportunity  for  unrestricted  line  officers  to  the 
grade  of  LCDR  is  85%.  This  means  that  of  every 
100  officers  eligible  for  promotion,  15  must  be 
passed  over.  But  another  factor  enters  the 
picture:  those  promoted  from  above  and  below 
the  promotion  zone.  Officers  within  the  zone 
who  fail  of  selection  are  placed  above  the 
following  year's  promotion  zone  for  further 
consideration.  Every  selection  made  from  either 
above  or  below  the  normal  promotion  zone 
means  a  passover  in  the  zone  itself. 

A  temporary  appointment  to  the  grade  of 
lieutenant  junior  grade  is  delivered  to  an  ensign 
upon  his  completion  of  24  months  satisfactory 
service  in  grade.  For  other  than  promotion  to 
LTJG  selection  for  promotion  up  to  and 
including  rear  admiral  is  made  by 
SECNAV-convened  selection  boards  composed 
of  officers  nominated  by  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Personnel  and  selected  by  SECNAV.  A  selection 
board  is  charged  to- 

1.  Consider   impartially   the    cases    of  all 
officers  submitted  to  it. 

2.  Select  those  best  fitted  for  promotion 
within  prescribed  numerical  limitations. 

3.  Report  the  names  of  any  officers  who 
have  less  than  20  years  of  service  and  whose 
records,  in  the  opinion  of  the  board,  indicate 
unsatisfactory  performance  of  duty  and  unlikely 
prospect  of  promotion  to  higher  grade.  This 
reporting  is  done  so  that  they  may  be  separated 
from  the  active  list. 

4.  Submit  its  report  to  SECNAV  for  his 
recommendation    and    final    approval    of   the 

Because  officers  on  the  board  are  responsible 
for  selecting  "the  best  fitted,"  it  is  appropriate 
that  they  themselves  be  in  this  category. 
Therefore,  they  are  chosen  not  only  on  the  basis 
of  integrity  and  experience  but  must  never  have 
failed  selection  to  any  grade. 

In  addition  to  their  duties  of  evaluation  and 
selection,  the  boards  are  required  to  reconstitute 
themselves  as  examining  boards  after  completing 
the  initial  selection  process.  This  has  the  effect 
of  rendering  a  second  or  confirming  opinion  on 
those  selected  for  the  next  higher  grade  or  for 
those  officers  selected  for  separation.  This 
double  screening  may  appear  to  be  a  duplication 
of  effort,  but  actually  the  functions  are 
complementary  rather  than  parallel.  Selection 
board  action  is  based  on  comparing  the  abilities 
of  an  officer  with  those  of  his  contemporaries. 
When  acting  as  an  examining  board,  that  board 
compares  the  performance  of  the  individual  with 
a  set  of  standards  prescribed  by  the  Navy 



Their  entire  function  is  extremely  serious 
and  imposing.  It  calls  for  exercising  the  most 
mature  judgment  in  making  evaluations  of 
relative  merit.  In  this  connection  it  should  be 
noted  that  those  officers  failing  selection  are  not 
necessarily  poor  officers  nor  are  they 
unqualified.  The  attrition,  particularly  to  the 
more  senior  grades,  dictates  that  many 
completely  satisfactory  officers  are  being  left 
behind.  This  is  one  of  the  unfortunate  features 
of  the  pyramid  system.  Some  officers  must,  by 
law,  be  left  behind  as  their  contemporaries 
advance  to  each  successively  higher  grade. 

Lieutenants  and  lieutenants  junior  grade 
who  twice  fail  of  selection  are  honorably 
discharged  on  the  last  day  of  the  fiscal  year  in 
which  the  second  failure  occurs.  LCDRs,  CDRs, 
and  CAPTs  who  twice  fail  of  selection  may 
continue  to  serve  and  remain  eligible  for 
consideration.  They  are  involuntarily  retired,  if 
not  on  a  promotion  list,  upon  completing  20, 
26,  and  30  years,  respectively,  of  total 
commissioned  service. 

Promotions  above  rear  admiral  are 
appointive  and  therefore  beyond  the  scope  of 
selection  board  recommendation.  When  rear 
admirals  complete  stipulated  periods  of  time  in 
grade  and  commissioned  service  (5  years  and  30 
years  for  unrestricted  line,  for  example), 
selection  boards,  at  that  time  and  at  ensuing 
3 -year  periods,  recommend  either  their 
continuation  on  the  active  list  of  the  Navy  or 
their  retirement. 

During  the  course  of  a  year,  from  40  to  50 
selection  boards  may  convene  in  BUPERS  for 
the  purpose  of  selecting  officers  for  promotion. 
The  panels  may  be  in  session  for  anywhere  from 
10  days  to  about  6  weeks,  depending  on  the 
numbers  of  officers  eligible  for  promotion. 
(Other  boards,  such  as  those  selecting  E-8s  and 
E-9s,  enlisteds  for  warrant,  warrants  for  LDO, 
NESEP  students,  and  students  for  the 
Postgraduate  School  may  exceed  100  each  year, 
deliberating  from  less  than  a  day  up  to  8  weeks.) 

PUBLIC  LAW  90-130 

The  permanent  women  components  of  the 
Navy,  for  other  than  the  several  Medical 

Department  corps,  were  created  by  the  Women's 
Armed  Services  Integration  Act  of  1948. 
Personnel  management  policies  that  previously 
had  applied  only  to  men  were  thereafter  to 
apply  also  to  women  "except  where  obviously 
inapplicable."  Even  so,  there  were  inadequacies 
in  the  act  that  limited  promotion  opportunities 
and  restricted  career  tenure  for  women  officers 
in  all  services. 

For  one  thing,  there  was  very  little  prospect 
for  a  woman  naval  officer  to  attain  a  grade 
higher  than  commander.  The  Assistant  Chief  of 
Naval  Personnel  for  Women  was  a  captain,  and 
there  were  a  few  female  captains  in  some  staff 
corps  (e.g.,  Nurse  and  Medical),  but  these  were 
exceptions  to  the  rule.  There  was  also  a 
statutory  provision  limiting  the  number  of 
female  officers  in  the  grades  of  commander  and 
lieutenant  commander  to  30%  of  the  total 
number  of  women  line  officers,  including 
Reserves.  These  two  factors  combined  created  a 
large  surplus  of  junior  officers.  By  1 967  it  was 
estimated  that  the  attrition  rate  of  women  line 
lieutenants  would  average  50%  for  the  next  5 
years  (as  compared  to  about  5%  for  male 
lieutenants).  The  necessarily  high  forced 
separation  rate  brought  about  a  very  difficult 
situation,  and  many  fine  women  officers  were 
being  lost  to  the  Navy  because  of  it.  It  became 
apparent  to  all  services  that  policies  which  for 
some  20  years  had  been  "obviously 
inapplicable"  to  women  were  no  longer  so. 

Public  Law  90-130,  enacted  8  November 
1967,  amended  the  Women's  Integration  Act  to 
enhance  both  promotion  opportunities  and 

Changes  relating  to  promotion  increase  the 
prospects  for  advancement  to  more  senior 
grades;  Congress  also  eliminated  percentage 
restrictions  on  the  number  of  women  appointed 
to  those  grades,  authorizing  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy  to  decide  how  many  officers  are  needed  in 
each  grade,  as  he  does  for  male  officers. 

Promotion  to  the  grade  of  captain  is  now 
part  of  a  woman  officer's  normal  career  pattern; 
commanders  are  eligible  for  consideration  for 
promotion  after  4  years  in  grade.  Public  Law 
90-130  also  authorizes  promotion  of  women  to 
the  grade  of  rear  admiral.  Such  a  promotion, 


however,  not  being  within  the  career  pattern, 
depends  on  two  circumstances:  the  Secretary  of 
the  Navy  must  make  a  determination  that  (1)  a 
position  is  of  sufficient  importance  and 
responsibility  to  require  an  incumbent  of  flag 
rank,  and  (2)  a  woman  is  as  equally  qualified  as 
a  man  to  perform  the  duties  of  that  position. 
There  is  no  minimum  quota  of  women  flag 
officers;  hence,  there  is  no  guarantee  that  a 
woman  will  attain  the  grade. 

Career  prospects  for  women  were  further 
improved  by  changes  in  the  system  of 
promotions.  Under  the  1947  act,  a  woman 
officer  became  eligible  for  consideration  for 
promotion  after  completing  prescribed  periods 
of  service  in  grade,  and  there  were  no  other 
limitations  as  to  whom  a  selection  board  could 
consider.  In  other  words,  because  one  was 
eligible  for  consideration  was  no  guarantee  she 
would  be  considered.  The  concept  of  failure  of 
selection  (up  or  out)  did  not  apply,  and  a 
woman  lieutenant  might  be  faced  with  career 
uncertainty  for  years. 

To  prevent  the  stagnation  of  young  officers 
in  junior  grades,  Public  Law  90-130  adopts  the 
promotion  zone  system  for  women  officers;  like 
their  male  contemporaries,  all  eligible  women 
within  a  stipulated  seniority  group  are  now 
considered  annually  for  promotion  to 
appropriate  grades.  Under  the  promotion  zone 
method,  women  officers  no  longer  face  the 
prospect  of  being  forced  out  of  service  simply 
because  they  were  not  considered  for 

Career  incentives  for  women  officers  are 
greatly  increased  by  Public  Law  90-130,  and 
opportunities  for  women  now  more  nearly 
approximate  those  of  men.  There  is  similarity  in 
the  opportunity  for  promotion  to  grades 
through  captain;  there  is  substantial  similarity  of 
promotion  procedures;  and  terms  governing 
involuntary  separation  are  basically  now  the 
same  for  women  as  for  men. 


In  the  assignment  of  officer  personnel   the 
Navy   is   influenced  by  needs  of  the  service, 

current  composition  of  the  officer  corps,  and 
the  professional  development  of  each  officer. 
Every  effort  is  made  to  place  officers  in  billets 
of  their  choice  while  still  following  practical 
considerations  of  service  needs  and  individual 

Service  need  is  simply  the  day-to-day 
requirement  of  Navy  activities  for  specific  grades 
with  certain  talents.  Professional  development 
has  a  dual  nature.  In  ordering  officers  to  varied 
types  of  duties  and  schools,  the  Navy  not  only  is 
furthering  its  own  mission  of  preparing  these 
officers  for  future  command  responsibilities  but 
also  is  performing  a  genuine  service  for  them  in 
filling  out  their  experience  and  thus  increasing 
their  promotional  prospects.  The  desires  of  the 
individual  officer  are  also  of  importance  as  they 
have  an  obvious  bearing  on  his/her  morale. 

Marital  and  dependent  status,  geographical 
and  fleet  preference,  school  requests,  and  other 
personal  considerations  play  an  important  part 
in  the  final  determination  of  duty  assignment. 

We  limit  our  discussion  in  this  section  to 
rotational  patterns  of  the  unrestricted  line 
(surface,  submarine,  aviation)  and  supply.  In 
these  patterns,  as  well  as  in  those  not 
mentioned,  a  common  factor  is  present.  Both 
the  individual  officer  and  his/her  succession  of 
detailing  officers  must  be  aware  that  only 
through  a  concentrated  and  continuing  effort  to 
develop  knowledge  and  experience  can  the 
proficiency  be  gained  that  will  see  the  officer 
successfully  through  rigors  of  responsibility  and 
challenge  of  command. 

With  few  exceptions,  orders  involving 
permanent  change  of  station  for  officers  are 
originated  by  the  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel.  The 
BUPERS  Manual  contains  basic  policy 
pertaining  to  officer  rotation.  This  policy  is 
concerned  with  varying  the  types  of  duty 
assignments,  inasmuch  as  this  is  the  basic 
requirement  in  developing  an  officer's 
capabilities  and  in  providing  the  officer  with  a 
full  career.  Deviations  from  basic  policy  are 
provided  as  necessary  to  meet  problems  that 
arise.  At  the  present  time,  these  occur  due  to  the 
increasing  size  of  the  shore  establishment  and 
the  shortage  of  "hard  core"  career  officers 


In  addition  to  the  requirements  for  rotation, 
assignment  patterns  reflect  the  need  for— 

1.  Educational    opportunities    for    overall 
career  value  or  for  utilization  in  a  particular 

2.  A  progression  of  responsibility. 

3.  Assignment     to     duty     with     Reserve 

4.  Assignment  to  duty  with  Joint  or  Allied 
staffs   or  with  the  Office  of  the  Secretary  of 

5.  Utilization  of  specialized  training. 

Many  officers  do  not  fully  realize  that  they 
have  primary  responsibility  for  their  own 
individual  career  planning.  There  are  several 
ways  to  indicate  preferences  to  the  assignment 
section  of  the  Bureau  of  Naval  Personnel. 

An  Officer  Preference  and  Personal 
Information  Card  is  completed  by  all 
commissioned  officers  on  initial  appointment 
and  upon  recall  to  active  duty.  This  card 
contains  a  wealth  of  information  that  is  very 
useful  to  the  detailing  officer.  It  is  construed  as 
a  current  reflection  of  the  individual  officer's 
preferences,  and  its  timely  and  accurate 
submission  is  extremely  important. 

Personal  letters  may  be  submitted  if 
circumstances  arise  which  are  not  appropriate 
for  inclusion  on  the  Preference  Card.  They  are 
answered  promptly  whenever  possible  and  the 
information  is  made  a  part  of  the  detailing 
record  and  is  acted  upon  if  practicable.  The 
letters  do  not  become  a  part  of  the  officer's 
permanent  record.  Amplifying  information  may 
also  be  submitted  on  a  5x7  card  attached  to 
the  Preference  Card.  This  procedure  is 
recommended  unless  a  reply  is  desired. 

Officers  desiring  special  courses  of 
instruction,  changes  of  duty,  clarification  of 
orders  or  date  of  release  from  active  duty, 
extensions  of  duty  in  present  assignment, 
transfer  to  or  retention  in  the  Regular  Navy, 
extensions  of  active  duty  beyond  expiration  of 
obligated  service,  etc.,  should  indicate  this  by  a 
letter  via  the  chain  of  command.  Such  letters 

become  a  permanent  part  of  an  officer's  record 
and  are  available  for  review  within  the  Bureau  of 
Naval  Personnel. 

When  in  the  area  of  Washington,  D.C.,  it  is 
advisable  for  an  officer  to  review  his  or  her 
fitness  report  and  correspondence  jacket  in  the 
Bureau  of  Naval  Personnel.  It  is  also  wise  to  visit 
the  respective  detail  officer  or  corps  sponsor  to 
review  and  plan  the  officer's  career,  obtain  the 
latest  information  concerning  promotions, 
postgraduate  instruction,  etc.,  and  exchange 
information  of  mutual  benefit. 


The  detailing  of  code  1 1 1 X  unrestricted  line 
officers  (figure  3-2)  is  directed  toward  qualifying 
them  for  surface  warfare  officers  and  command 
at  sea. 

Normally,  a  code  11 IX  officer  can  expect 
sea  duty  on  his  first  tour.  This  sea  duty  is 
usually  in  one  of  the  three  functional  areas  of 
operations,  engineering,  or  weapons.  The  type  of 
ship  that  he  will  serve  on  will  be  determined  by 
a  compromise  between  his  personal  preference 
and  the  current  needs  of  the  Operating  Forces 
when  he  is  detailed.  He  can  expect  to  remain 
aboard  ship  for  about  3  to  4  years.  In  general,  he 
will  remain  in  his  first  duty  station  about  1-1/2 
years.  If  during  this  tour  he  qualifies  for  a  more 
demanding  billet,  he  probably  will  be  reassigned 
to  such  a  billet  in  another  ship.  Officers  who 
have  a  basic  3-year  obligation  may  remain  in 
their  initial  duty  assignment,  be  assigned  to 
another  ship  or  staff,  or  may  be  ordered  to  duty 
ashore.  Depending  on  the  particular  situation, 
some  may  qualify  early  for  command  or  an 
executive  officer's  billet  aboard  a  small  fleet 
unit,  or  for  duty  with  an  afloat  staff. 

At  some  time  during  the  first  operational 
phase,  an  officer  may  be  ordered  to  a  functional 
school  to  help  him  qualify  for  duty  in  a  new 
functional  area  after  he  leaves  his  first  ship  and 
before  he  reports  to  the  next  one.  This  rotation, 
as  has  been  pointed  out,  takes  place  after  a 
period  of  1-1/2  years.  Normally  he  will  rotate  to 
a  different  type  ship,  perhaps  from  a  destroyer 
to  an  amphibious  type. 






5TH  SHORE:          •   SUBSPECIALTY 



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Figure  3-2.-Surface  warfare  officer  professional  development  path. 


At  the  completion  of  the  first  operational 
phase,  a  code  11 IX  officer  may  be  ordered  to 
technical,  n  on- technical,  or  professional 
education  under  the  Navy's  postgraduate 
educational  program.  This  education  normally  is 
conducted  at  the  Naval  Postgraduate  School, 
Monterey,  California,  although  certain  other 
courses  are  conducted  at  various  selected  civilian 
educational  institutions.  This  is  the  first 
subspeciality  and  educational  phase  of  an 
officer's  development.  The  officer  can  expect 
orders  to  a  shore  billet  which  is  allied  with  the 
training  he  has  received  when  he  next  rotates 

The  subspecialty  concept  is  an  integral  part 
of  career  development  and  was  adopted  to 
increase  the  depth  of  knowledge  of  unrestricted 
line  officers  in  specific  fields  and  to  better 
utilize  the  abilities  of  those  officers  in  meeting 
the  needs  of  the  Navy.  Subspecialty  is  defined  as 
a  particular  field  of  naval  endeavor,  other  than 
the  warfare  specialty,  or  a  significant 
qualification  in  one  of  these  fields  obtained 
through  a  combination  of  formal  education, 
functional  training,  and  practical  experience. 
Broad  areas  of  naval  warfare  and  qualifications 
such  as  aviation  and  submarines  are  not 
considered  subspecialties  but  as  the  unrestricted 
line  officer's  warfare  specialty  of  naval  warfare 
and  command  at  sea.  Subspecialty,  therefore, 
can  be  further  defined  as  a  secondary  career 
development  field. 

The  second  operational  phase  is  a  cruise  of  2 
to  3  years'  duration.  It  may  be  a  split  tour, 
depending  greatly  on  circumstances  of  the 
individual  officer's  career.  The  overall  aim  of 
this  phase  is  to  round  out  the  officer's  shipboard 
experience  and  qualifications  by  assignment  at 
the  department  head  level.  Many  officers  will 
attend  Surface  Warfare  School  prior  to  this 

The  second  subspecialty  and/or  educational 
phase  follows  this,  and  usually  consists  of  a 
planning  or  policy  position  in  the  shore 
establishment.  In  some  cases,  postgraduate 
instruction  is  obtained  during  this  tour. 

After  this  comes  the  first  advanced 
operational  phase,  the  third  subspecialty  and/or 
educational  phase,  the  second  advanced 

operational,  subspecialty,  and/or  educational, 
etc.,  as  indicated  in  figure  3-2.  With  each 
succeeding  phase  there  will  be  more  complex 
duties  and  a  higher  degree  of  responsibility, 
including  at  least  one  command  at  sea.  In  the 
final  development  phase  some  officers  end  their 
active  careers  and  retire,  while  others  go  on  to 
assume  the  responsibilities  of  flag  rank. 

For  a  code  1 1 2X  officer  qualified  for 
submarine  duty,  the  career  pattern  is  somewhat 
different  as  seen  in  figure  3-3.  After  graduation 
from  submarine  school,  he  usually  is  ordered  to 
an  initial  afloat  unit  tour.  His  subsequent 
assignment  depends  on  current  needs,  but 
normally  is  another  tour  in  a  different 
submarine.  He  may  then  be  ordered  ashore  for 
postgraduate  instruction,  administrative  duties, 
or  specialized  instruction  in  advanced  ordnance 
or  nucleonics.  The  second  tour  of  sea  duty,  if  he 
is  a  diesel-electric  officer,  will  likely  be  as  third 
officer,  with  the  aim  of  obtaining  executive 
officer  qualifications  at  the  tour's  end,  whereas 
if  he  is  a  nuclear-trained  officer,  it  will  likely  be 
as  a  nuclear  submarine  department  head.  After 
this  is  shore  duty  similar  to  the  first  advanced 
educational  phase  for  surface  officers.  His  next 
sea  tour  will  likely  be  as  commanding  officer  or 
executive  officer,  respectively,  of  a 
diesel-electric  or  nuclear  submarine,  as 
appropriate.  If  not  returned  to  surface  rotation 
after  a  tour  as  commanding  officer,  he  possibly 
will  have  duty  as  a  division  and  then  squadron 


Aviation  assignment  patterns  are  designed  to 
give  code  1310  officers  necessary  command 
qualification  for  aircraft  units  and  those  ships 
whose  mission  is  primarily  associated  with 
aviation  units.  Sea  and  shore  duty  assignments 
are  made  as  varied  as  possible  to  offer  ample 
opportunity  to  develop  the  background 
necessary  for  eventual  command  assignments. 

Figure  3-4  depicts  a  typical  career  pattern 
for  aviation  officers.  Upon  designation  as  naval 
aviators  or  flight  officers,  virtually  all  officers 
are  assigned  to  fleet  operational  squadrons  for  a 
2-1/2  year  tour.  This  tour  is  a  critical  period  of 




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Figure  3-3.— Typical  professional  development  pattern  for  submarine  warfare  officers. 


development  since  during  it  the  young  officer 
develops  his  reputation  as  a  professional,  highly 
skilled,  operational  naval  aviation  officer. 

Aviation  officers  coming  ashore  after  their 
initial  sea  duty  normally  are  serving  in  the  grade 
of  lieutenant.  Most  are  assigned  to  flying  duties 
in  a  carrier  replacement  air  wing  (CRAW)  or 
training  command  squadron.  The  remainder  are 
assigned  to  duties  in  the  aviation  shore 
establishment.  For  a  certain  percentage  of 
officers,  the  first  shore  tour  includes 
undergraduate  or  postgraduate  education. 

The  second  sea  tour  is  approximately  2-1/2 
years,  in  a  squadron,  ship,  staff,  or  overseas 

About  a  third  of  the  officers  rotating  ashore 
after  the  second  sea  tour  are  ordered  to  flying 
billets,  the  remainder  being  assigned  to  various 
shore  activities.  Officers  with  previous 
postgraduate  training  may  anticipate  duty 
appropriate  thereto.  Postgraduate  training  may 
be  made  available  to  those  who  did  not  receive  it 
during  their  first  tour. 

The  operational  command  development  and 
advanced  phases  entail  squadron  and  air  group 
command,  deep  draft  command,  attendance  at 
service  colleges,  assignments  to  Joint  and 
combined  staffs,  and  duties  in  the  Navy 
Department  and  other  governmental  activities. 
The  assignments  in  this  phase  are  dependent 



upon    career   needs   and  qualifications  of  the 
individuals,  and  the  needs  of  the  service. 


For  officers  of  the  staff  corps,  a  regular 
alternation  between  sea  and  shore  cannot  always 
be  effected.  The  normal  assignment  and  rotation 
sequence  may  be  modified  by  exigencies  of  the 
service  and  the  necessity  to  equalize  the 
character  of  total  service  performed  by  officers 
of  the  same  grades. 

Our  discussion  of  the  typical  staff  rotation 
pattern  is  confined  to  the  Supply  Corps.  The  SC 
career  development  program  (figure  3-5)  is 
considered  fairly  typical  of  assignment  and 
rotation  patterns  for  officers  of  all  the  staff 
corps.  The  program  is  established  to  develop 
proficiency  in  the  administration  of  supply 
operations  afloat  and  shore,  and  also  in  one  or 
more  of  the  functional  areas  of  financial 

management,  clothing  and  textiles,  fuel 
distribution,  merchandising,  procurement,  food 
service,  system  inventory  management,  and 
transportation  management.  Because  it  is 
necessary  to  have  a  continuous  input  of  officers 
into  various  functional  proficiency  areas  to 
replace  normal  losses,  there  is  always  ample 
opportunity  for  new  officers  to  enter  these 
fields.  The  usual  procedure  is  for  the  officer  to 
indicate  choice  upon  promotion  to  lieutenant, 
the  preference  being  considered  in  making  duty 
assignments  thereafter. 

Ensigns  and  lieutenants  junior  grade  follow  a 
sequence  of  assignments  aimed  at  giving  them  a 
broad  basic  training.  In  the  grades  of  lieutenant 
and  lieutenant  commander,  emphasis  is  on 
technical  development  in  supply  and  fiscal 
matters  and  in  the  functional  specialty.  Every 
effort  is  made  to  divide  equally  the  time  spent  in 
assignments  between  the  two  areas.  In  the  grades 
of  commander  and  captain,  assignments  are  to 
positions  of  greater  responsibility,  including 
senior  staff  and  commanding  officer  billets. 


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For  the  majority  of  Unrestricted  Line  (URL) 
women  officers  a  Navy  career  does  not 
encompass  association  with  a  warfare  specialty. 
But  with  legislative  change-anticipated  in  the 
not  too  distant  future -URL  women  officers  will 
be  competing  with  warfare  specialists  for 
promotions.  Consequently,  in  order  for  the 
woman  officer  to  remain  promotionally 
competitive,  her  successive  assignments  should 
progress  through  levels  of  responsibility  and 
authority  which  are  essentially  equivalent  to 
those  experienced  by  warfare  specialists  (figure 


Any  career  Navy  officer  who,  after  being 
commissioned,  feels  that  the  academic  life  is 
over  is  sadly  mistaken.  Formal  education  is  a 

recurring  part  of  the  entire  career,  and  the  use 
the  officer  makes  of  it  determines  to  a  great 
measure  success  of  a  naval  officer. 

There  are  two  primary  reasons  behind 
the  importance  that  the  Navy  puts  on  formal 
officer  education.  First  of  all,  the  overall  mission 
of  the  Navy,  and  the  "hardware"  necessary  for 
this  mission,  have  increased  tremendously  in 
scope  and  complexity.  The  people  primarily 
responsible  for  this  mission  must  be  thoroughly 
trained.  The  second  — and  equally 
important -reason  lies  in  the  fact  that  the 
eventual  aim  of  every  career  officer  is  to 
command.  Succession  to  command  presumes  a 
sound  knowledge  of  the  operations  of  the  unit 
to  be  commanded. 


It  is  difficult  to  acquire  that  knowledge 
without  the  benefit  of  specialized,  formal 
training.  This  is  not  the  only  training  that  is 
necessary  but  it  is  an  invaluable  starting  point.  It 

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Figure  3-5.-Typical  professional  development  pattern  for  supply  corps  officers. 


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Figure   3-6.— Woman   officer   professional    development 

expanded    with    the    knowledge    gained    from 
on-the-job  experience. 

The  Catalog  of  Navy  Training  Courses 
(CANTRAC),  NAVEDTRA  10500,  contains  a 
complete  list  of  instruction  provided  for  officers 
and  enlisted  personnel  by  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Education  and  Training.  In  general,  there  are 
three  types  of  courses: 

1 .  Officer  professional  courses  are  designed 
for  general  professional  development,  included, 
for  example,  are  the  Command  and  Staff  Course 
conducted  at  the  Naval  War  College,  Newport, 
R.I.,  and   Defense   Language   Institute   courses 
held  in  Monterey,  California. 

2.  Officer  skill  courses  that  train  an  officer 
for,  or  enhance  his  capability  in,  some  skill  or 
speciality.  This  category  includes  all  courses  of 
instruction     not     considered     professional     in 

3.  Enlisted  skill  courses,  which  are  similar 
in  purpose  to  officer  skill  courses. 

Functional  Training 

Functional  training  comprises  those  schools 
that  provide  training  to  both  enlisted  personnel 
and  officers  in  the  performance  of  specialized 
tasks  or  functions  which,  in  general,  are  not 
normal  to  rating  training  of  enlisted  members  or 
professional  training  of  officers.  Types  of 
functional  programs  are: 

1.  Submarine  and  nuclear  power  training, 
including  training  on  missiles  launchable  from 
submarines  and  surface  ships. 

2.  Fleet  schools  ashore.  These  principally 
provide     training     on     antisubmarine     and 
antiaircraft  weapons,  other  shipboard  weapons, 
and  amphibious  and  other  operations. 

3.  Specialized    training    in    such    areas   as 
harbor    defense,    mine    warfare,    mobilization 
coordination,  damage  control,  firefighting,  and 
cold  weather  operations. 

Staff  Corps  Training 

All  newly  commissioned  Supply  Corps 
officers  are  ordered  to  the  Navy  Supply  Corps 
School,  Athens,  Georgia  where  they  undergo  a 



6-month  Basic  Qualification  Course.  To  prepare 
for  or  supplement  on-the-job  experience,  a 
number  of  relatively  short  functional  training 
courses  are  available.  These  include,  among 
others,  contract  administration,  food  service 
supervision,  property  disposal,  and  commissary 
and  Navy  Exchange  management. 

The  professional  education  and  training  of 
Medical  Department  personnel  is  a  responsibility 
of  the  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Medicine  and 
Surgery.  All  Medical,  Dental,  and  Nurse  Corps 
officers,  and  certain  officers  of  the  Medical 
Service  Corps,  acquire  formal  academic  and 
professional  backgrounds  at  college  and 
professional  schools  before  entering  on  active 
duty.  In-service  training  is  provided  to  increase 
their  professional  growth  and  further  their 
specialty  and  subspecialty  development. 

Catholic,  Protestant,  and  Jewish  clergymen 
who  comprise  the  Navy  Chaplain  Corps  are  not 
commissioned  until  they  have  completed  college 
and  seminary  training.  After  about  5  years  of 
commissioned  service,  a  chaplain  may  apply  for 
and,  upon  selection,  be  assigned  to  1  academic 
year  of  postgraduate  training  in  a  recognized 
theological  institution.  To  further  their 
professional  competence,  many  chaplains  take 
advantage  of  educational  resources  in  the  areas 
in  which  they  are  stationed. 

Normally,  Civil  Engineer  Corps  officers  are 
graduates  of  accredited  institutions  in  one  of  the 
engineering  fields  such  as  civil,  nuclear, 
electrical,  architectural,  or  construction.  All 
newly  commissioned  CEC  officers  attend  the 
CEC  Officer  School,  Port  Hueneme,  Calif.  Also 
available  at  that  school  are  courses  in  public 
works,  construction  engineering,  atomic  defense, 
disaster  engineering,  and  others. 

Members  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General's 
Corps  commissioned  after  they  have  become 
accredited  members  of  the  bar  are  ordered  to 
Newport,  R.I.,  where  they  receive  6  weeks  of 
officer  indoctrination  plus  8  weeks  of  training  at 
the  Naval  Justice  School.  Active  duty  officers 
may  be  selected  to  attend  law  school  in 
accordance  with  SECNAVINST  1520.7,  and 
then  become  JAGC  officers. 

Aviation  and 
Submarine  Training 

Selections  of  officers  for  flight  training  are 
made  by  the  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel  from 
officers  who  make  application  and  who  are 
physically  qualified.  Detailed  information 
concerning  eligibility  requirements  and 
application  procedures  for  flight  training  is 
published  in  the  Navy  Directives  System. 

Instructions  for  requesting  submarine 
training  are  issued  in  the  Bureau  of  Naval 
Personnel  Manual. 

Each  application  must  be  accompanied  by  a 
statement  from  a  medical  officer  that  the 
applicant  is  physically  qualified  in  accordance 
with  existing  instructions  of  the  Bureau  of 
Medicine  and  Surgery.  Officers  selected  are 
issued  permanent  duty  orders.  Classes  assemble 
at  the  Submarine  Base,  New  London,  Conn. 


In  addition  to  training  in  areas  of  particular 
naval  interest,  the  Navy's  officer-education 
program  embraces  many  formal  academic 
courses  of  instruction.  Every  officer  is  afforded 
opportunities  to  grow  professionally  in  order  to 
assume  progressively  broader  responsibilities. 

Undergraduate  Education 

The  goal  of  the  College  Degree  Program  is  to 
raise  the  educational  level  of  certain  officers  not 
holding  baccalaureate  degrees,  thus  increasing 
the  number  of  persons  that  may  qualify  for 
graduate  education. 

Although  many  officers  voluntarily  continue 
their  academic  education  during  off-duty  hours, 
they  are  unable  to  qualify  for  a  degree  because 
most  colleges  and  universities  require  that  the 
last  academic  year  (about  30  semester  hours)  be 
completed  in  residence.  The  College  Degree 
Program  attempts  to  fill  the  need  of  some  of 
those  so  handicapped.  The  program  is  available 
to  eligible  warrant  and  commissioned  officers 
(except  Medical  Corps  and  Nurse  Corps)  through 
the  grade  of  captain  who  have  earned  sufficient 


redits  to  make  it  possible  for  them  to  obtain  a 
accalaureate  degree  in  a  period  not  to  exceed 
8  consecutive  months  through  full-time  study 
t  a  civilian  educational  institution.  Individual 
pplications  are  required;  those  chosen  by 
election  board  are  responsible  for  gaining 
dmission  to  the  school  of  their  choice.  Officers 
articipating  in  the  program  receive  regular  pay 
id  allowances,  and  bear  the  full  cost  of  tuition 
id  other  school  expenses.  Procedures  for 
pplying  are  contained  in  CNETINST  1520.4 

ostgraduate  Education 

The  goal  of  the  Navy  postgraduate 
ducational  program  is  to  meet  billet 
squirements  by  providing  necessary 
ostgraduate  education  for  qualified  active  duty 
fficers.  The  program  is  designed  to  capitalize 
pon  the  individual  officer's  abilities  and 
otential  by  extension  of  studies  to  include 
Decialized  areas,  and  to  equip  some  officers 
ith  postgraduate  education  at  the  master's  and 
octor's  degree  level,  in  both  technical  and 
ontechnical  fields  of  study. 

'PS  conducts  for  the  Chief  of  Naval  Education 
nd  Training  the  on-duty  postgraduate 
du  cation  of  naval  officers  (except  for 
ppropriate  curricula  provided  by  other 
'epartment  of  Defense  components).  Some 
fficers  study  at  civilian  universities  such  as  the 
niversity  of  California  or  Massachusetts 
istitute  of  Technology  for  highly  advanced 
;chnical  study. 

NPS  offers  advanced  technical  curricula  in 
uch  diverse  fields  as  aeronautics, 
Dmmunications,  electronics,  data  processing, 
•capons  engineering,  and  operations  analysis, 
n  engineering  science  curriculum  offers  basic 
reparatory  programs  according  to  the 
iucational  backgrounds  of  officers  attending.  A 
-year  nontechnical  naval  management 
.irriculum  is  designed  to  improve  students' 
ipabilities  for  organizing  and  directing  activities 
i  which  resources  of  men,  money,  and  materials 
re  combined  to  accomplish  Navy  objectives. 

Those  who  meet  the  criteria  for 
ostgraduate  education  at  NPS  are,  for  the  most 

part,  limited  to  obtaining  a  master's  (MA  or  MS) 
degree.  Further  education  ending  in  a  doctoral 
degree  is  available  only  to  exceptionally 
competent  officers. 

FORCES.— Many  professional  courses  are 
available  for  the  mid-career  and  senior  officers 
through  the  Naval  War  College;  Joint  colleges, 
such  as  the  National  War  College  and  Industrial 
College  of  the  Armed  Forces;  and  various  staff 
colleges  and  senior  officer  courses  of  the  other 
services.  Each  service  has  at  least  one  "think 
tank,"  and  each  may  be  attended  by  a  limited 
number  of  officers  from  the  sister  services.  A 
common  purpose  of  the  colleges  is  to  prepare 
officers  for  major  tactical  command,  Joint  and 
combined  staffs,  and  for  policy-making  billets  in 
the  shore  establishment. 

There  are  two  levels  of  study  available  at  the 
various  service  colleges:  (1)  The  "Operation, 
Staff,  and  Command"  courses  that  prepare 
mid-career  officers  (in  general,  LCDR  and  CDR) 
for  the  exercise  of  command  and  staff  duties; 
and  (2)  The  senior  college  courses,  largely  a 
continuation  of  (1),  that  provide  CDRs  and 
CAPTs  with  a  review  of  essentials  in  the  exercise 
of  command  and  a  study  of  advanced  phases  of 
strategic  warfare,  management  and  tactics. 

Eligible  officers  are  automatically  considered 
for  selection  for  one  of  the  service  colleges  as 
they  become  available.  Eligibility  criteria  vary 
according  to  designator,  and  availability  for  the 
assignment  depends  on  planned  rotation. 
Eligible  year  groups  are  screened  in  their 
entirety  by  the  annual  Service  Colleges  Selection 
Board  prior  to  the  10th,  16th,  and  21st  years  of 
commissioned  service.  The  10th  year  of  service 
marks  selection  for  junior  colleges,  for 
attendance  during  the  10-1 6th  years.  The  16th 
year  point  is  the  initial  selection  for  senior 
colleges  during  the  16th-20th  years.  The 
21st-year  point  is  the  final  selection  for 
attendance  at  a  senior  college  during  the 

The  selection  board  regards  all  junior  and 
senior  colleges  equally;  that  is,  selectees  may  be 
ordered  to  any  college  appropriate  to  their  year 



Separate  and  apart  from  the  Navy's  regular 
postgraduate  educational  program  is  a  specia 
program  for  a  limited  number  of  highly  qualified 
junior  officers.  The  Junior  Line  Officer 
Advanced  Educational  (better  known  as  Burke) 
Program  provides  master-degree-level  education 
to  the  majority  of  selected  students.  Candidates 
for  the  program  are  selected  during  their  senior 
midshipman  year  at  the  Naval  Academy  or  in 
the  NROTC  program.  The  Burke  Program 
involves  an  operational  sea  tour  of  2  years 
before  commencing  graduate  work. 

partment of  Defense  sponsors  the  Defense 
Intelligence  School  curriculum. 

The  Defense  Intelligence  curriculum 
provides  instruction  in  basic  principles  and 
techniques  of  intelligence  operations.  Upon 
graduation,  qualified  officers  may  continue  their 
instruction  in  a  foreign  language  and  area  study 
program  at  the  Defense  Language  Institute. 

Law  87-555  (passed  in  July  1962),  selected 
personnel  may  request  permission  to  accept 
academic  honors  conferred  by  scholarships, 
fellowships,  and  grants  including,  with  certain 
restrictions,  associated  financial  benefits. 
Approval  to  accept  such  an  honor  is  based  on 
needs  of  the  service,  and  a  successful  candidate 
is  ordered  to  the  appropriate  school  or  activity 
in  an  active  duty  status.  Procedures  for  applying 
are  contained  in  SECNAVINST  1500.4  series. 


Correspondence  courses  were  first  used  as  a 
method  of  instruction  in  1914  and  have 
increased  in  number  and  scope  since  that  time. 
They  have  achieved  full  recognition  as  an 
effective  method  of  instruction  and  offer  certain 
unique  advantages: 

1.  The  student  gets  instruction  that  may 
not  be  available  through  other  means.  However 
remote   he    may    be   from    training   facilities, 
correspondence  courses  are  still  available  to  him. 

2.  Correspondence   courses   can  be  fitted 
easily  into  a  busy  work  schedule. 

3.  The  student  can  set  his  own  pace.  If  he 
doesn't  understand  a  lesson  completely,  he  is 
under  no   pressure   to   go    on    until   he  does 

4.  The  student  can  plan  his  course  of  study 
systematically,  avoiding  last  minute  cramming, 

5.  Active    duty    personnel    engaged    in  a 
particular  technical  field  can  study  theory  and 
principles    and     utilize     them     by     practical 
application.     In     this    sense,     correspondence 
courses  provide  a  good  blend  of  the  theoretical 
and  practical. 

In  addition,  officer  correspondence  courses 
are  an  important  part  of  an  officer's  education, 
Courses  are  available  from  seven  main  sources: 
(1)  Naval  Education  and  Training  Program 
Development  Center  (2)  Naval  Security  Group, 
(3)  Defense  Intelligence  School,  (4)  Naval  War 
College,  (5)  Naval  Medical  School,  (6)  Naval 
Dental  School,  and  (7)  The  Industrial  College  of 
the  Armed  Forces. 


All  off-duty  education  programs  are 
centralized  under  the  Navy  Campus  For 
Achievement.  Officially  implemented  in  March 
1973,  the  Navy  Campus  For  Achievement  brings 
coordination,  structure,  and  financial 
management  to  such  programs  as  Tuition 
Assistance,  the  Program  for  Afloat  College 
Education  (PACE),  and  Instructor  Hire.  In  the 
past,  these  programs  had  been  separately 
administered.  A  College  Degree  Component  is 
also  available  through  the  NCFA  management 

The  Navy  Campus  For  Achievement  also 
makes  non-Navy  funded  programs  available  to 
Navy  personnel,  such  as  the  services  of  the 
Defense  Activity  for  Nontraditional  Education 
Support  (D ANTES),  the  Predischarge  Education 
Program  (PREP),  the  In-service  G.I.  Bill,  and  the 
Servicemen's  Opportunity  College. 

Educational  Advisors 

The  backbone  of  the  Navy  Campus  For 
Achievement  is  a  network  of  civilian 
professional  Educational  Advisors.  These 


Educational  Advisors  are  located  or  available  in 
all  areas  of  Navy  personnel  concentration.  They 
provide  educational  counseling  services  to 
individual  Navy  personnel  in  person  or  by 
telephone  or  letter.  For  shipboard  personnel, 
Educational  Advisors  are  available  at  all  large 

NCFA  Educational  Advisors  also  provide 
advice  and  assistance  to  commanding  officers 
regarding  off-duty  educational  programs  on  base 
or  station  and  aboard  ship.  They  maintain 
contact  with  civilian  educational  institutions 
attended  by  Navy  personnel.  Broadly  speaking, 
NCFA  Educational  Advisors  are  the  experts  on 
all  of  the  programs  under  the  management 
umbrella  of  the  Navy  Campus  For  Achievement 
and  associated  with  off-duty  education.  They 
render  advice  and  assistance  to  Career 
Counselors  and  Educational  Services  Officers 
and  act  upon  referrals  from  the  latter  on 
educational  matters. 

Servicemen's  Opportunity 
College  (SOC) 

The  Servicemen's  Opportunity  College 
(SOC)  is  a  group  of  approximately  270  two-year 
and  four-year  institutions  of  higher  learning  that 
are  pledged  to  follow  general  criteria  in  support 
of  college  educational  opportunities  for  service 
personnel.  These  criteria  include  the  adoption  of 
liberal  entrance  requirements,  reduced  residency 
for  degrees,  generous  credit  transfer,  maximum 
recognition  of  educational  experiences  obtained 
in  the  armed  services,  and  the  expansion  of 
nontraditional  educational  delivery  systems. 

NCFA  Educational  Advisors  will  assist  a 
Navy  member  in  locating  the  nearest  and  most 
appropriate  SOC  institution.  Unfortunately, 
many  SOC  institutions  are  not  in  proximity  to 
Navy  bases  and  stations  and,  of  course,  are  not 
available  to  seagoing  personnel.  In  addition,  the 
SOC  criteria  mentioned  above  are  interpreted 
differently  by  SOC  institutions,  particularly 
"reduced  residency."  While  the  Navy  Campus 
For  Achievement  supports  the  concept  of  SOC 
and  urges  its  use,  it  should  be  recognized  that 
many  Navy  personnel  need  a  more  definite 
commitment  from  a  college  or  university  than  is 

offered  by  many  SOC  institutions.  In  response 
to  very  special  academic  needs  of  many  Navy 
personnel,  the  Navy  Campus  For  Achievement 
has  asked  SOC  institutions  in  several  specific 
locations  to  define  SOC  criteria  more  exactly  for 
the  benefit  of  Navy  personnel.  These  special 
SOC  institutions  constitute  the  NCFA  degree 

NCFA  Degree  Component 

The  degree  component  of  the  NCFA  enables 
Navy  personnel  to  obtain  college  degrees  or 
certificates  during  off-duty  hours.  Frequent 
transfers  and  tours  at  sea  were  not  compatible 
with  academic  accomplishment  until  the  advent 
of  the  NCFA  degree  component. 

The  Navy  Campus  For  Achievement  has 
agreements  with  a  number  of  civilian  colleges 
and  universities  to  eliminate  the  roadblocks  that 
have  always  hampered  a  Navy  man  or  woman 
from  earning  a  college  degree  or  certificate. 
NCFA  degree-component  colleges  and 
universities  have  recognized  the  academic  plight 
of  the  Navy  man  or  woman.  They  are  all  located 
near  Navy  bases  and  stations  and  subscribe  to 
the  following  conditions: 

a.  To  accept  all  credits  earned   at  other 
regionally    accredited    institutions    which    are 
applicable  to  the  academic  major  of  the  Navy 

b.  To  eliminate  residency  as  a  requirement 
for  a  degree  or  certificate. 

c.  To  maintain  a  transcript  on  the  Navy 
student  even  if  he  or  she  is  not  in  residence. 

d.  To  accept  up  to  75%  of  the  requirements 
for  a  degree  or  certificate  from  nontraditional 
sources;     for     example,     the     College     Level 
Examination  Program  (CLEP),  the  service  school 
credit     recommendations     of     the     American 
Council     on     Education,     validated     work 
experience,  correspondence  courses  offered  by 
accredited   colleges  and  universities,  extension 
courses    offered    by    accredited    colleges    and 
universities,  etc. 

Any  Navy  man  or  woman  who  wants  to  take 
advantage  of  the  NCFA  degree  component  need 


only  contact  an  NCFA  Educational  Advisor, 
either  individually  or  through  his  educational 
services  officer  or  career  counselor.  The  NCFA 
Educational  Advisor  will  study  the  individual's 
work  and  school  record  and  will  suggest  a 
program  and  an  NCFA  degree  component 
institution.  The  NCFA  Educatonal  Advisor  will 
then  bring  the  Navy  student  and  the  institution 
together  as  parties  to  an  "NCFA  letter  of 
agreement."  This  letter  of  agreement  is  an 
academic  contract  between  the  institution  and 
the  Navy  student. 

Specifically,  the  NCFA  letter  of  agreement  is 
a  two-part  instrument.  Part  I  sets  forth  the 
standard  conditions  mentioned  above.  The  Navy 
student  agrees  to  pay  a  one-time  fee  for  the 
letter  of  agreement  and  a  small  annual  fee  for 
maintaining  the  transcript  when  he  is  not  in 

Part  II  of  the  letter  of  agreement  documents 
the  accepted  credits  earned  by  the  Navy  student 
prior  to  the  date  of  the  letter  and  specifies  those 
courses  which  must  be  completed  at  any 
accredited  institution  before  a  degree  or 
certificate  is  granted.  If  the  Navy  student  is 
transferred,  the  parent  institution  agrees  to 
accept  comparable  courses  completed  at  other 
accredited  institutions  on  the  basis  of  prior 
approval.  When  the  course  requirements 
specified  in  Part  II  of  the  letter  of  agreement 
have  been  met,  the  parent  institution  grants  the 
degree  or  certificate.  It  is  possible  for  a  Navy 
student  to  earn  a  degree  or  certificate  without 
ever  setting  foot  on  the  campus  of  the 
institution  with  which  he  has  entered  into  an 
NCFA  letter  of  agreement. 

Tuition  Assistance 

To  help  Navy  students  realize  their 
educational  ambitions  during  off-duty  time,  the 
Navy  Campus  For  Achievement  may  pay  up  to 
IS^c  of  tuition  costs. 

Before  tuition  assistance  is  approved,  the 
institution  that  the  Navy  student  wishes  to 
attend  must  be  accredited.  Courses  and 
programs  that  have  been  planned  with  the 
guidance  and  cooperation  of  an  NCFA 
Educational  Advisor  are  assured  of  making  the 

best  use  of  available  tuition  assistance  money 
and  are  assured  of  supporting  the  Navy's  needs. 
A  Navy  student  who  has  entered  into  an  NCFA 
letter  of  agreement  with  an  NCFA 
degree-component  institution  is  assured  of  a 
planned  program  and  of  consideration  for 
tuition  assistance. 

Tuition  assistance,  however,  is  not  limited  to 
college  courses  and  programs.  A  Navy  man  or 
woman  who  is  motivated  for  vocational, 
technical,  or  trade  courses  may  receive  tuition 
assistance  if  the  course  supports  his  current 
rating  or  Navy  Enlisted  Classification,  fills  a 
current  Navy  need,  or  meets  his  career 

Although  the  Navy  Campus  For 
Achievement  may  provide  tuition  assistance  up 
to  a  maximum  of  75%  of  tuition,  there  are 
course-load  limitations.  If  the  course  is  for 
college  credit,  the  Navy  student  is  limited  to  10 
academic  hours  per  semester  or  its  quarter-hour 
equivalent.  If  a  vocational,  technical,  or  trade 
course,  the  Navy  student  is  limited  to  1 5  clock 
hours  per  week  or  270  clock  hours  per  1 8-week 
course  increment. 

Officers  are  required  to  remain  on  active 
duty  for  2  years  following  completion  of  a 
course  for  which  they  accept  tuition  assistance. 
Enlisted  personnel  must  have  sufficient  time 
remaining  in  their  enlistments  to  complete 
courses  for  which  tuition  assistance  has  been 

Program  for  Afloat 
College  Education  (PACE) 

The  Navy  Campus  For  Achievement  also 
provides  a  shipboard  education  program  for 
college  credit.  In  this  program,  called  the 
Program  for  Afloat  College  Education  (PACE), 
the  Navy  student  assigned  to  a  ship  pays  only 
for  his  books,  supplies,  and  an  occasional 
enrollment  fee  out  of  his  own  pocket.  The  Navy 
Campus  For  Achievment  pays  the  entire  cost  of 
the  tuition. 

PACE  courses  are  taught  by  seagoing 
professors.  These  college-level  professors  have 
been  certified  as  faculty  members  of  an 


accredited  institution  of  higher  learning  with 
which  the  Navy  Campus  For  Achievement  has  a 
contract.  By  the  terms  of  the  contract  with  the 
Navy,  the  instructor  is  required  to  be  present  for 
a  specific  number  of  hours  during  each  course. 
If  10  or  more  personnel  aboard  ship  need  a 
specific  course  to  fulfill  an  educational 
objective,  the  commanding  officer  can  request, 
with  the  assistance  of  an  NCFA  Educational 
Advisor,  the  assignment  of  a  PACE  instructor. 

In-Service  G.I.  Bill 

Personnel  on  active  duty  before  the  end  of 
fiscal  year  1976  may  also  defray  the  cost  of 
their  off-duty  education  by  using  the  in-service 
provisions  of  the  Veterans  Readjustment 
Assistance  Act  (commonly  called  the  G.I.  Bill). 
The  in-service  benefits  of  the  G.I.  Bill  provide 
educational  assistance  to  servicemen  who  have 
been  on  active  duty  for  more  than  1 80  days. 

While  on  active  duty,  a  serviceman  has 
earned  educational  benefits  at  the  rate  of  1-1/2 
months  of  education  for  each  month  of  service 
up  to  a  maximum  of  36  months.  When  a 
serviceman  attends  an  institution  on  a  part-time 
basis  during  off-duty  time,  the  expenditure  of 
this  entitlement  would  be  scaled  down 
accordingly.  For  example,  if  a  member  enrolled 
in  one  3-semester-hour  course,  he  would  be 
charged  for  only  1 ,  rather  than  4,  educational 
months  of  his  entitlement.  Accordingly,  he 
would  receive  only  one-fourth  of  the  maximum 
monthly  compensation  or  an  amount  sufficient 
to  pay  his  tuition,  whichever  is  less.  A 
serviceman  receives  no  in-service  G.I.  Bill 
compensation  for  dependents. 

Educational  assistance  under  the  in-service 
provisions  of  the  G.I.  Bill  has  certain  advantages 
over  the  Navy  Tuition  Assistance  Program. 
Unlike  the  latter,  it  is  a  specific  entitlement  not 
subject  to  budgetary  fluctuations.  Further,  it  is 
available  for  a  wider  range  of  courses,  including 
vocational  correspondence  courses. 

officers  for  an  Instructor  Hire  Program.  The 
Instructor  Hire  Program  is  designed  to  provide  a 
commanding  officer  with  the  means  to  hire  a 
civilian  instructor  for  teaching  any  subject  which 
is  of  legitimate  interest  to  1 0  or  more  personnel 
of  the  command.  Courses  may  be  conducted  at 
the  high  school,  college,  or  technical  school 

In  the  past,  the  Instructor  Hire  Program  has 
been  used  to  prepare  Navy  personnel  for 
equivalency  examinations  at  the  high  school  and 
college  levels.  Commanding  officers  have  used 
the  Instructor  Hire  Program  to  offer  native 
language  courses  in  overseas  locations.  The 
Instructor  Hire  Program  has  been  used  to  offer 
courses  in  speedreading  and  for  instruction  in 
English  writing  and  reading  for  those  for  whom 
English  is  a  second  language. 

Defense  Activity  For 
N  on  traditional  Education 
Support  (D ANTES) 

Through  NCFA  Educational  Advisors,  the 
services  of  DANTES  are  made  available  to  Navy 
personnel.  DANTES  provides  high  school 
equivalency  tests  free  of  charge  to  overseas 
personnel  and  to  most  seagoing  personnel. 
NCFA  Educational  Advisors  and  designated 
educational  services  officers  may  also  obtain 
CLEP  (College  Level  Examination  Program) 
tests  from  DANTES  for  free-of-charge 
administration  to  Navy  personnel.  CLEP  tests 
are  widely  used  to  earn  college  credit  in  lieu  of 
classroom  study.  NCFA  Educational  Advisors 
also  make  wide  use  of  a  special  catalog  prepared 
by  DANTES  which  outlines  many  self-study 
opportunities  at  the  college,  high  school,  and 
vocational-technical  levels. 

The  educational  programs  offered  by  the 
Navy  are  constantly  changing  as  the  need  for 
these  programs  change.  Up-to-date  information 
on  the  current  programs  can  be  obtained  from 
the  enlisted  Navy  counselor. 

Instructor  Hire 

The  Navy   Campus  For  Achievement  also 
provides  funds  and  assistance  to  commanding 


Two  general  statements  can  safely  be  made 
about  military  pay.  Few,  if  any,  people  become 



wealthy  on  the  basis  of  their  military  pay  alone. 
On  the  other  hand,  if  budgeted  wisely,  military 
pay  provides  a  comfortable  standard  of  living. 

From  a  career  standpoint,  there  are  certain 
factors  to  keep  in  mind  when  making 
dollar-for-dollar  comparisons  of  military  and 
civilian  pay.  Military  pay  is  guaranteed  and 
predictable.  The  current  trend  in  military  pay  is 
upward.  It  should  be  pointed  out  that  periods  of 
business  recession  do  not  adversely  affect 
military  pay. 

A  portion  of  the  total  military  pay  is  not 
taxable,  and  provisions  are  made  for  additional 
pay  for  various  forms  of  special  or  hazardous 


Many  publications  contain  descriptions  of 
the  entire  matter  of  military  pay.  Our  purpose 
here  is  to  give  an  overview  and  to  define  and 
briefly  discuss  elements  that  compose  the  total 
pay  structure. 

Commissioned  officers  and  warrant  officers 
are  assigned  by  law  to  pay  grades  on  the  basis  of 
the  grades  in  which  they  are  serving,  whether 
under  temporary  or  permanent  appointment. 
Enlisted  personnel,  on  the  other  hand,  are 
assigned  to  pay  grades  by  the  Secretary  of  the 


Basic  pay,  which  accrues  for  all  personnel  on 
the  basis  of  pay  grade  and  cumulative  years  of 
service,  is  the  major  portion  of  a  person's  total 
pay.  The  cumulative  years  of  service  may  have 
been  in  any  branch  of  the  armed  service  or  their 
Reserve  components. 

Special  pay  is  added  compensation  received 
for  performing  special  duties.  For  officers, 
"special  duty"  is  limited  to  medical  and  dental 
billets,  and  duties  involving  diving  and  coming 
under  hostile  fire.  Special  pay  for  doctors  and 
dentists  is  prorated  on  the  number  of  years  they 
have  been  on  active  duty  (although  there  is  also 
a  Special  Continuation  Pay  for  certain  medical 
officers  serving  in  critical  specialties).  Hostile  fire 
pay  and  diving  pay  involve  flat  monthly  sums 
regardless  of  grade  or  years  of  service.  As  a 
matter  of  interest,  hostile  fire  pay  is  not  payable 
in  time  of  war  declared  by  Congress. 

Incentive  pay,  prorated  according  to  grade 
and  years  of  service,  is  additional  pay  received 
for  performing  hazardous  duty.  Included  in  this 
category  are  flight  pay  for  both  crew  and 
noncrew  members,  submarine  pay,  and  extra 
pay  received  for  parachute,  aircraft  carrier  flight 
deck,  explosive  demolition,  experimental  stress, 
and  leprosarium  duty. 


An  allowance  is  a  contribution  or  its 
equivalent  "in  kind"  to  help  meet  expenses 
incurred  as  the  result  of  membership  in  the  naval 


An  officer  is  entitled  to  a  monthly  allowance 
for  subsistence  without  regard  to  grade  or 
dependency  status.  All  officers,  whether  on 
board  ship  or  ashore,  whether  married  or  single, 
receive  a  subsistence  allowance  and  pay  their 
own  mess  bills. 


An  officer  without  dependents  receives  a 
quarters  allowance  except  when  Government 
quarters  are  available.  Consequently,  if  he  is 
assigned  to  duty  at  sea,  or  to  a  station  where 
bachelor  officer  quarters  (BOQ)  are  available,  he 
does  not  receive  a  quarters  allowance. 

An  officer  with  dependents  is  allowed  a 
quarters  allowance  regardless  of  whether  he  is 
serving  ashore,  at  sea,  or  overseas,  unless 
Government  quarters  have  been  provided  for 
him  and  his  dependents. 


Men  with  dependents  are  allowed  dislocation 
pay  upon  a  permanent  change  of  station.  It  is 
paid  to  help  defray  the  abnormal  expenses 
incurred  in  such  a  move.  The  amount  is  equal  to 
1  month's  basic  allowance  for  quarters  to  which 
the  person  is  entitled. 


LJiapier  j— iruc, 


There  are  additional  allowances  paid  for 
such  things  as  initial  uniform  allowance,  mileage 
expenses  in  traveling  under  orders,  and  per  diem 
payments  for  temporary  additional  duty.  Their 
specifications  differ,  but  the  basic  idea  is  the 
same:  a  temporary  payment  to  help  defray 
expenses  of  an  unusual  nature  arising  from 
official  duty. 


From  the  commencement  of  active  duty,  a 
naval  officer  is  entitled  to  many  valuable 
benefits.  Those  considered  traditional  include 
medical  and  dental  care,  exchange  and 
commissary  privileges,  various  assistance 
programs,  and  retirement,  among  others.  It  is 
estimated  that  benefits  add  about  15%  to  an 
individual's  pay. 


Medical  and  dental  care  are  available  to  all 
members  of  the  armed  services  on  active  duty. 
Regardless  of  where  an  individual  is  stationed, 
there  is  immediate  access  to  full  and  complete 
care  through  the  facilities  of  all  the  Armed 
Forces  and  the  Public  Health  Service. 

The  Navy  naturally  is  vitally  concerned  with 
the  health  of  its  members.  It  establishes  physical 
qualifications  for  procurement  and  ensures  the 
maintenance  of  these  standards  throughout  the 
entire  period  of  active  service.  There  are 
additional  physical  qualifications  for  aviation, 
submarine  duty,  and  other  special  programs.  The 
rigors  of  a  career  in  the  Navy  cannot  be 
withstood  by  a  person  in  subpar  physical 
condition.  Should  a  person  become  injured  or  ill 
while  on  active  duty,  however,  it  is  obviously  in 
the  person's  best  interest  as  well  as  the  Navy's  to 
restore  the  individual  to  health  as  soon  as 

Regulations  governing  medical  care  for 
retirees  and  dependents  are  contained  in 
SECNAV  Instruction  6320.8  series,  which 
represents  a  joint  statement  by  the  Armed 

Forces,  Coast  Guard,  and  Public  Health  Service. 
The  regulations  prescribe  policies  and 
procedures  for  administering  the  Uniformed 
Services  Health  Benefits  Program  (previously 
known  as  Medicare)  as  authorized  by  Title  10, 
U.S.  Code,  for  all  the  uniformed  services. 

The  law  provides  a  uniform  level  of  care, 
through  either  military  or  civilian  facilities,  for 
(1)  retired  personnel,  (2)  dependents  of  both 
active  duty  and  retired  members,  and  (3) 
dependents  of  deceased  members  who  died 
while  on  active  duty  or  retired.  Retired  persons 
are  entitled  to  the  same  health  benefits  in 
uniformed  services  facilities  as  active  duty 
members,  subject  to  space  availability  and  staff 
capabilities.  (The  Veterans  Administration, 
however,  is  responsible  for  the  hospitalization, 
for  certain  chronic  conditions,  of  persons  retired 
for  physical  disability.)  Exceptions  to 
entitlement  of  medical  care  for  dependents  are 
few,  being  concerned  mainly  with  dental  care, 
domiciliary  or  custodial  care,  prosthetic  devices, 
hearing  aids,  spectacles,  and  orthopedic 
footwear.  Medical  services  at  uniformed  services 
facilities  may  be  provided  to  dependents,  subject 
to  space  availability  and  capabilities  of  the 
professional  staff. 

In  general,  retirees  and  all  dependents  should 
use  service  medical  facilities,  if  they  are  available 
and  adequate  as  determined  by  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  appropriate  facility.  An  integral 
part  of  the  Health  Benefits  Program,  however,  is 
the  Civilian  Health  and  Medical  Program  of  the 
Uniformed  Services  (CHAMPUS).  This  aspect  of 
medical  care  is  of  particular  benefit  to  eligible 
beneficiaries  residing  in  areas  where  service 
medical  facilities  are  unavailable  or  unable  to 
accommodate  them.  Under  CHAMPUS,  a  wide 
range  of  civilian  health  care  services  is 
authorized  with  a  significant  share  of  the  cost 
being  paid  by  the  Government. 

Participation  in  CHAMPUS  by  sources  of 
care  is  entirely  voluntary.  Beneficiaries  desiring 
treatment  or  hospitalization  under  CHAMPUS 
must  locate  a  "participating"  physician  or  other 
source  of  health  care  willing  to  provide 
authorized  care  to  the  beneficiary  and,  after 
payment  of  a  stipulated  amount  by  the 
beneficiary,  submit  a  claim  to  the  proper 



Government  fiscal  agent  for  payment  of  the 
remainder  of  the  fee,  and  accepting  the  amount 
the  Government  determines  to  be  allowable  for 
the  services. 

Inherent  in  CHAMPUS  is  a  "reasonable  fee" 
concept,  meaning  that  the  Government  will  pay 
only  those  charges  it  determines  to  be 
reasonable.  If  a  fee  charged  is  considered 
unreasonable,  the  difference  between  the  fee  for 
treatment  and  the  amount  paid  under 
CHAMPUS  will  have  to  be  borne  by  the 
beneficiary.  This  can  be  costly  if  not 
understood.  There  have  been  instances  when 
beneficiaries  thought  the  Government  would 
pay  the  full  charge  made  by  ANY  civilian  source 
for  authorized  health  care.  If  treated  by  a 
nonparticipating  party,  however,  the  patient 
must  pay  the  bill  for  any  extra  money  charged. 
The  patient  should  always  ask,  at  the  time  of  the 
initial  visit,  whether  the  physician  or  hospital 
participates  in  CHAMPUS  and  will  accept  (after 
the  patient's  contribution)  the  Government  fee 
as  payment  in  full.  Claims  submitted  to  the 
Government  by  participating  parties  include  an 
agreement  to  accept  as  full  payment  the 
amount  authorized  as  payable  under  the 

Except  for  emergency  care,  hospitals  that 
practice  discrimination  in  the  admission  or 
treatment  of  patients  on  the  basis  of  race,  color, 
or  national  origin  may  not  participate  in 
CHAMPUS.  In  other  words,  the  Government 
won't  pay  for  their  services,  and  beneficiaries 
receiving  treatment  at  those  institutions  will 
foot  the  entire  bill. 

Unless  it  is  required  as  a  necessary  adjunct  to 
medical  or  surgical  treatment  payable  under 
CHAMPUS,  dental  care  is  not  authorized  at  a 
civilian  source  (that  is,  if  received  the  recipient 
pays  for  it). 

Routine  dental  care  for  dependents  is 
authorized  at  uniformed  service  facilities  outside 
the  United  States.  Within  the  United  States,  it  is 
authorized  only  at  specifically  designated 
installations  located  in  remote  areas.  Emergency 
dental  care  is  available  worldwide,  as  in  any 
dental  care  considered  necessary  in  connection 
with  medical  or  surgical  treatment. 


One  feature  of  Navy  life  that  a  service 
dependent  will  especially  appreciate  is  the 
privilege  of  purchasing  food,  household,  and 
personal  items  at  reasonable  cost  through 
commissaries  and  service  exchanges.  Wherever 
stationed,  these  Government  facilities  permit 
service  personnel  and  their  dependents  to 
purchase  basic  commodities  at  fair  prices. 

In  overseas  branches  of  those  activities,  one 
may  buy  foodstuffs  and  exchange  items  that 
otherwise  might  not  be  available.  Many 
commodities  ordinarily  obtainable  overseas 
through  other  means  carry  a  much  higher  price 
tag.  In  addition,  particularly  for  foreign  goods  or 
unfamiliar  brands,  the  exchange  ensures  good 
quality.  Their  buyers  are  experts;  most  of  us  are 
not.  Exchanges  and  commissaries  base  their 
prices  on  the  same  price  scale  used  by  their 
stateside  counterparts. 

The  extent  and  type  of  items  carried  in 
commissaries  and  exchanges  in  overseas  facilities 
are  usually  described  in  considerable  detail  in 
the  Information  on  Living  Conditions  pamphlets 
issued  by  the  Bureau  of  Naval  Personnel. 


Elementary  and  secondary  schooling  is 
available  overseas  at  Government  expense  for 
eligible  minor  dependents  of  Department  of 
Defense  (military  and  civilian)  personnel.  To  be 
eligible,  a  dependent  must  be  between  the  ages 
of  5  and  20,  must  be  authorized  by  competent 
authority  to  be  in  the  overseas  area,  and  must  be 
the  unmarried  child,  stepchild,  legally  adopted 
child,  or  legal  ward  of  the  DOD  member 
stationed  overseas. 

Schooling  is  provided  in  schools  operated  by 
the  services,  in  tuition-fee  schools  (schools  under 
local  government,  private,  church,  or 
cooperative  administration),  or  by 
correspondence  courses,  depending  on  the 
number  of  eligible  dependents  in  an  area  and 
availability  of  private  schools  that  use  English  as 
the  language  of  instruction. 


V_,IUIJJ  LCI      J  — 


Schools  operated  by  the  military 
departments  are  designed  to  meet  the  special 
problems  created  by  change  of  duty  stations  in 
midyear.  Teachers  for  these  schools  must  meet 
U.S.  qualifications,  must  be  U.S.  citizens,  and 
usually  are  recruited  from  the  United  States. 
Servicemen's  wives  who  meet  necessary 
qualifications  may  be  hired  locally  for 
employment  in  service-operated  schools. 

Above  the  high-school  level,  children  of 
naval  personnel  are  eligible  for  scholarship 
assistance  at  a  number  of  colleges  and 
universities  in  the  United  States. 


A  commissioned  officers'  mess  provides 
social  and  recreational  facilities,  meals,  and 
refreshments  to  commissioned  and  warrant 
officers.  Where  facilities  permit,  privileges  of  the 
mess  frequently  are  extended  to  officers  of  the 
other  armed  services  and  to  Reserve  officers,  as 
well  as  to  officers'  dependents.  At  large 
activities  a  mess  may  be  comprised  of  a  dining 
room,  snack  bars,  cocktail  lounges,  lounge  areas, 
rooms  for  private  parties,  and,  in  some  cases, 
swimming  pools,  golf  courses,  and  tennis  courts. 


To  promote  and  preserve  peace  of  mind  for 
its  officers  and  their  dependents,  the  Navy  offers 
a  number  of  special  assistance  programs,  some  of 
which  have  substantial  cash  value. 

Legal  Assistance 

Personnel  may  obtain  confidential  guidance, 
without  cost,  from  legal  assistance  officers  at 
most  duty  stations.  Advice  rendered  generally  is 
on  legal,  personal,  and  property  problems,  or  the 
drafting  of  legal  documents.  Assistance  does  not 
include  representation  in  civil  court. 

Casualty  Assistance 
Calls  Program 

The  family  of  a  Navy  man  who  dies  on 
active  duty  is  visited  promptly  by  a  Casualty 

Assistance  Calls  Officer  who  offers  help  in 
obtaining  rights,  benefits,  and  privileges  to 
which  the  dependents  are  entitled,  and  advises 
on  funeral  arrangements  and  financial 
assistance,  if  needed.  The  visit  by  the  CACO  is 
automatic;  the  deceased's  family  need  not 
initiate  the  action. 

Navy  Relief  Society 

Known  as  the  "Navy's  own  organization  to 
take  care  of  its  own,"  the  Navy  Relief  Society  is 
privately  supported,  primarily  by  means  of 
annual  requests  for  contributions.  At  the  service 
of  naval  and  Marine  personnel  and  dependents 
who  need  emergency  help,  it  limits  itself, 
generally,  to  nonrecurring  situations  of  distress 
involving  clothing,  medical  care,  burial  and  the 
like.  It  cannot  underwrite  permanent  need.  The 
Society  may  make  interest-free  loans  or  outright 
grants,  or  a  combination  of  the  two. 

Navy  Mutual 
Aid  Association 

The  aim  of  the  nonprofit  Mutual  Aid 
Association  is  to  provide  a  limited  amount  of 
life  insurance  at  cost  and  immediate  aid  to 
dependents  of  deceased  officers  through  a 
$1000  cash  payment  wired  or  cabled  anywhere 
in  the  world  on  notice  of  a  member's  death.  This 
sum  is  part  of  a  $7500  life  insurance  coverage 
open  to  active  duty  Regular  and  Reserve 
Officers  of  the  Navy,  Marines,  and  Coast  Guard 
under  62  years  of  age.  There  is  an  additional 
death  benefit  to  dependents  of  $4500,  bringing 
total  benefits  to  $12,000  (at  present).  Premiums 
vary  with  age.  Other  services  include  quick 
loans,  central  depository  for  documents,  and 
assistance  to  the  family  in  obtaining  all 
survivor's  rights  and  benefits  to  which  entitled. 

Family  Services  Centers 

At  many  Navy  shore  installations  in  the 
United  States,  particularly  in  areas  of  Fleet 
concentration,  Family  Services  Centers  are 
established  to  assist  new  arrivals  in  obtaining 
personal  services  they  may  need. 


The  Centers  ensure  that  newcomers  to  the 
area  receive  a  personal  welcome,  either  by  home 
call  or  at  the  Centers.  In  most  instances,  the  new 
arrival  is  issued  a  brochure  that  includes  such 
information  as— 

1 .  A  map  of  the  area. 

2.  A  letter  of  welcome. 

3.  An  area  directory. 

4.  A  base  information  guide. 

5.  Data   on  available  medical  care,  Navy 
Relief,  Red  Cross,  churches,  commissaries  and 
exchanges,  educational  facilities,  base  facilities, 
and  so  on. 

In  addition,  Centers  will  refer  members  and 
their  dependents  to  the  proper  facility  to  obtain 
needed  information  on,  among  other  things, 
passport  applications,  voting,  insurance,  career 
counseling,  base  and  off-base  housing,  and 
financial  assistance.  They  may  provide 
hospitality  kits  containing  necessary  items  of 
household  items  that  new  arrivals  can  borrow 
until  their  household  goods  are  delivered. 

For  the  benefit  of  attached  personnel 
receiving  orders,  Centers  maintain  an  inventory 
of  brochures  containing  information  on  many 
overseas  and  continental  United  States  naval 

Navy  Chaplains 

In  addition  to  religious  duties,  the  chaplain 
is  available  for  personal  spiritual  and  moral 
guidance,  and  for  performance  of  marriages  and 
funeral  ceremonies. 


Commanding  officers  make  every  attempt  to 
provide  recreation  and  sports  programs  designed 
to  meet  varied  interests  and  desires,  and  adapted 
to  the  needs  of  personnel  and  facilities  available. 


Most  naval  stations  provide  motion  picture 
entertainment,  well-stocked  libraries,  hobby 

craft  shops,  station  newspapers,  dances,  parties, 
and  shows.  In  larger  metropolitan  areas,  theater, 
concert,  and  sporting  event  tickets  may  be 
offered  to  service  personnel  at  reduced  prices, 
and  in  many  cases  free  of  charge. 


Sports  programs  include  organized 
competitions  at  intramural,  intra-district, 
intra-area,  and  intra-type  (or  inter-type)  levels. 
Games  and  matches  between  fleet  and  shore 
activities  are  stressed.  All-Navy  sports 
championships  are  a  natural  outgrowth  of  the 
extensive  intra/intermural  programs,  and 
interservice  championships  also  are  held  in  many 

Outstanding  Navy  athletes  who  believe  they 
possess  the  necessary  capability  and  potential 
may  apply  to  the  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel  for 
permission  to  train  for  and  participate  in  Pan 
American,  Olympic,  and  other  international 
sports  competitions. 


Retirement  benefits  available  at  the 
conclusion  of  a  Navy  career  are,  in  many 
respects,  superior  to  similar  plans  in  civilian  life. 
On  a  day-to-day  basis,  the  most  important  factor 
is  that  the  individuals  to  whom  the  benefits 
accrue  pay  nothing  toward  their  accumulation. 
Although  it  is  certainly  not  recommended,  it  is 
possible  for  one  to  finish  their  Navy  career 
without  benefit  of  any  personal  savings  or 
investments,  yet  look  forward  with  confidence 
to  meeting  at  least  the  necessities  of  the 
remaining  years  based  solely  on  retirement  pay 
and  subsidiary  benefits. 

There  are  three  types  of  retirement: 
voluntary,  statutory,  and  retirement  for  physical 

Voluntary  Retirement 

Officers,  including  warrants,  are  eligible  for 
voluntary  retirement  after  completing  20  years 
of  active  service  as  indicated  in  figure  3-7. 
Reserve  officers  (not  on  active  duty)  are  entitled 







TITLE  10 







Sec.  6321 

40  years 

Permanent  officers 

Full  time  active  duty 

Grade  held  at  time  of 


in  Regular  or  Re- 

retirement (unless 

serve  components  of 

entitled  to  higher 

Armed  Forces 

grade  under  other  law) 

Sec.  6322 

30  years 

Permanent  officers 

Same  as  above 

Same  as  above 

1%  %  times  the  basic 
pay  of  the  grade 


in  which  retired 

times  the  sum  of 

Sec.  6326 

30  years 

Temporary  officers 
and  warrant  offi- 

Same as  above,  less 
time  lost  for  AWOL, 

Same  as  above 

the  following  (a) 
service  credited 
for  basic  pay 

cers  with  perma- 


purposes  as  of  31 

nent  enlisted  sta- 

May 1958,  and 


(b)  active  service 

(including  active 

Sec.  6323 

20  years 

Permanent  officers 
and  officers  whose 
permanent  status 
is  enlisted 

Active  duty  in  Navy, 
Army,  Marine 
Corps,  Air  Force, 
Coast  Guard  or  Re- 
serve components 
thereof,  including 
active  duty  for 
training,  at  least  10 
years  of  which  shall 
have  been  commis- 

Same as  above 

duty  for  training, 
inactive  duty 
training,  point 
credit  for  corre- 
courses,  etc.) 
subsequent  to  31 
May  1958.    (Re- 
tired pay  may 
not  exceed  75% 
of  the  basic  pay 
on  which  such 


pay  is  based) 

Sec.  1293 

20  years 

Warrant  officers 

Full  time  active  duty 

Warrant  officer  grade 


in  Armed  Forces  or 

held  at  time  of  retire- 

Reserve components 

ment  (unless  entitled  to 

higher  grade  under 

other  law) 

Figure  3-7.— Voluntary  retirement  programs  for  Regular  commissioned  and  warrant  officers. 


to  retired  pay  benefits  after  reaching  age  60  if 
they  have  completed  20  years  of  satisfactory 
Federal  service  (of  which  the  last  8  years  were  in 
a  Reserve  component). 

Figure  3-7  presents  the  essential  points  of  all 
the  voluntary  retirement  programs.  Application 
for  retirement  is  normally  instituted  by  the 
officer  desiring  retirement,  but  acceptance  rests 
with  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy.  The  full 
administrative  process  involved  in  retirement  is 
too  lengthy  for  the  purposes  of  this  discussion, 
but  one  aspect  should  be  emphasized.  A  physical 
examination  is  a  very  important  part  of  the 
retirement  procedure.  Discovery  of  any  defects 
that  will  alter  the  retirement  status  will  be  acted 
upon,  but  once  the  processing  is  complete,  there 

except  by  reason   of  disability  incurred   as  a 
result  of  being  called  back  to  active  duty. 

Statutory  (Involuntary)  Retirement 

To  ensure  youth  and  vigor  in  responsible 
positions  and  to  prevent  stagnation  in  grade,  the 
Navy  has  laws  which  require  the  retirement  of 
permanent  officers  and  warrant  officers  after 
reaching  a  certain  age,  after  failing  of  selection 
for  promotion  or  continuation,  after  completion 
of  a  certain  number  of  years  of  service,  or  a 
combination  of  these  elements.  A  compilation 
of  the  statutory  requirements  for  permanent 
Regular  male  officers  is  shown  in  figure  3-8. 
Statutory  requirements  require  no  application 

1  1  I  1 


All  Reserve  officers  holding  a  grade  above 
chief  warrant  officer,  W-4,  are  transferred  to  the 
Retired  Reserve  upon  reaching  the  age  of  62. 
Transfer  to  the  Retired  Reserve  by  reason  of  age 
carries  with  it  no  retired  pay  unless  the  officer  is 
otherwise  eligible  for  such  pay. 

Disability  Retirement 

The  provisions  of  the  physical  disability 
retirement  law  are  beyond  the  scope  of  this  text, 
because  they  apply  only  to  a  small  minority  of 
naval  personnel  and  involve  such  diverse 
considerations  as  the  degree  (percentage)  of 

disability,  whether  misconduct  is  involved,  the 
numbers  of  years  served  on  active  duty,  and 
whether  the  disability  is  of  a  permanent  or 
temporary  nature. 

Members  of  the  service  retired  because  of 
physical  disability  receive  certain  tax  benefits.  If 
an  officer  retires  for  other  than  physical  reasons, 
the  entire  amount  of  retired  pay  is  taxable.  If  an 
officer  is  retired  for  physical  reasons,  however, 
and  elects  retired  pay  on  the  basis  of  percentage 
of  disability,  such  pay  is  tax  exempt.  If  the  offi- 
cer elects  retired  pay  based  on  years  of  service, 
the  amount  of  retired  pay  that  is  in  excess  of 
that  one  would  receive  if  elected  on  the  basis  of 
percentage  of  disability  is  taxable. 







Unrestricted  Line 



Not  Selected  for  Continuation 

Restricted  Line  or  Staff 



Not  Selected  for  Continuation 




Not  Applicable 

Not  on  Promotion  List 


Twice  Failed  for  Selection 

NOTE.  —  A  Limited  Number  of  Restricted  Line  and  Staff  Corps  Captains  may  be  Continued  until  Completion 
35  years. 

All,  except  LDO 


Not  Applicable 

Twice  Failed  for  Selection 


All,  except  LDO 





Not  Applicable 


Not  Applicable 

Twice  Failed  for  Selection 

*If  held  the  permanent  status  of  a  warrant  officer  when  first  appointed  as  an  LDO,  has  the  option,  instead  of  being 
retired,  of  reverting  to  the  grade  he  would  hold  had  he  not  been  appointed  an  LDO.     If  held  a  permanent 
grade  below  warrant  officer,  W-l,  when  first  appointed  as  an  LDO,  has  the  option,  instead  of  being  retired    of 
reverting  to  the  grade  he  would  hold  had  he  not  been  appointed  as  an  LDO,  but  had  instead  been  appointed  a 
warrant  officer,  \V-  1. 

!'A\Hro?  '""'Vvf  ba,So\ry  ?  K^  grade  '"  WhlCh  reUred  UmeS  the  S"m  °f  the  followin«  (a>  8ervice  cr*d^d  f°r  basic  pay 
purpose,  a>  of  May  1958,  and  <b)  service  (including  active  duty  for  training,  inactive  duty  training,  point  credit  for 
cum.-s.ondi.nce  courses,  etc.)  sub^uent  to  31  May  1958.     (Maximum  retired  pay  75%  of  bufc  pay). 
C.HADK  ON  RETIRKD  LIST:  Grade  in  which  serving  at  time  of  retirement  (unless  en  titled  to  higher  grade  under  other  law). 
NOTE:  Captains  and  Commanders,  except  those  of  the  MC,  DC,  MSC  or  NC  will  be  rPt  r*H  »f»0,           i  ,-        ,  ,„ 
total  commisMoned  .service  ,f  considered  for,  and  not  selected  for  conU  uatt           e  ac   ve  1  so  Zan  7"  ,°h        """ 
of  PL  86-  155  (the  so-called  "HUMP  BILL").                                                                                  pursuant  to  the  provisions 
Total  communed  service  is  computed  from  30  June  of  the  "Service  Date"  shown  in  the  current  Navy  register. 

Figure  3-8.-Statutory  service  retirement  for  permanent  Regular  male  officers. 



Social  Security  Benefits 

Active  duty  military  personnel  are  placed 
under  full  Social  Security  coverage  immediately 
upon  entering  service.  Credits  based  on  military 
service  are  not  lost  regardless  of  retirement  or 
release  from  the  service.  A  service  person  may 
receive  retirement  pay,  or  any  form  of 
compensation  or  pension  from  the  Veterans 
Administration,  PLUS  Social  Security  old  age 
insurance  payments  at  the  age  of  65  (or 
optionally  at  age  62).  If  totally  disabled,  one 
may  apply  for  Social  Security  benefits 

Survivor  Benefit 
Plan  (SBP) 

A  new  program  that  assures  financial 
protection  for  survivors  of  retired  Uniformed 
Service  members  went  into  effect  on  September 
21,  1972,  as  Public  Law  92-425.  This  program  is 
called  the  Survivor  Benefit  Plan  (SBP)  which 
provides  survivor  income  of  up  to  55%  of  the 
retired  pay  of  retirees'  to  their  widows  or 
widowers  and  dependent  children. 

In  the  past,  surviving  members  of  retirees' 
families  often  found  themselves  with  little  or  no 
income  following  the  retirees'  deaths.  The  new 
SBP  fills  that  gap  in  the  area  of  service  benefits. 
Until  passage  of  the  new  law,  the  retired  pay  of 
a  retired  member  of  the  Uniformed  Services 
ended  with  his  or  her  death,  unless  they  had 
elected  voluntarily  to  participate  in  the  Retired 
Servicemans  Family  Protection  Plan 
(RSFPP)— known  originally  as  the  Contingency 
Option  Act. 

Under  the  Survivor  Benefit  Plan  an 
individual  will  be  automatically  enrolled  in  the 
plan  with  maximum  coverage  when  they  retire  if 
they  have  spouses  or  dependent  children  at 
retirement  time,  unless  they  elect  a  lesser 
coverage  or  decline  participation  before 
becoming  entitled  to  retired  pay.  To  ensure  that 
the  SBP  decision  gets  in  with  other  retirement 
documents,  this  must  be  done  30  days  before 
the  first  day  for  which  the  retiree  can  receive 
retired  pay. 

Since  the  Federal  Government  pays  a 
substantial  part  of  the  SBP  cost,  a  retiree  gives 

up  only  a  small  part  of  his  or  her  retired  pay  to 
provide  maximum  coverage  for  their 

Benefits  of  Retirement 

In  time  of  peace,  retired  officers  may  not  be 
ordered  to  active  duty  without  their  consent. 
Although  they  may  be  ordered  to  active  duty  in 
time  of  war  or  national  emergency,  they  are  not 
required  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness  for 
active  service. 

Officers  may  use  their  military  titles  in 
commercial  enterprises,  and  they  are  entitled  to 
wear  the  prescribed  uniform  of  the  grade  held 
on  the  retired  list  when  the  wearing  is 

Retired  officers  and  their  dependents  are 
entitled  for  life  to  the  same  medical  and  dental 
services  provided  their  active  duty  counterparts, 
as  well  as  the  privilege  of  making  purchases  in 
commissaries,  exchanges,  and  ship's  service 

Retired,  as  well  as  active,  personnel  often 
overlook  the  fact  that  they  may  have  acquired 
veteran  status  and  are  thus  entitled  to  many 
benefits  available  from  the  Veterans 
Administration  and  from  the  state  in  which 
residing.  These  may  include  employment 
counseling,  home  and  farm  loans, 
unemployment  compensation,  burial  rights,  and 
VA  benefits  for  veterans  with  disabilities. 


Younger  men  usually  are  so  busy  living  and 
making  a  living  that  they  put  off  systematic 
planning  for  their  families  until  they  approach 
middle  age  and  maximum  earnings.  Before  that 
time,  in  most  cases,  they  cannot  afford  adequate 
protection  anyhow.  If  they  choose  a  Navy 
career,  this  is  one  worry  they  can  forget. 
Provision  for  their  dependents  begins  the 
moment  they  enter  the  naval  service  and 
continues  into  retirement. 

Financial  security  for  dependents  of 
deceased  naval  officers  is  guaranteed  under  the 



Serviceman's  and  Veteran's  Survivor  Benefits 
Act,  which  places  all  members  of  the  Armed 
Forces  under  Social  Security. 

The  Survivor  Benefits  Act  is  a  package  deal 
for  long-range  security  of  service  families.  It 
combines  full  and  permanent  Social  Security 
eligibility  with  increased  death  and  indemnity 
benefits  paid  by  the  VA  to  dependents  of 
persons  who  die  as  a  result  of  military  service. 
The  latter  benefits  are  separate  from  Social 
Security,  and  accrue  whether  death  occurred 
during  peace  or  war,  so  long  as  it  resulted  from  a 
service-connected  cause.  When  sums  paid  by 
both  sources  are  added,  they  amount  to  a 
monthly  income  for  your  family  that  only  those 
in  the  most  fortunate  financial  circumstances 
could  provide  in  civil  life.  And  that  income  can 
be  augmented  by  a  retirement  annuity  made 
possible  through  the  Survivor  Benefit  Plan. 

In  addition  to  a  liberal  schedule  of  death 
gratuities  and  monthly  compensation  payments, 
the  act  provides  for  a  considerable  number  of 
miscellaneous  benefits.  These  include,  for 
example,  shipment  of  household  effects, 
dependents'  transportation,  homestead  privileges 
for  establishing  a  home  on  Government  land, 
Federal  employment  privileges,  commissary  and 
exchange  privileges,  and  Medicare. 

If  a  naval  officer  dies  on  active  service,  or  of 
service-connected  causes  within  120  days  after 
release,  the  designated  survivor  also  is  entitled  to 
the  following  benefits: 

1.  Navy  death  gratuity  equal  to  one-half  a 
year's  pay.  The  amount  may  not  be  less  than 
S800  or  more  than  $3000.  It  is  paid  as  promptly 
as  possible  and  is  not  taxable. 

2.  Social  Security  lump-sum  death  payment 
ranging  from  SI 3 2  to  $255,  based  on  average 

3.  Payment   up   to    S250  toward   private 
funeral   and   burial  expenses,  for  services  not 
provided  by  the  Government;  or  interment  at  no 
expense    in    any   open   national   cemetery.   A 
headstone  for  the  deceased  is  furnished  in  either 

In  addition  to  other  survivor  benefits,  all 
persons  on  active  duty  in  excess  of  30  days'  are 
covered  by  $20,000  Servicemen's  Group  Life 

Insurance  at  a  cost  to  the  serviceman  of  only 
$3.40  per  month.  Although  coverage  may  be 
reduced  or  terminated  if  requested  in  writing, 
this  is  extremely  inexpensive.  A  life  insurance 
program  is  an  important  factor  for  any  officer  to 
consider,  especially  if  one  has  family 


Navy  life  is  a  demanding  life.  It  calls  for 
complete  loyalty  and  dedication,  and  for  a  great 
measure  of  selflessness.  There  are  pleasant 
assignments  and  those  that  are  not  so  pleasant. 
But  every  billet  that  you  fill  can  be  opportunity 
for  gain  for  the  Navy,  your  shipmates,  and 
yourself.  It  takes  a  mature  and  observant  person 
to  always  see  these  opportunities,  but  they  are 
there.  At  times  it  can  be  a  dangerous  life.  This  is 
inherent  in  an  armed  service  and  particularly  a 
service  with  worldwide  commitments.  But  for 
the  person  with  a  desire  to  serve  country  and 
oneself  in  a  variety  of  interesting  and  challenging 
ways,  it  is  a  stimulating,  satisfying  way  of  life. 

The  family  of  the  naval  officer  is  a  vital  part 
of  the  Navy  team.  Far  more  so  than  in  civilian 
life,  a  Navy  wife  has  the  opportunity  to  further 
her  husband's  career.  Her  patience, 
understanding,  and  her  acceptance  of  additional 
family  responsibility  contribute  immeasurably 
to  his  peace  of  mind.  Considering  the 
responsibilities  of  an  officer  in  the  world's 
foremost  Navy,  it  is  readily  apparent  that  his 
peace  of  mind  is  essential  to  the  best 
performance  of  his  duty.  It  is  no  wonder,  then, 
that  the  welfare  of  his  wife  and  family,  leading 
to  a  happy  home  life,  play  such  a  major  role 
toward  the  success  of  the  Navy. 

The  Navy  recognizes  the  importance  of  the 
role  played  by  the  officer's  family  and  realizes 
that  service  families  can  best  do  their  part  only 
when  they  are  taken  care  of  and  kept  informed 
of  the  Navy's  functions  and  missions  to  the 
fullest  possible  extent.  Families  should  be 
encouraged,  therefore,  to  learn  about  the  great 
responsibility  that  devolves  upon  a  naval  officer, 
and  realize  how  much  they  can  contribute 
toward  achieving  the  Navy's  goals. 


The  very  nature  of  a  naval  officer's 
occupation  gives  his  family  a  range  of  experience 
unparalleled  by  their  civilian  counterparts  in  the 
world  today.  Inherently  this  range  gives  rise  to 
equally  unparalleled  social  and  cultural 
opportunities  for  the  entire  family.  How  an 
individual  profits  from  these  opportunities  is  up 
to  him;  the  doorway  is  there  and  it  is  invitingly 

Because  of  their  mutual  importance  to  the 
Navy,  officers  and  their  families  have  every  right 
to  expect  the  Navy  to  work  for  their  benefit  and 
interest— and  this  will  always  be  done.  In  return, 
the  Navy  counts  on  every  service  family  to  do  its 
part  by  taking  advantage  of  the  benefits  offered, 
and  also  to  cooperate  by  contributing  toward 
the  betterment  of  the  naval  organization  and  the 
fulfillment  of  its  mission. 



Naval  regulations  and  naval  customs  are 
practically  synonymous.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the 
majority  of  our  present  naval  regulations  have 
been  derived  from  naval  customs  developed  in 
the  past.  Salutes  to  the  quarterdeck,  ceremonies 
for  relieving  of  command,  rendering  of  side 
honors,  precedence  of  officers  in  entering  boats, 
visits  of  courtesy  upon  reporting  to  a  ship  or 
station,  for  example,  are  popularly  referred  to  as 
naval  customs,  and  yet  are  now  fully  covered  by 
specific  regulations.  It  is  more  than  probable 
that  changes  or  extensions  of  these  regulations 
in  the  future  will  originate  from  customs  that 
are  building  up  within  the  service  today.  The 
fact  that  the  Navy  recognizes  valid  customs  as 
having  substantially  the  same  effect  as 
regulations,  therefore,  makes  the  lack  of  clear 
distinction  between  customs  and  regulations 
relatively  unimportant. 

Unfortunately  there  is  no  official  text  for 
the  study  of  naval  customs  which  have  not  yet 
become  regulations.  They  are  of  limited  number, 
and  actual  association  with  the  service  is  the  best 
means  of  becoming  familiar  with  them. 

is  not  to  be  confused  with  usage.  Custom  has  the 
force  of  law;  usage  is  merely  a  fact.  There  can  be 
no  custom  unless  accompanied  by  usage. 

An  act  or  condition  acquires  the  status  of  a 
custom  when  it  is  continued  consistently  over  a 
long  period  of  time;  when  it  is  well  defined  and 
uniformly  followed;  when  it  is  generally 
accepted  so  as  to  seem  almost  compulsory;  and 
when  it  is  not  in  opposition  to  the  terms  and 
provisions  of  a  statute,  lawful  regulation,  or 
order.  It  is  the  obligatory  force  which  attaches 
to  custom  that  enables  it  finally  to  ripen  into 

In  the  establishment  of  custom,  on  the  other 
hand,  omission  is  sometimes  as  important  as 
commission.  Long-continued  nonusage  may 
operate  to  deprive  a  particular  custom  of  its 
obligatory  character.  Some  customs,  indeed, 
have  the  form  of  "do  not"  rather  than  "do." 
Taboos  are  often  more  stringently  enforced  than 
customs.  The  breach  of  some  naval  customs 
merely  brands  the  offender  as  ill-bred;  the 
violation  of  others  brings  disciplinary  action. 


There  can  be  no  such  thing  as  a  custom 
that  is  contrary  to  existing  law  or 

Manual  for  Courts-Martial 

From  time  to  time,  situations  arise  that  are 
not  covered  by  written  rules.  Conduct  in  such 
cases  is  governed  by  customs  of  the  service. 
These  customs  may  be  likened,  in  their  origin 
and  development,  to  portions  of  the  common 
law  of  England  similarly  established.  But  custom 


Customs  are  closely  linked  with  tradition, 
and  much  esprit  de  corps  of  the  naval  service 
depends  on  their  continued  maintenance.  Many 
customs  have  been  passed  on  to  us  from  great 
navies  of  the  world,  especially  the  British.  (See 
figure  4-1.)  But  the  customs  which  we  have 
adopted  have  been  supplemented  by  traditions 
all  our  own.  Customs-unwritten,  but 
nonetheless  potent  factors  in  the  government  of 
the  Navy,  which  time  and  experience  have 
proved  to  make  for  better  order,  discipline,  and 


Figure  4-1. -Many  of  our  present-day  customs  were  in  force  aboard  Lord  Nelson's  flagship,  HMS  Victory.  The  historic 

vessel  is  tied  up  at  Portsmouth,  England. 

increased  efficiency -have,  in  obedience  to  a 
natural  law,  changed  their  form  by  being  merged 
into  written  regulations. 

Our  naval   tradition,    on    the   other  hand, 
has  been  developed  from  the  performance  of  our 

own  naval  personnel.  No  one  knew  better  than 
John  Paul  Jones  the  importance  of  great 
tradition.  Thus,  in  the  battle  against  the  Serapis, 
he  created  two  of  the  great  American  traditions 
by  showing  that  he  didn't  know  when  he  was 



beaten,  and  later  by  generously  returning  to  the 
British  captain  the  sword  which  his  daring 
behavior  had  won.  Jones  was  preeminent  among 
our  tradition  makers  and  marked  the  way  for  a 
memorable  group  to  follow-Truxtun,  Preble, 
Macdonough,  Lawrence,  Porter,  Farragut,  and 
Dewey.  The  traditions  of  our  Navy  spring  from 
the  gallant  deeds  of  our  officers  and  men.  Our 
customs  are  patterns  of  behavior  which  we  have 
developed  for  ourselves  or  borrowed  from 


Persons  entering  a  new  profession  must  learn 
the  vocabulary  peculiar  to  that  profession  to 
understand  and  make  themselves  understood  by 
their  associates.  The  Navy,  too,  has  its  own 
vocabulary,  containing  unique  terms  for  many 
commonplace  items.  To  a  young  midshipman, 
going  aboard  ship  for  the  first  time,  this  will  be 
confusing  and  perhaps  seem  unnecessary.  If  he  is 
alert,  however,  he  will  soon  realize  that  there  is  a 
great  deal  of  merit  in  the  language  of  the  sea.  He 
will  come  to  understand  that,  under  certain 
circumstances,  a  word  or  a  few  words  mean  a 
precise  thing  or  a  certain  sequence  of  actions.  He 
will  notice  that  it  is  unnecessary  to  accompany 
an  order  with  extended  explanatory  details. 
When  the  proper  order  is  given,  the  desired 
response  is  obtained.  He  will  notice,  too,  that 
when  there  is  a  chance  for  confusion,  a  strange, 
new  term  may  be  substituted  for  an  old,  familiar 

For  example,  the  word  stop  may  be  used  in 
orders  for  the  ship's  engines  but  never  for  the 
anchor  windlass  or  for  the  helm.  An  officer 
conning  a  ship  issues  a  veritable  stream  of  orders 
when  a  ship  is  getting  underway  or  mooring  or 
anchoring.  Yet,  when  couched  in  proper, 
seaman-like  language,  the  orders  are  understood 
and  are  carried  out  by  the  proper  individual  or 
group.  If  the  conning  officer  wants  to  stop  all 
the  engines,  to  stop  the  swing  of  the  ship,  or  to 
stop  the  anchor  windlass  he  gives  the  order  "All 
engines  stop,"  "Meet  her,"  or  "Avast  heaving," 
respectively.  There  is  no  chance  for  confusion; 
the  person  on  the  engine  order  telegraph  rings' 
up  stop,  the  steersman  puts  the  rudder  over,  or 

the   proper   talker   relays    the    order,    "Avast 
heaving,"  to  the  anchor  detail  on  the  forecastle. 

An  order  or  a  term  may  have  its  origin  in 
antiquity  or  it  may  have  been  recently  coined, 
but  that  is  not  important.  What  is  important  is 
that  the  expression  conveys,  in  as  few  words  as 
possible,  an  exact  meaning  with  little  or  no 
chance  for  confusion.  Those  that  fit  this 
requirement  live  on  as  long  as  there  is  need  for 
them;  those  that  do  not  are  soon  replaced. 

It  behooves  a  young  officer  to  learn  and  use 
this  language  because  it  is  a  necessary  tool  of  his 

This  chapter  discusses  a  few  of  the  many 
expressions  that  form  our  nautical  language. 
(See  figure  4-2.) 


Years  ago  when  ships  were  equipped  with 
anchor  cables  of  hempen  rope  and  oil-burning 
riding  lights,  special  care  was  taken  while  riding 
at  anchor,  to  see  that  these  lamps  were  not 
extinguished,  that  the  cables  did  not  part,  and 
that  the  ship  did  not  drag  her  anchor.  The  watch 
responsible  for  this  particular  duty  was 
designated  the  "anchor  watch."  The  anchor 
watch,  as  a  sea  term,  is  still  retained  although  its 
duties  have  been  changed  considerably  since  the 
old  days.  Today,  the  anchor  watch  is  a  detail  of 
personnel  on  deck  at  night  safeguarding  the 
vessel  when  at  anchor. 


"Avast"  is  a  corruption  of  the  original  form 
which  meant  "hold  fast"  or  "stand  fast."  Today 
it  is  an  order  to  stop  or  cease,  as  "Avast 


The  present  meaning  of  the  expression 
"Aye,  aye,"  which  originally  was  "Yes,  yes" 
(old  English)  is  "I  understand,  and  I  will  doit." 


Certain  words  and  expressions  preserve  for 
us  old  customs,  as  in  the  instance  of  bells  struck 
aboard  ship.  They  are  not  primarily  intended  to 

M    T3 



replace  clocks  for  telling  time.  But  they  do  tell 
clock  time  by  measuring  the  periods  when 
certain  members  of  the  crew  are  standing  watch. 
It  started  with  the  hourglass-which  really 
wasn't  an  hourglass  but  a  half-hour  glass.  The 
quartermaster  on  watch  turned  the  glass  at  the 
end  of  his  first  half-hour,  striking  the  bell  an 
additional  stroke  each  time,  until  at  the  end  of  4 
hours  he  would  strike  the  bell  eight  times, 
signaling  the  completion  of  his  watch  and  the 
beginning  of  the  next  4-hour  watch.  So  it  went 
during  the  six  watches  of  the  24  hours,  ending  at 
midnight.  (Length  of  the  watch  sometimes 
varies.  See  "Dog  Watch.")  While  the  hourglass 
has  long  been  out  of  date,  the  bells  are  still  used 
aboard  ship. 


"Bilge"  usually  refers  to  the  bottom  of  a 
ship,  or  more  correctly  to  the  curved  part  of  the 
ship's  hull.  It  also  has  another  connotation. 
Midshipmen  who  are  dropped  from  school  for 
academic  reasons  are  said  to  be  "bilged."  Thus5 
when  used  as  a  verb,  the  term  means  to  be 
dropped  out  of  the  bottom— in  this  case  the 
bottom  of  the  class. 


The  binnacle  list  gets  its  name  from  the  old 
nautical  practice  of  placing  the  sicklist  on  the 
binnacle  (stand  containing  ship's  compass)  each 
morning,  so  that  it  would  be  readily  available  for 
the  captain.  The  modern  binnacle  list  contains 
the  names  of  personnel  suffering  minor 
complaints  which  preclude  their  employment  on 
strenuous  duty.  Hospitalized  personnel  go  on 
the  sicklist. 


"Bitter  end"  was  the  turn  of  the  cable's  end 
around  the  bitts.  It  is  now  used  to  define  the 
end  of  the  chain  cable  which  is  secured  in  the 
chain  locker  or  the  loose  end  of  a  line.  In  all 
cases  the  inboard  end  is  referred  to  as  the  bitter 


Uniforms  first  adopted  for  the  Royal  Navy 
included  a  short,  blue  jacket.  Although  no 
universal  uniform  was  prescribed  for  U.S.  Navy 
enlisted  personnel  until  the  1850s,  many  men 
wore  the  Royal  Navy  blue  jacket  unofficially  in 
the  early  days  of  that  century.  Enlisted 
personnel  are  sometime  referred  to  as 
Bluejackets.  Although  the  white  hat  is  no  longer 
a  part  of  the  enlisted  personnel's  uniform  the 
term  "white  hat,"  is  still  used  to  refer  to  Navy 
enlisted  personnel  below  the  rate  of  chief  petty 


Boatswain  in  pronounced  BO-sun.  "Swain" 
or  "swein"  is  the  Saxon  word  for  servant  or  boy. 
In  this  instance  the  word  refers  to  a  warrant  or 
petty  officer  in  charge  of  the  deck  crew  and  is 
responsible  for  the  maintenance  of  the  ship's 
hull  and  external  equipment. 


The  boatswain's  pipe,  or  whistle,  is  an  article 
of  great  antiquity.  Originally  employed  to  "call 
the  stroke"  in  ancient  row-galleys,  it  became,  in 
the  early  English  Navy,  a  badge  of  office  and  of 
honor.  Later  the  pipe  became  the  distinctive 
emblem  of  the  boatswain  and  his  mates.  Today 
(figure  4-3)  the  boatswain's  mate  uses  his  pipe 
when  the  "word  is  passed,"  when  officers  are 
piped  over  the  side,  etc. 


Lord  Nelson  used  a  brig  (a  type  of  sailing 
ship)  in  battle  for  removing  prisoners  from  his 
ships,  hence  prisons  at  sea  came  to  be  known  as 


The  bumboat  is  a  boat  employed  by  civilians 
to  carry  salable  provisions,  vegetables,  and  small 
merchandise  to  ships.  The  term  may  have  been 
derived  from  "boom-boat,"  indicating  boats 
permitted  to  lie  at  booms. 



This  term  comes  from  the  Latin  caput 
meaning  "head." 


"Caulk,"  commonly  mispronounced  "cork," 
means  to  pack  a  seam  in  the  planking  of  a  ship. 
When  wooden  ships  were  caulked  in  drydock, 
workmen  usually  had  to  lie  on  their  backs 
underneath  the  hull.  In  this  position  it  was  not 
difficult  to  fall  asleep.  Hence,  to  "take  a  caulk," 
or  to  "caulk  off"— the  sailor's  expression  for 
sleeping,  or  taking  a  nap. 


On  many  sailing  ships,  shrouds  supporting  the 
masts  were  secured  to  links  of  chain  attached  to 

the  ships'  sides.  To  get  a  better  lead  for  the 
shrouds  and  to  keep  them  from  bearing  on  the 
bulwarks,  the  chains  were  led  up  around  thick 
planks  jutting  from  the  ships'  sides.  These  planks 
made  convenient  platforms  from  which  to  heave 
the  lead,  and  the  leadsman  was  "in  the  chains." 
Later,  as  now,  shrouds  were  secured  on  deck 
inboard  of  bulwarks  or  lifelines.  Special 
platforms  were  built  for  the  leadsman,  but  the 
term  "chains"  was  retained. 


The  term  "Charlie  Noble"  is  applied  to  the 
galley  smoke  pipe.  While  its  origin  is  obscure,  it 
is  generally  believed  to  have  been  derived  from 
the  British  merchant  skipper,  Charlie  Noble, 
who  demanded  a  high  polish  on  the  galley 
funnel.  His  bright  copper  galley  funnel  became 
well  known  in  the  ports  he  visited. 


Figure  4-3.— The  boatswain's  pipe  was  in  use  long  before 
loudspeaker  systems  were  invented.  It  is  being  used 

here    tO    hrinn   thfl    ri*P\n/'<5    attpntinn   tn   a   uirtrrl  ahnut 


Derived  from  Hindi,  the  term  was  used  by 
the  old  East  India  Company  to  signify  almost 
any  sort  of  paper  used  in  everyday  business 


Launching  ceremonies  have  had  a  religious 
significance  from  the  earliest  days.  The 
christening  ceremony  originated  as  a 
propitiation  to  the  gods  of  the  elements.  In 
some  countries  as  recently  as  a  hundred  years 
ago  a  launching  frequently  resembled  a 
baptismal  ceremony  and  was  performed  by 

Early  in  the  1 9th  century,  women  and  those 
other  than  the  clergy  and  high  officials  began  to 
take  part  in  the  ceremony  of  launching  ships. 

Today  the  ceremony  usually  consists  in  the 
naming  of  the  vessel  by  a  sponsor,  and  the 
breaking  of  a  bottle  of  wine  against  the  ship's 
bow  as  she  slides  into  the  water.  People  have 
been  known  to  miss  the  ship  entirely,  and  so 
today  the  bottle  is  secured  by  a  lanyard  to  the 

r\f       fViP       eViin. etc       a        oofotw       mt>oont-u>       f/-\r 



The  origin  of  the  commission  pennant  is  said 
to  date  back  to  the  1 7th  century,  when  the 
Dutch  were  fighting  the  English.  Admiral  Tromp 
hoisted  a  broom  at  his  masthead,  to  indicate  his 
intention  to  sweep  the  English  from  the  sea.  The 
gesture  was  soon  answered  by  the  English 
admiral  who  hoisted  a  horsewhip,  to  indicate  his 
intention  to  chastise  the  Dutch.  The  British 
carried  out  their  boast  and  ever  since,  the 
narrow,  or  coachwhip,  pennant  (symbolizing  the 
original  horsewhip)  has  been  the  distinctive 
mark  of  a  vessel  of  war  and  has  been  adopted  by 
all  nations. 

The  commission  pennant,  as  it  is  called 
today,  is  blue  at  the  hoist,  with  a  union  of  seven 
white  stars;  it  is  red  and  white  at  the  fly,  in  two 
horizontal  stripes.  The  number  of  stars  has  no 
special  significance  but  was  arbitrarily  selected 
as  providing  the  most  suitable  display.  The 
pennant  is  flown  at  the  main  by  vessels  not 
carrying  flag  officers.  In  lieu  of  the  commission 
pennant,  a  vessel  with  an  admiral  or  other 
officer  in  command  of  a  squadron,  group,  etc., 
or  a  high-ranking  civil  official  aboard,  flies  the 
personal  flag  or  command  pennant  of  that 


To  "conn"  means  to  control,  or  direct  by 
rudder  and  engine  order  telegraph,  the 
movements  of  a  ship.  When  a  person  has  the 
conn,  it  indicates  he  is  the  one  and  only  person 
who  can  give  orders  to  the  wheel  and  engine 
order  telegraph  at  any  one  time.  The  exact 
derivation  of  the  word  "conn"  is  not  known. 


From  "cock,"  a  small  boat,  and  "swain,"  a 
servant.  Enlisted  man  in  charge  of  a  boat  in  the 
absence  of  a  line  officer.  Pronounced  COX-un. 


The  boisterous  ceremonies  of  crossing  the 
line  (Equator)  are  so  ancient  that  their 

derivation  is  lost.  It  is  said  that  this  custom  had 
its  origin  in  propitiatory  offerings  to  the  deities 
of  the  sea  by  mariners  who  thought  that  gods 
and  goddesses  controlled  the  elements. 

Today  when  naval  ships  cross  the  Equator, 
those  members  of  the  crew  (called  "pollywogs") 
who  have  never  before  crossed  the  line  are 
initiated  by  the  more  experienced  members  of 
the  crew  ("shellbacks").  The  usual  formula  is  for 
the  "shellbacks"  to  attire  themselves  in  strange 
costumes  representing  Neptune,  Amphi trite,  and 
other  favorites  of  the  sea.  A  court  is  held  among 
Neptune's  subjects,  and  the  novices  are 
summoned  to  trial.  The  fate  administered  to 
each  is  in  the  nature  of  ridicule,  such  as  a  parade 
of  the  person's  particular  idiosyncrasies  and  a 
caricature  of  his  foibles.  The  victim  is  usually 
lathered  with  some  frightful  concoction,  shaved 
(with  a  wooden  razor),  and  ducked  backward 
into  a  tank  of  water.  He  is  then  issued  a 
certificate,  signed  by  Neptunus  Rex, 
documenting  the  fact  that  he  has  crossed  the 
line  and  is  now  a  full-fledged  "shellback." 


The  nationality  of  the  early  sailing  ships  was 
frequently  determined  by  the  shape  or  cut  of 
their  jib  sails.  Use  of  the  phrase  as  applied  to  a 
man  originally  referred  to  his  nose-which,  like  a 
jib,  is  the  first  feature  of  its  wearer  to  come  into 
view.  Ultimately  it  was  extended  to  describe  a 
man's  general  appearance. 


Dipping  the  flag  in  salute  is  a  relic  of  an 
old-time  custom  by  which  a  merchant  vessel  was 
required  not  only  to  heave  to  when  approaching 
a  warship  on  the  high  seas,  but  also  to  clew  up 
all  her  canvas  to  indicate  her  honesty  and 
willingness  to  be  searched.  Delays  resulted,  and 
in  later  years  the  rule  of  dipping  the  flag  was 
authorized  as  a  timesaving  substitute.  Ships  of 
the  U.S.  Navy  return  such  salutes  dip  for  dip, 
except  for  dips  rendered  by  ships  under  the  flags 
of  nations  not  formally  recognized  by  the 
United  States.  No  ship  of  our  Navy  initiates  a 


The  term  "dog  watch"  is  a  corruption  of 
"dock  watch,"  that  is,  a  watch  that  has  been 
docked  or  shortened .  Usually  the  term  is  applied 
to  the  two  sections  into  which  the  1600-2000 
watch  is  divided,  and  they  are  referred  to  as  the 
first  and  second  dog  watch. 


Ships  in  the  early  days  generally  had  in  the 
bow  carved  heads  of  mythological  monsters  or 
patrons.  The  fore  part  of  the  ship  was  called  the 
"head."  The  term  "eyes  of  the  ship"  followed 
from  the  eyes  of  the  figures  placed  there. 


At  times  of  mourning  in  old  sailing  days,  the 
yards  were  "cockbilled"  and  the  rigging  was 
slacked  off,  to  indicate  that  the  grief  was  so 
great  that  it  was  impossible  to  keep  things 
shipshape.  Today  the  half-masting  of  the  colors 
is  a  survival  of  the  days  when  a  slovenly 
appearance  characterized  mourning  on 


"Forecastle"  is  pronounced  "focsul."  In  the 
days  of  Columbus,  ships  were  fitted  with 
castle-like  eminences  fore  and  aft.  While  both 
structures  have  disappeared,  the  term 
"forecastle,"  referring  to  the  same  general  part 
of  the  ship  as  the  original  "forward  castle,"  still 


The  word  "gangway"  is  taken  from  the 
anglo-saxon  word  "gang,"  to  go,  make  a  passage 
in,  or  cut  out  (or  cut  through).  It  is  commonly 
used  as  an  order  to  stand  aside  or  to  stand  clear. 


Admiral  Edward  Vernon  of  the  Royal  Navy 
is  responsible  for  the  term  "grog."  He  was  in  the 
habit  of  walking  the  deck  of  his  flagship  in  a 
boatcloak  of  grogram  cloth.  This  suggested  a 
nickname  for  the  popular  flag  officer,  and 
Admiral  Vernon  came  to  be  known 


Figure  4-4.— This  is  the  grog  tub  aboard  the  USS 
Constitution,  a  reminder  of  the  days  when  a  mixture 
of  rum  and  water  was  served  as  a  ration  to  the  crew. 

affectionately  as  "Old  Grog."  In  1740  he 
introduced  West  Indian  rum  aboard  ship  and  had 
a  mixture  of  rum  and  water  served  as  a  ration  to 
the  crews.  (See  figure  4-4.)  It  was  intended  as  a 
preventive  against  fevers,  which  so  often 
decimated  expeditions  to  the  West  Indies.  This 
innovation  was  received  with  enthusiasm  by  the 
men  on  the  flagship  Burford,  who  promptly 
named  the  beverage  after  this  illustrious  leader. 
Forty  years  later  verses  were  composed  on 
the  cruiser  Berwick  which  bespeak  the 
popularity  of  the  officer  and  the  drink;  the  last 
two  stanzas  are: 

A  mighty  bowl  on  deck  he  drew, 

And  filled  it  to  the  brink; 
Such  drank  the  Burford's  gallant  crew, 

And  such  the  gods  shall  drink. 
The  sacred  robe  which  Vernon  wore 

Was  drenched  within  the  same; 
And  hence  his  virtues  guard  our  shore, 

And  grog  derives  its  name. 




Originally,  a  vessel  saluting  another 
discharged  all  her  guns  rendering  herself 
powerless  until  a  reload  could  be  made-a 
process  requiring  considerable  time.  Thus  the 
ship  first  rendering  the  honors  showed  that  she 
would  not  attack  and  feared  no  attack-the 
gesture  was  one  of  friendship  and  confidence. 
Firing  blank  cartridges  is  a  comparatively 
modern  invention  occasioned,  it  is  said,  by  the 
fact  that  a  complimentary  cannonball  once 
proved  fatal  to  the  honored  personage.  (The 
"present  arms"  salute  of  today  was  originally  a 
gesture  of  literal  presentation.) 

The  origin  of  the  twenty-one-gun 
international  salute  is  of  interest.  Originally 
warships  fired  salutes  of  seven  guns,  the  number 

seven  probably  having  been  selected  because  of 
the  mystical  and  symbolical  significance  given  it 
in  the  Bible. 

Although  by  regulations  the  salute  at  sea  was 
seven  guns,  shore  batteries  were  allowed  to  fire 
three  guns  to  the  ship's  one.  The  difference  was 
due  to  the  fact  that  in  those  days  the  storage  of 
powder  aboard  ship  was  a  matter  of  serious 
concern,  because  of  lack  of  facilities  for 
maintaining  low  and  even  temperatures  in  the 
magazines.  Since  powder  easily  spoiled  at  sea 
but  could  be  better  kept  on  land,  three  times  as 
many  guns  were  prescribed.  Again,  the  figure 
three  was  probably  selected  as  a  multiple 
because  of  mystical  and  symbolical  significance. 

When  powder  that  was  not  so  difficult  to 
preserve  at  sea  came  into  general  use,  the 
number  of  guns  for  the  naval  international  salute 

shipmate.  Among  military 
for  centuries 


was  raised  to  twenty-one.  By  common 
agreement  the  international  salutes  of  all  nations 
are  now  twenty-one  guns. 

International  salutes  grew  out  of  custom  and 
usage.  The  custom  began  with  the  strong  nations 
exacting  from  foreign  vessels  acts  of  submission, 
sometimes  even  by  force,  but  in  the  17th 
century  the  question  of  such  ceremonials 
became  a  matter  of  negotiation.  Although 
saluting  was  originally  forced  upon  the  vessels  of 
smaller  nations  to  compel  them  to  recognize 
the  superiority  of  the  greater,  in  the  final 
recognition  of  the  principle  of  equality  between 
nations,  it  became  customary  to  render  salutes 
"gun  for  gun." 

Salute  Over  a  Grave.  Originally  the  three 
volleys  fired  into  the  air  were  supposed  to  drive 
away  evil  spirits  as  they  escaped  from  the  hearts 
of  the  dead.  It  was  thought  that  the  doors  of 
men's  hearts  stood  ajar  at  such  times,  permitting 
devils  to  enter.  Today  the  gun  salutes  (figure 

4-5)    are    fired   as    a   ceremonious   gesture    of 


Heavy  line  of  hemp,  used  for  mooring  and 
towing.  Formerly  used  as  anchor  cable  (before 
chains).  From  the  French  hausser;  to  haul. 


The  ship's  lavatory  is  called  the  head  because 
these  facilities  in  the  old  days  were  located  in 
the  forward  part  of  the  ship. 


The  holystone,  as  we  see  it  today,  is  a  piece 
of  smooth  brick  or  stone,  in  the  top  of  which  a 
small  hole  has  been  gouged.  A  squilgee 
(pronounced  "squeegee")  handle  is  inserted  in 
the  hole  and  kept  there  by  pressure  exerted  on  it 
(figure  4-6)  while  scrubbing  the  deck.  Sand  and 


Figure  4-6.-Members  of  the  deck  force  "assume  the  position"  for  scouring  a  deck.  Holystoning  originally  removed 
the  possibility  of  slivers  in  bare  feet.  It  is  still  considered  the  best  method  of  smoothing  and  cleaning  wooden  decks. 



water  are  used  with  the  holystone  to  scour  a 
wooden  deck. 

In  the  early  days  the  handle  was  not  in  use, 
and  the  seamen  knelt  on  the  deck  to  give  it  the 
necessary  scouring.  The  attitude  of  prayer  thus 
assumed  was  responsible,  many  think,  for  the 
stone  being  called  "holy."  There  are  those  who 
think  that  the  name  came  about  as  the  result  of 
the  fact  that  fragments  of  broken  monuments 
from  Saint  Nicholas'  church  in  England  were 
used  in  the  early  days  to  scrub  the  ships'  decks 
of  the  British  Navy. 

Today,  the  term  refers  to  any  storage  area  for 
loose  gear  picked  up  by  the  master-at-arms 


The  term  "captain's  mast,"  or  merely 
"mast,"  derives  from  the  fact  that  in  early 
sailing  days  the  usual  setting  for  this  type  of 
naval  justice  was  on  the  weather  deck  near  the 
ship's  mainmast. 


This  ladder  made  of  line  is  used  over  the  side 
and  aloft.  It  originally  led  to  the  skysail. 
Probably  the  allusion  was  to  Biblical  Jacob's 
dream  in  which  he  climbed  up  to  the  sky. 


The  term  "keelhauling"  today  connotes  a 
verbal  reprimand.  Originally  it  comprised  a  cruel 
form  of  punishment  that  consisted  of  binding 
the  offender  hand  and  foot,  weighting  his  body, 
then  drawing  him  under  the  ship's  bottom  from 
one  fore  yardarm  to  the  other,  by  means  of 
whips.  If  the  bottom  were  covered  with  sharp 
barnacles,  the  torture  was  extreme  and  the 
punishment  often  fatal. 


A  popular  custom  in  the  U.S.  Navy  is  that  of 
lashing  a  broom  to  the  masthead  of  a  ship  when 
it  has  participated  in  a  complete  victory  over  an 
enemy  force,  thus  indicating  her  ability  to  sweep 
the  seas.  (A  ship  making  the  highest  gunnery  or 
engineering  record  in  the  fleet  also  displays  a 
broom.)  As  has  been  noted,  Admiral  Tromp 
originated  the  custom  (see  Commission 


Formerly,  a  bag  in  which  personal 
possessions  that  had  been  left  adrift  were  stored. 


In  early  days  the  crew  was  quartered  in  the 
forecastle,  while  officers  lived  in  the  aftercastle. 
The  title  "midshipmen"  was  originally  given  to 
youngsters  of  the  British  Navy  who  acted  as 
messengers  and  carried  orders  from  officers  aft 
to  the  men  forward.  These  lads,  who  had  direct 
contact  with  the  officers,  were  continuously 
passing  back  and  forth  amidships  and  were 
regarded  as  apprentice  officers.  The  ancient  term 
has  survived,  and  today  officer  candidates  at 
Annapolis  (and  other  midshipmen's  schools)  are 
called  midshipmen. 


To  the  new  officer  the  custom  of  piping  the 
side,  a  heritage  from  the  British  Navy,  seems  one 
of  the  strangest  of  all  naval  customs.  It 
originated  in  the  days  of  sail,  when  captains 
visited  one  another  at  sea  and  were  hoisted  on 
board  in  net  or  basket  if  the  weather  was  too 
rough  to  permit  the  use  of  ladders. 

The  officer  of  the  deck  ordinarily  summoned 
from  the  crew  several  hands  to  assist  the  visitor 
in  making  the  landing  on  deck.  If  he  were 
young,  a  lieutenant  perhaps,  two  men  were 
required  to  help  him;  if  older,  a  commander 
perchance,  having  increased  his  girth  as  well  as 
his  grade  through  the  years,  he  might  require 
four.  If,  however,  he  happened  to  be  a  captain 
or  an  admiral,  he  may  have  required  six  or  eight 
to  enable  him  to  secure  a  stable  footing.  Thus 
there  came  about  the  custom  of  having  "side 
boys"  to  meet  officers.  When  the  custom 


became   a   regulation    courtesy,   the    side    was 
similarly  attended  upon  their  departure. 

The  custom  of  piping  the  officer  alongside 
and  over  the  gangway  is  a  relic  of  the  piping  that 
was  necessary  in  setting  taut  and  hoisting  away 
the  cargo  net  or  basket  containing  the  boarding 


There  is  evidence  that  the  marked  respect 
paid  the  quarterdeck  aboard  ship  today  had  its 
origin  many  hundreds  of  years  ago.  In  the  days 
of  Greek  and  Roman  sea  power,  obeisances  were 
made  to  the  pagan  altar,  which  was  placed  aft. 
Later  the  same  respect  was  paid  the  shrines  of 
the  Virgin  similarly  located.  Still  later  the 
"king's  colors,"  which  were  a  symbol  of  the 
church  and  state  combined,  became  the  object 
of  respect.  One  is  impressed  with  the  thought 
that  the  quarterdeck  has  always  been  the 
honored  part  of  the  ship.  It  has  retained  its 
"sanctity"  today.  (The  name  "poop  deck" 
derives  from  the  Latin  word  puppis,  a  name 
given  the  sacred  deck  where  the  pupi  or  doll 
images  of  the  dieties  were  placed.) 


A  butt  is  a  cask  or  hogshead.  To  "scuttle" 
means  to  make  one  or  more  holes  in  a  ship's  side 
or  bottom  to  sink  her.  A  "scuttlebutt"  in  the 
old  days  was  a  cask  that  had  an  opening  in  its 
side,  fitted  with  a  spigot.  Stout  casks  of  oak 
were  utilized  to  contain  freshwater  for  drinking 
purposes.  Today  any  drinking  fountain  in  the 
Navy  is  called  a  "scuttlebutt." 

Scuttlebutt— A  Type  of  Rumor.  Men 
naturally  congregate  at  drinking  fountains— and 
rumors  start.  Hence  the  term  "scuttlebutt"  for 
rumor.  (A  galley  yarn  is  a  similar  term.  In  the 
early  days  the  galley  was  frequently  a  place  of 
meeting,  and  cooks  had  the  reputation  for 
knowing  and  passing  on  the  "news.") 


The  term  "show  a  leg"  is  synonymous  with 
"rise  and  shine."  It  is  a  slang  expression,  used 
generally  by  boatswains'  mates  and 

masters-at-arms  when  turning  the  crew  out  of 
their  hammocks  or  bunks. 

The  call  "show  a  leg"  probably  derives  from 
the  days  when  women  were  carried  at  sea  in  the 
British  Navy,  "the  wives  of  seamen."  The 
women  who  put  out  a  stockinged  leg  for 
identification  were  not  required  to  turn  out  at 
first  call. 


Nelson,  who  was  responsible  for  many 
British  naval  customs,  forerunners  of  our  own> 
originated  the  term  "sick  berth"  in  his  order  to 
the  Mediterranean  fleet  in  1798.  In  line-of-battle 
ships  the  sick  berth  was  placed  in  the  bows. 
When  round  bows  were  introduced  in  181 1,  the 
sick  berth,  keeping  its  same  position,  found  itself 
in  a  bay  (semicircular  indentation).  Thus  in  1813 
began  the  use  of  the  term  "sickbay."  It  is 
customary  today  for  officers  to  remove  their 
caps  when  entering  sickbay.  It  may  be  that  this 
custom  stems  from  the  early  sailing  days  when 
men  were  not  admitted  to  sickbay  until  they 
were  about  ready  for  "slipping  the  cable" 


To  be  inattentive  or  engage  in  horseplay, 
usually  when  one  is  supposed  to  be  working. 
The  term  came  about  when  young  sailors  would 
climb  to  the  skysail  yardarms  and  slide  down  the 


In  the  old  days  matches  were  prohibited  to 
members  of  the  crew,  and  for  their  convenience 
oil  lamps  were  swung  in  several  parts  of  the  ship 
where  they  could  light  a  pipe  or  cigar. 
(Cigarettes  did  not  become  popular  until 
Spanish  War  days.) 

During  routine  work,  smoking  was 
prohibited.  It  was  a  simple  matter  to  regulate 
this  practice.  The  officer  of  the  deck  needed 
only  to  order  the  smoking  lamps  extinguished. 

The  expression  is  retained  to  this  day. 
Before  drills,  fueling,  receiving  ammunition,  etc., 



the  officer  of  the  deck  orders  the  word  passed, 
'"The  smoking  lamp  is  out,"  which  means 
"knock  off  smoking." 


In  the  old  Viking  ships  the  right  side  of  the 
vessel  (looking  forward)  was  called  the 
"steerboard"  side,  because  ships  were  steered  by 
means  of  a  heavy  board  secured  to  the  right  side 
of  the  ship.  Loading  was  avoided  from  that  side 
because  of  the  possibility  of  damaging  the 
steering  gear.  Gradually  the  term  "steerboard" 
was  corrupted  to  "starboard." 

The  left  side  of  these  old  ships  (the  place  of 
loading)  was  called  the  "load  board"  side.  This 
finally  became  "larboard."  Because  "starboard" 
and  "larboard"  sounded  so  much  alike,  the  term 
"port"  was  substituted  in  the  United  States 
Navy  for  "larboard."  A  General  Order  (18 
February  1846)  reads:  "It  having  been 
repeatedly  represented  to  the  Department  that 
confusion  arises  from  the  use  of  the  words 
'Larboard'  and  'Starboard'  in  consequence  of 
their  similarity  of  sound,  the  word  'Port'  is 
hereafter  to  be  substituted  for  Larboard." 
(Perhaps  the  term  "port"  was  used  because,  as 
ships  became  larger  and  rose  higher  in  the  water, 
loading  took  place  through  openings  in  the  sides 
called  "ports." 


A  sundowner  is  a  harsh  disciplinarian.  The 
term  is  derived  from  the  practice  of  strict 
captains  in  the  early  days  who  ordered  all  hands 
to  be  aboard  by  sunset. 


Sailors  once  covered  their  clothes  with  tar  or 
oil  to  make  them  waterproof,  hence  the 
nickname  often  applied  to  mariners. 


^     This  term  is  derived  from  the  old  dutch 
"taptoe,"  meaning  the  time  to  close  the  taps  or 

taverns.  At  the  appointed  hours,  drummers 
marched  from  post  to  post  in  the  town,  beating 
their  drums.  "First  post"  was  the  signal  given 
when  they  had  taken  their  places  and  were  ready 
to  commence  their  rounds  (this  survives  in  the 
Navy  as  "first  call"),  while  "last  post"  was 
sounded  when  they  had  reached  the  end  of  their 
rounds  (this  survives  as  our  present  ''tattoo"). 
The  "first  call"  is  sounded  10  minutes  before 
"taps";  "tattoo,"  5  minutes  before  "taps." 
"Taps"  is  the  signal  for  lights  out. 


It  is  generally  believed  that  this  term  came 
from  the  British  Navy.  Back  in  the  1 8th  century 
there  was  a  compartment  aboard  ship  near  the 
officers'  staterooms,  which  was  used  as  a  storage 
room,  particularly  for  officers'  clothing.  It  was 
called  the  "wardroom."  When  this  compartment 
was  empty,  the  lieutenants  met  there  informally 
and  for  meals.  Gradually  it  was  used  entirely  as 
an  officers'  messroom,  and  such  was  the  custom 
when  the  United  States  Navy  came  into  being. 


"Working  off  a  dead  horse"  refers  to  the  old 
custom  of  rigging  up  a  stuffed  horse  and  burning 
it  over  the  side  to  celebrate  the  fact  that  the  pay 
advanced  at  shipping  on  had  been  worked  off. 
After  this  ceremony  the  crew  started  to 
accumulate  wages  "on  the  books."  This  has 
become  a  common  expression  ashore.  A  lot  of 
"dead  horses"  were  worked  off  during  the 
depression  years  of  the  1 930s. 


The  uniform  promotes  a  feeling  of  unity  and 
contributes  smartness  to  the  appearance  of  an 
individual  or  group.  Insignia  worn  upon  the 
uniform  indicate  corps,  grade,  rate,  and 
specialty,  as  well  as  other  distinguishing  features, 
such  as  awards,  campaign  ribbons,  and  service 
stripes  to  which  the  wearer  is  entitled. 

The  meaning  of  the  uniform  is  well 
expressed  in  the  following  excerpt,  taken  from 


an  address  delivered  to  a  graduating  group  of 


"Have  an  exalted  pride  in  the  uniform  you 
wear  and  all  that  it  represents.  Wear  it 
correctly;  wear  it  proudly.  Salute  it  with 
respect  when  you  meet  it;  behave  in  it  in  a 
seemly  manner;  protect  it  when  it  is 
offended  or  in  danger.  It  represents  the  fleet, 
the  Nation,  your  home,  and  your  family.  It 
is  a  symbol  of  all  that  is  dear  to  you  and  of 
all  that  men  are  willing  to  die  for." 


As  late  as  the  middle  of  the  18th  century, 
sailors'  dress  generally  lacked  uniformity.  A 
group  of  British  naval  officers,  habitues  of  Will's 
Coffee  House,  supposedly  set  the  fashion  of 
officers'  uniforms  in  the  Royal  Navy.  In  1745, 
after  much  discussion  these  officers  presented  a 
petition  to  the  Admiralty,  requesting  a 
prescribed  dress.  Various  patterns  and  colors 
were  accordingly  prepared,  and  final  selection 
was  made  by  the  King  himself.  Having  seen  the 
Duchess  of  Bedford  riding  in  a  blue  habit  which 
greatly  took  his  fancy,  George  II  designated  blue 
as  the  color  to  be  adopted  by  the  Royal  Navy. 

The  Continental  Navy  officer's  uniform  was 
much  like  the  one  worn  in  the  Royal  Navy.  No 
doubt  both  services  had  the  same  purpose  in 
adopting  a  uniform  that  made  it  possible  to 
distinguish  rank  and  also  improved  appearance 
and  lifted  morale. 

In  1877  our  Navy  adopted  the 
single-breasted  blouse  with  a  high  military  collar. 
The  present  double-breasted  coat  was  accepted 
in  1918. 

In  1830  naval  chaplains  were  authorized  to 
wear  "a  plain  black  coat,  vest  and  pantaloons," 
and  in  1841  the  Navy  Department  authorized 
chaplains  to  wear  the  official  eagle  button. 
Chaplains  wore  the  cross  on  their  uniforms  for 
the  first  time  in  1 864. 

The  oak  leaf  and  acorn  (symbol  of  the  druid 
priest-physicians)  was  first  used  to  symbolize  the 
surgeons  and  the  surgeon's  mate  in  1834.  A 
simplified  form  of  the  earliest  symbol  is  in  use 
today  as  the  medical  officer's  corps  device.  The 
caduceus  (classic  symbol  of  the  Greek  god  of 
medicine)  was  first  adopted  in  1886  as  the 
specialty  mark  for  the  enlisted  rating  of 

apothecary.  Upon  establishment  of  the  Hospital 
Corps  the  Geneva  cross  was  adopted  as  the  corps 
device  for  the  warrant  officers  and  enlisted  men 
of  that  corps.  In  1913  the  caduceus  was 
prescribed  as  corps  device  for  Hospital  Corps 
warrant  officers,  and  in  April  1948  it  replaced 
the  red  cross  as  the  specialty  mark  for  enlisted 

A  variation  of  the  medical  corps  oak  leaf  and 
acorn  is  the  corps  device  of  the  Navy  Dental 

Gold  insignia  to  denote  rank  (and  in  the  case 
of  staff  officers  also  their  special  branches) 
gradually  came  into  use. 

Today  comfort,  service,  and  appearance 
dictate  the  styling  of  the  naval  officer's  uniform, 
and,  with  the  exception  of  full-dress  attire,  most 
frills  have  disappeared. 


The  uniform  of  today's  bluejacket  was  also 
"custom-tailored."  The  sailors  of  the  American 
Navy  of  1776  had  no  official  uniform,  and  as 
late  as  1 852  the  seaman  ornamented  his  costume 
in  any  way  he  fancied.  But  standardization  then 
set  in. 

Jumper  Collars 
and  Cuffs 

The  old  salt  of  sailing  ship  days  wore  his  hair 
braided  into  a  pigtail  and  "clubbed"  or  doubled 
up  into  a  knot  and  tied  at  the  back  of  his  neck, 
perhaps  neatly  done  up  in  an  eel  skin.  Tar  was 
applied  to  keep  pigtail  or  clubbed  hair  in  shape. 
To  protect  the  collar  of  the  uniform  from 
tar-stain,  the  bluejacket  wore  a  bandanna.  The 
collar  was  often  ornamented  according  to  the 
personal  taste  of  the  men  who  wore  it. 

In  the  1860s,  enlisted  men  were  directed  to 
border  their  collars  with  two  rows  of  thread. 
The  third  row  was  added  after  the  turn  of  the 
century.  The  practice  of  sewing  three  rows  of 
tape  on  the  collar  was  no  doubt  selected  for 
decorative  effect  and  has  no  special  significance. 
Tradition  to  the  contrary,  it  did  not 
commemorate  the  three  famous  sea  victories  of 
Great  Britain's  Lord  Nelson. 

Use  of  stripes  on  the  cuffs  of  jumpers  was 
also  first  authorized  in  1 866,  one  or  more  stripes 



being  prescribed  to  indicate  petty  officers  and 
nonrated  men. 


The  tradition  that  the  black  neckerchief  was 
worn  for  the  first  time  at  Nelson's  funeral  and 
has  since  been  adopted  in  commemoration  of 
this  great  leader  is  not  based  on  fact.  Silk  ties, 
usually  black,  were  worn  by  enlisted  men  in  the 
United  States  Navy  as  early  as  1776.  The  black 
silk  neckerchief  had  been  officially  a  part  of  the 
uniform  of  enlisted  men  since  1841,  the  first 
time  enlisted  men's  uniforms  were  prescribed  in 
Uniform  Regulations. 


Although  there  are  several  legends 
concerning  bell-bottom  trousers,  there  is  no 
known  reason  for  their  introduction  or  wear.  At 
least  two  legends  are  wholly  believable.  First,  it 
was  easy  to  roll  up  bell-bottom  trousers  when 
washing  down  decks  or  working  in  wet  weather. 

Second,  if  a  sailor  found  himself  overboard,  he 
could  easily  kick  these  trousers  from  his  legs. 
The  square  (broadfall)  flap  that  is  buttoned 
in  front  at  the  waistband  may  also  have  been 
designed  for  speedy  removal  by  a  man 
overboard.  With  one  quick  yank  the  flap  can  be 
torn  loose.  If  there  is  any  significance  in  the 
number  of  buttons -13 -it  has  never  been 
officially  explained.  More  than  likely,  that 
number  was  chosen  because  it  resulted  in  a  more 
symmetrical  pattern. 

Uniform  Change 

In  July  of  1975,  a  radical  change  was 
brought  about  in  the  enlisted  uniform.  Gone  are 
the  traditional  white  hat,  jumper,  and  trousers 
that  have  been  a  part  of  the  enlisted  seabag  since 
the  early  1900s.  These  have  been  replaced  by 
the  officer-type  uniform,  with  minor 

As  with  officers'  uniforms,  comfort, 
appearance,  uniformity,  and  the  reduction  in 
the  amount  of  uniforms  required  played  a  major 
role  in  the  adoption  of  the  new  style  uniform. 




Every  naval  officer  should  be  an  authority 
on  the  grades,  ratings,  and  insignia  of  the 
Navy.  He  also  should  be  able  to  recognize 
and  know  the  meaning  of  most  of  the 
insignia  worn  by  other  branches  of  the 
Armed  Forces. 

This  chapter  describes  the  types  of 
uniforms  and  corps/grade  devices  of  naval 
officers  and  midshipmen,  and  the  uniforms, 
rating  insignia,  and  distinguishing  marks  of 
enlisted  personnel  in  the  Navy.  Included  are 
comparisons  of  rank/rate/grade  insignia  of  all 
service  members. 


As  in  other  branches  of  the  armed 
services,  an  officer  of  the  Navy  takes 
precedence  according  to  his  grade,  and  within 
the  grade  according  to  the  date  of 
appointment  to  that  grade.  Normally,  officers 
below  him  in  grade  and  those  appointed  to 
his  grade  at  a  later  date  than  his  appointment 
are  junior  to  him.  Although  the  word  "rank" 
often  is  used  interchangeably  with  "grade," 
this  is  incorrect.  An  officer  holds  a  grade 
(captain,  commander,  etc.);  he  outRANKS  a 
junior;  or  he  RANKS  from  the  date  of 
appointment  to  his  grade  (date  of  rank). 

An  officer  can  be  either  a  commissioned 
or  warrant  officer.  The  former  (including  a 
chief  (commissioned)  warrant  officer)  holds  a 
commission  granted  by  the  President  and 
signed  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy.  A 
noncommissioned  warrant  officer  derives  his 
authority  from  a  warrant  granted  by  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy. 

Naval  officers'  grades  as  they   correspond 
to  those  of  the  other  services  are  as  follows: 



Vice  admiral 

Rear  admiral 






(junior  grade) 
Chief  warrant 

officer,  W-4 
Chief  warrant 

officer,  W-3 
Chief  warrant 

officer,  W-2 
Warrant  officer, 


*During  war  or  national  emergency 

Flag  officer.  Officers  of  the  grade  of 
commodore  and  above  are  known  as  flag 
officers;  each  has  the  privilege  of  flying  a 
personal  flag  on  the  ship  or  station  to  which 
they  are  attached,  the  flag  decorated  with 
stars  that  indicate  their  grade  are  as  follows: 

Army,  Marine  Corps, 
Air  Force 


Lieutenant  general 
Major  general 
Brigadier  general 

Lieutenant  colonel 


First  lieutenant 

Second  lieutenant 

Same  as  Navy 

Rear  admiral 
Vice  admiral 

1  star 

2  stars 

3  stars 

4  stars 



The  personal  flag  of  an  officer  of  the  line  has 
a  blue  field  with  white  stars  and  that  ot  a 
staff  corps  officer  a  white  field  with  blue 

Admiral.  The  title  of  admiral  comes  from 
the  Arabic  "amir-al-bahr,"  meaning  ruler  of 
the  sea.  The  French  and  English  used  the 
title  long  before  the  discovery  of  America, 
but  the  grade  was  not  established  in  the  U.S. 
Navy  until  1862  (along  with  commodore). 

In  1944,  Congress  established  the  5-star 
grade  of  fleet  admiral  (and,  incidentally,  a 
comparable  grade  of  General  of  the  Army)  to 
which  were  appointed  Admirals  William  D. 
Leahy,  Ernest  J.  King,  Chester  W.  Nimitz, 
and  William  F.  Halsey,  Jr.  Authority  for  the 
grade  of  fleet  admiral  no  longer  exists  (it 
expired  with  the  death  of  Admiral  Nimitz  in 
1966).  Its  reestablishment  will  require 
another  act  of  Congress. 

Commodore.  Until  1862  all  captains  in 
the  United  States  Navy  commanding  or 
having  commanded  squadrons  (which  could  be 
any  number  of  ships  more  than  one)  were 
customarily  addressed  as  commodore,  though 
never  commissioned  as  such.  Commodore 
became  a  fixed  grade  in  1862,  then  was 
abandoned  as  a  grade  on  the  active  list  in 
1899.  In  1943  the  grade  of  commodore  was 
reestablished  for  temporary  service  in  time  of 
war  or  national  emergency.  "Commodore"  is 
still  retained  as  a  courtesy  title  for 
commanders  of  ship  squadrons  and  divisions. 

Line  and  staff  corps  officers.  Naval 
officers  who  are  eligible  to  assume  command 
of  ships  (and  stations)  are  designated 
unrestricted  line  officers,  being  in  line  of 
command.  Other  officers  are  members  of  the 
several  staff  corps  or  are  specialists  in  various 

At  present  there  are  eight  staff  corps, 
listed  below  in  order  of  precedence: 

Civil  Engineer, 

Judge  Advocate  General's, 


Medical  Service,  and 


(The  Medical  Corps  consists  entirely  Of 
physicians  and  surgeons.  The  Medical  Service 
Corps  is  made  up  of  pharmacists,  medical 
administrative  officers,  medical  technologists, 
and  so  on.) 

While  commissioned  members  of  staff 
corps  have  all  the  rights  and  privileges  of 
their  grades,  they  are  not  eligible  to  assume 
command  except  in  their  own  corps.  A 
medical  officer,  for  example,  can  command 
only  a  medical  activity  such  as  a  hospital  or 
dispensary.  Staff  corps  officers  should  not  be 
confused  with  staff  officers,  who  are  line  or 
staff  corps  officers  assigned  to  staffs  of 
high-ranking  officers. 


The  following  uniforms  (see  figure  5-1)  are 
worn  by  naval  officers:  service  dress,  evening 
dress,  full  dress,  dinner  dress,  working  and 
tropical.  The  aviation  winter  working  uniform 
(forestry  green)  is  worn  by  naval  aviators  and 
chief  petty  officers  serving  in  pilot  status,  and 
also  by  naval  flight  officers;  it  may  be  worn  by 
other  officers  and  chief  petty  officers  attached 
to  aviation  commands.  Full  details  regarding 
uniforms  and  insignia  are  set  forth  in  U.S.  Navy 
Uniform  Regulations.  The  commandants  of 
naval  districts  prescribe  the  uniform  of  the  day 
to  be  worn  in  their  respective  districts  and  the 
senior  officers  present  afloat  and  at  shore 
stations  outside  the  districts  prescribe  the 
uniform  of  the  day  for  personnel  of  their 

An  officer's  grade  is  indicated  by  the  gold 
sleeve  stripes  on  blue  coats;  by  black  sleeve 
stripes  on  forestry  green  coats;  by  shoulder 
marks  on  white  coats,  white  tropical  shirts, 
and  blue  overcoats;  and  by  metal  grade 
insignia  on  the  shoulder  straps  of  blue 
raincoats,  aviation  winter  working  overcoats, 
and  on  collars  of  khaki  and  blue  flannel 
shirts.  Above  the  stripes  (inboard  of  them  on 

shoulder  boards),  line  officers  wear  a 
five-pointed  gold  star;  staff  corps  officers 
wear  the  appropriate  corps  device  as  shown  in 
figure  5-2. 

Line  and  corps  devices  for  commissioned 
warrant  and  warrant  officers  appear  in  figure 

Stripes  indicating  officers'  grades  are 
shown  in  figure  5-4.  Flag  officers'  sleeve 
markings  consist  of  at  least  one  2-inch  stripe 
(on  each  sleeve,  of  course).  Relative  seniority 
by  grade  is  indicated  by  the  addition  of 
1/2-inch  stripes  above  the  2-inch  band— one 
stripe  for  rear  admiral,  two  for  vice  admiral, 

and  three  for  full  admiral.  (Although  the 
grade  of  FADM  no  longer  exists,  it  is 
included  in  figure  5-4  for  informational 
purposes.)  As  can  be  seen,  the  grades  of 
other  commissioned  officers  are  indicated  by 
the  size  and  number  of  1/2-  and  1/4-inch 
stripes.  All  warrant  officers  wear  one  broken 
stripe:  1/2-inch  for  commissioned  warrants 
and  1/4-inch  for  warrant  officer  W-l. 

Officers  wear  pin-on  grade-indicating 
devices  on  the  collars  of  khaki  and  blue 
flannel  shirts.  Line  officers  wear  the  device 
on  both  collar  tips.  Staff  corps  officers  wear 
the  pin-on  device  of  grade  on  the  right  collar 
tip  and  the  corps  device  on  the  left. 


Figure  5-1.-Basic  male  officers'  uniforms:  full  dress  white,  service  dress  blue,  working  blue,  and  working  khaki. 































Also  leader  of  U.  S.  Naval  Academy  Bond  and 
thoi*  commissioned  in  the  field  of  music 





Figure  5-2.-Commissioned  officers'  line  and  corps  devices. 

The  grade  devices  are  given  below;  they 
are  similar  in  form  to  grade  devices  worn  by 
Army,  Air  Force,  and  Marine  officers. 


Vice  admiral 
Rear  admiral 

Pin-on  device 

Four  silver  stars 
Three  silver  stars 
Two  silver  stars 
One  silver  star 
Silver  spread  eagle 
Silver  oak  leaf 

Gold  oak  leaf 



Lieutenant  Gg) 


warrant  and 
warrant  officer 

Pin-on  device 

Two  silver  bars 

One  silver  bar 

One  gold  bar 

Dark  blue  bar  with  silve 

(W-4,  W-3)orgold  (W-2 

W-l)  breaks 

Three    types    of  caps   are   authorized    f 
wear',     combination,    garrison,    and    workir 
The  combination  cap  has  a  stiff  visor  and 
rigid    standing    front.    It    is    worn    with 
detachable   blue,   white,  khaki,  or  green   (1 

















































































A    LENS 










Figure  5-3.—  Warrant  officers'  line  and  corps  devices. 







o  cc 

<  UJ 

o  z 






O  0: 

<  Ul 

o  z 



S       t       5 

5  i  s 



















uiapter  :>— 


iviation  personnel)  cap  cover.  The  blue  is  a 
#ater-repellent  rain  cover  that  may  be  worn 
Dver  any  of  the  other  covers;  otherwise  the 
:olors  match  the  appropriate  uniform,  except 
:hat  the  white  cover  is  worn  with  both  blue 
md  white  uniforms.  The  garrison  and  working 
;aps  are  optional  items.  The  former  are  either 
rreen  or  khaki.  The  working  cap  may  be 
.vorn  with  any  working  uniform  except 
iviation  green. 

On  combination  caps  worn  by  officers 
Delow  the  grade  of  commander,  the  visor  is 
plain  black.  Captains'  and  commanders'  visors 
ire  partly  fretted  by  gold  embroidery;  flag 
officers'  caps  bear  full  visor  embroidery. 
Except  for  warrant  officers  (W-l),  cap  devices 
consist  of  two  crossed  foul  anchors  with  a 
silver  shield,  surmounted  by  a  spread  eagle. 
Ihe  W-l  cap  device  consists  simply  of  crossed 
inchors.  Chin  straps  are  faced  with  gold  lace. 

On  the  garrison  cap,  the  grade  device  is 
vorn  on  the  right  side,  near  the  front,  and  a 
niniature  form  of  the  cap  device  is  worn  on 
:he  left  side. 


Aiguillettes  are  worn  by  officers  when  on 
luty  as  personal  aide  to  the  President;  aide 
:o  the  Vice  President;  aide  at  the  White 
louse;  aide  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense;  aide 
:o  the  Secretary,  Under  Secretary,  and 
Assistant  Secretaries  of  the  Navy;  aide  to  the 
Deputy  or  Assistant  Secretaries  of  Defense; 
udes  to  flag  officers;  by  naval  attaches;  and 
tides  to  top  ranking  representatives  of  foreign 
lations  visiting  the  United  States.  They  may 
)e  worn  on  official  occasions  by  officers 
ippointed  as  aides  on  the  staff  of  a  governor 
)f  a  state  or  territory.  Aides  to  the  President, 
o  the  Vice  President,  at  the  White  House, 
ind  to  foreign  heads  of  state  wear  them  on 
he  right  side;  all  others  on  the  left.  With 
wercoats  they  are  worn  on  the  outside. 

Service  aiguillettes  consist  of  loops  of 
liguillette  cord  fastened  on  the  shoulder  and 
;oing  around  the  shoulder  just  under  the 

armpit.  The  aiguillette  cord  is  gold  with  blue 
silk  insertion,  except  that  aiguillettes  for  the 
aide  to  the  President  are  gold  cord  without 
the  insertion.  The  number  of  loops  indicates 
the  wearer's  status  as  shown  in  figure  5-5. 

Dress  aiguillettes  consist  of  two  single 
plaits  of  aiguillette  cord  with  two  loops.  At 
the  termination  of  the  plaits  there  are 
approximately  3  inches  of  plain  cord,  at  the 
end  of  which  are  secured  two  gilt  metal 
pencils,  approximately  3-1/2  inches  long, 
mounted  with  two  silver  anchors.  They  are 
worn  on  service  or  dress  uniforms  by  aides 
on  occasion  of  ceremony  and  on  social 
occasions  when  prescribed. 

Aiguillettes  are  worn  by  USNA 
midshipmen  as  prescribed  by  the 
Commandant  of  Midshipmen;  they  are  pinned 
on  the  shoulder  at  the  arm  seam. 

Mourning  badges  are  of  black  crepe,  3 
inches  wide,  and  are  worn  on  the  left  sleeve 
of  the  outer  coat,  halfway  between  the 
shoulder  and  elbow.  Officers  are  required  to 
wear  mourning  badges  when  serving  as 
honorary  pallbearers  at  military  funerals, 
when  attending  military  funerals  in  an  official 
capacity,  and  at  other  prescribed  times.  Those 
attending  civilian  funerals  may  wear  mourning 
badges  if  desired. 


Uniforms  for  women  in  the  Navy  (figure 
5-6)  have  designations  similar  to  those  of 
male  personnel,  such  as  service  dress  blue  and 
service  dress  white.  Women  also  wear  a 
service  dress  light  blue  as  a  summer  uniform. 

Cap  and  sleeve  insignia  for  women  officers 
are  identical  to  those  of  male  officers.  Sleeve 
stripes  and  rating  badges  for  enlisted  women 
are  the  same  as  for  male  personnel  except 
that  they  are  smaller. 


The  distinguishing  mark  of  all  Coast 
Guard  uniforms  is  the  Coast  Guard  shield. 




(4  LOOPS) 




(4  LOOPS) 

(3  LOOPS) 






(2  LOOPS) 

USNA  - 

(1  LOOP) 

USNA  - 




(2  LOOPS) 



Figure  5-5.— The  number  of  loops  in  the  aiguillettes  indicates  the  status  of  the  wearer. 

This  appears  above  the  stripes  on  the  sleeves 
and  shoulder  markings  of  commissioned 
officers,  It  accompanies  the  specialty  device 
on  uniforms  of  warrant  officers  and  is  worn 
on  the  right  sleeve  of  the  enlisted  man's 
uniform.  It  is  white  on  the  blues  and  blue  on 
the  whites. 

The  Coast  Guard  officer's  cap  device 
shows  a  gold  eagle  perched  on  a  horizontal 
anchor.  The  shield,  centered  on  the  eagle's 
breast,  is  of  silver. 

Although  the  Coast  Guard  uniform  is  of 
the  same  basic  design  as  the  Navy,  there  are 
some  notable  differences.  The  blue  uniform  is 

of  a   lighter   color  and  is  worn   with  a   pale 
blue  shirt. 


Naval  Academy  midshipmen  are  classified 
as  officers  of  the  line,  but  are  officers  only 
in  a  qualified  sense.  They  rank  between 
warrant  officers  and  chief  warrant  officers. 
Their  uniforms  are:  service  dress,  full  dress, 
dinner  dress,  working,  infantry,  and  tropical. 
Their  service  dress  and  working  uniforms  are 
similar  to  officers. 


Figure  5-6.— Basic  women's  uniforms:  service  dress  blue,  service  dress  light  blue,  summer  blue,  and  dungaree. 

On  the  combination  cap  a  3/8-inch  gold 
chin  strap  and  a  gold  foul  anchor  device  are 
worn.  A  small  gold  foul  anchor  device  is 
worn  on  the  left  side  of  the  garrison  cap. 

A  gold  anchor  pin-on  device  is  worn  on 
each  lapel  of  the  blue  service  blouse. 
Outstanding  midshipmen  of  each  class  wear  a 
pin-on  gold  star  above  each  collar  anchor  on 
the  full  dress  and  service  dress  blue  uniform. 
Class  insignia  (figure  5-7 A)  are  as  follows: 

First  class:  One  horizontal  gold  stripe 
around  each  sleeve. 

Second  class:  Two  diagonal  gold  stripes 
on  the  left  sleeve  only.  The  stripes  are 

between  the  elbow  and  cuff  with  the  higher 
end  along  the  rear  seam  and  lower  end  to  the 

Third  class:  One  diagonal  gold  stripe  on 
the  left  sleeve. 

Fourth  class:  No  sleeve  stripe. 

Shirt  collar  insignia.  Shirt  collar  insignia 
consist  of  gold  fouled  anchors,  eagle  and  bar 
(striper)  insignia,  to  be  worn  on  collar  tips  of 
blue  drill  shirts,  khaki  shirts,  and  green 

*  Midshipmen  first  class  of  other  than 
officer  rank  shall  wear  the  eagle  insignia  on 
both  collars. 













5-7.-USNA  midsWpmen  class/rank  stri 




•  Midshipmen     second    class    shall    wear 
the  anchor  insignia  on  both  collars. 

•  Midshipmen  third   class  shall  wear  the 
anchor  insignia  on  the  right  collar  only. 

•  'Midshipmen  fourth  class  shall  wear  no 
insignia  on  the  collar. 

•  Midshipmen    officers    shall    wear    from 
one    to    six    bars    representing    the    ranks   of 
Midshipman      Ensign      through      Midshipman 

In  lieu  of  sleeve  stripes  denoting  class, 
midshipmen  officers  of  the  first  class  wear 
gold  stripes  to  denote  grade  as  shown  in 
figure  5-7  B. 

The  uniforms  of  NROTC  midshipmen  are 
similar  to  the  uniforms  of  officers  and  USNA 
midshipmen.  The  variation  in  grade  stripes  is 
shown  in  figure  5-8. 

Officer  candidates  wear  uniforms  similar 
to  officer  service  dress,  working  blue,  and 

khaki  uniforms.  First  and  second  classmen 
wear  corps  or  line  insignia  on  service  dress 
uniforms  and  gold  anchor  pin-on  devices  on 
each  collar  tip  of  the  blue  and  khaki  shirts. 
Third  and  fourth  classmen  wear  no  class 
insignia.  Grade  stripes  for  officer  candidates 
are  shown  in  figure  5-8. 


In  the  enlisted  branch,  a  field  of  work  or 
an  occupation  is  called  a  rating;  levels  within 
the  rating  are  rates.  In  the  case  of  a 
Boatswain's  Mate  second  class  (BM2),  for 
example,  Boatswain's  Mate  is  the  rating  and 
second  class  is  the  rate. 

A  newcomer  without  previous  naval 
experience  normally  enters  the  service  as  a 
recruit  in  pay  grade  E-l,  the  basic  pay  grade 
in  the  Armed  Forces'  rating  structure.  From 
recruit  rate  he/she  begins  to  absorb  training 
in  a  broad  occupational  group  and  to  advance 
in  rate  or  rating  when  qualified.  After 
completing  recruit  training  and  qualifying  for 














Figure  5-8.— Grade  stripes  for  NROTC  midshipmen  and  officer  candidates. 


advancement  to  the  apprentice  level  (pay 
grade  E-2)  he/she  must  again  qualify  for  the 
next  higher  level  (pay  grade  E-3)-  After 
advancing  to  Seaman  (or  Fireman,  Airman,  or 
other  distinct  pay  grade  E-3  rate),  he/she 
attempts  to  qualify  for  the  lowest  petty 
officer  rate  of  a  particular  rating,  depending 
on  his/her  ability  and  inclinations.  It  is  at 
this  level  that  an  E-3  begins  the  occupational 
career  that  will  be  followed  for  the  remainder 
of  his/her  naval  service.  There  are  within 
most  ratings,  specialties  that  can  be  chosen 
from.  For  example,  in  the  Gunner's  Mate 
rating  there  are  Gunner's  Mate  Guns  and 
Gunner's  Mate  Missiles.  Normally,  once 
advanced  to  that  rating,  the  person  specializes 
only  in  that  field. 

Following      is      the      normal 
advancement  by  pay  grades: 

General  title 










path      of 

Pay  grade 








Dental  man 

Petty  officer,  third  class 
Petty  officer,  second  class 
Petty  officer,  first  class 
Chief  petty  officer 
Senior  CPO 
Master  CPO 




The  comparison  by  pay  grade  for 
personnel  of  the  Navy,  Marines,  Army,  and 
Air  Force  is  shown  in  figure  5-9. 

Let  us  trace  the  advancement  of  a  typical 
enlisted  naval  careerist,  Gaskins,  who 
specializes  in  the  occupational  field  of  a 
Gunner's  Mate  Guns.  Gaskins  first  enlists  as  a 
Seaman  Recruit  (SR).  After  receiving  basic 
training  at  a  recruit  training  center,  he 
expresses  interest  in  deck  seamanship.  Upon 
completion  of  his  training,  he  is  transferred 
to  sea  duty.  Aboard  ship  he  receives  general 
training  in  seamanship  and  in  time  qualifies 
for  advancement  to  Seaman  Apprentice  (SA), 
then  to  Seaman  (SN). 

Meantime,  having  demonstrated  an  interest 
in  the  rating  of  Gunner's  Mate  Guns,  Gaskins 
is  assigned  to  gunnery  maintenance  duties  in 
the  weapons  department.  Having  shown 
himself  proficient  in  that  field  of  work,  his 
commanding  officer  recommends  to  BUPERS 
that  Gaskins  be  officially  designated  as  a 
GMG  striker.  If  the  Bureau  approves  the 
recommendation,  Gaskins,  after  meeting 
certain  requirements  as  to  length  of  time  in 
service,  course  requirements,  and  his  pay 
grade,  may  compete  in  Navywide 
examinations  for  advancement  to  Gunner's 
Mate  third  (GMG3).  If  successful,  he  then  has 
recurring  opportunities  to  compete  for 
successive  advancement  to  GMG2,  GMG1,  and 
Chief  Gunner's  Mate.  Thereafter  he  becomes 
eligible  to  compete  for  advancement  to  senior 
and  master  chief  petty  officer,  respectively, 
the  latter  being  the  highest  enlisted  rate. 

Subject  to  standard  instructions,  lateral 
changes  from  one  group  to  another  are 
allowed  quite  freely  in  the  lower  pay  grades 
before  a  person  has  been  intensively  trained 
in  one  particular  field.  This  allows  time  to 
find  the  choice  of  work  in  the  Navy. 
However,  once  a  person  has  advanced  to  a 
senior  petty  officer  level,  lateral  changes  are 
seldom  permitted. 


July,  1975  marked  the  beginning  of  an 
evolutionary  change  to  a  one-uniform  Navy. 
The  basic  uniform  that  was  adopted  for  all 
members  of  the  naval  service  symbolizes  an 
important  theme,  "One  Navy,  united  in 
purpose,  striving  for  common  goals." 


































































Figure  5-9.— Insignia  of  U.S.  Armed  Forces  enlisted  personnel. 



The  jumper  style  uniform,  worn  since  the 
turn  of  the  century,  with  few  modifications, 
is  no  longer  worn.  f 

Uniforms  for  enlisted,  like  officers,  are  or 
the  distinctive  and  traditional  double-breasted 
coat  and  tie  style  uniform.  The  differences 
being  in  identifying  insignia. 

Chief  petty  officers  wear  a  visor  cap  ol 
the  junior  officer  type;  the  chin  strap  is  black 
leather  and  the  insignia  is  a  gold  fouled 
anchor  on  which  are  superimposed  the  silver 
letters  USN.  Rates  of  senior  and  master  CPOs 
are  reflected  by  the  number  of  stars  atop  the 
anchor:  1  star  for  senior  and  2  for  master 


Figure  5-11. -Uniform  for  CPO. 

Figure  5-10.-Typical  uniforms  for  enlisted  below  CPO. 

(with  a  third  star  for  Master  Chief  Petty 
Officer  of  the  Navy).  Enlisted  below  the  rate 
of  CPO  wear  an  identical  cap  with  the 
exception  of  the  insignia.  It  consists  of  an 
oxidized  silver  colored  spread  eagle  with 
oxidized  silver  colored  block  letters  "USN" 
superimposed  horizontally  between  the  wing 
tips  and  centered  above  the  eagle's  head.  The 
buttons  on  the  service  dress  blue  coat  are  also 
of  the  oxidized  silver  color. 

As  shown  in  figures  5-10  and  5-1  i,  a 
petty  officer  wears,  midway  between  shoulder 
and  elbow  of  the  left  sleeve,  a  rating  badge 
consisting  of  a  perched  eagle,  the  specialty 
mark  of  his  or  her  rating  (see  figure  5-12), 




E-2  E-3 


In  a  small  percentage  of  cases,  personnel 
!n  E—1  are  authorized  to  wear  the  color 
or  the  striker  symbol  of  their  apprenticeship 




































Figure  5-12.— Enlisted  rate  and  rating  insignia. 



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Figure  5-12.— Enlisted  rate  and  rating  insignia  (continued). 







Blue  dress; 




Blue  undress 










or  strikers'  marks,  indicates  the  general 
occupational  group  to  which  a  nonrated  man 
belongs,  as  follows: 

Figure  5-13.-Rating  badges  vary  in  color. 

and  chevrons  indicating  rate  (except  for  a 
senior  or  master  CPO  whose  rate  is  indicated 
by  stars  above  the  eagle  of  the  E-7  rating 
badge,  as  in  figure  5-9). 

The  color  of  a  rating  badge  varies 
according  to  the  uniform  on  which  it  is 
worn,  as  shown  in  figure  5-13.  Chevrons  are 
scarlet  on  blue  uniforms  and  blue  on  all 
others,  except  that  personnel  who  complete 
1 2  years  active  naval  service  (broken  or 
unbroken)  in  the  Navy  and  Naval  Reserve 
with  good  conduct  wear  gold  chevrons  with 
the  blue  uniform.  (Scarlet  chevrons  are 
authorized  for  wear  on  winter  working  blues, 
E-4  to  E-6,  by  personnel  eligible  for  gold.) 
Chief  petty  officers  wear  miniature  foul 
anchors  on  each  collar  tip  of  the  khaki, 
working  blue,  and  tropical  white  shirt. 

Personnel  below  pay  grade  E-4  wear  on 
the  left  sleeve,  in  place  of  the  PO  rating 
badge,  3-inch -long  rectangular  group-rate 
marks,  as  in  figure  5-12.  The'  color  of  the 
stripes,  alone  or  in  combination  with  specialty 






White  stripes  on  blue 
uniforms,  Navy  blue 
on  white 


Emerald  green 
Light  blue 

Appropriate  petty  officer  specialty  marks 
are  centered  above  the  group-rate  mark  by 
designated  strikers. 

Service  stripes  (hashmarks)  are  7-inch-long 
diagonal  stripes  for  CPOs  and  5-inch-long 
diagonal  stripes  for  E-6  and  below.  They  are 
worn  on  the  left  lower  arm  with  each  stripe 
representing  4  years  of  service  in  the  Navy, 
Marine  Corps,  Coast  Guard,  Army,  Air  Force, 
or  Naval  Reserve.  The  stripes  are  red  when 
worn  on  blue  uniforms  and  blue  on  others. 
When  gold  rating  badges  are  worn,  service 
stripes  also  are  of  gold. 


According  to  legend,  Alexander  the  Great 
began  the  custom  of  awarding  medals  for 
heroism  on  the  battlefield  more  than  2000 
years  ago.  Thus  there  is  a  historic  precedent 
for  the  medals  worn  by  military  personnel 
the  world  over.  The  bewildering  array  of  little 
ribbons  on  the  left  breast  of  the  dress 
uniform  of  veterans  often  seems  quite 
puzzling  to  the  newcomer  in  the  Navy.  These 
distinctive  ribbons-and  there  are  many  of 
them— represent  the  medals  which  are  too 
cumbersome  to  be  worn  at  all  times.  They 
are  worn  in  horizontal  rows  of  three  each, 
arranged  in  order  of  precedence  from  the 
center  of  the  body  to  the  left  shoulder  and 
from  top  row  to  bottom  row.  (See  Appendix 
6  for  fuller  discussion  of  decorations  and 

Other  special  insignia  are  those  worn  on 
the  breast  to  indicate  special  qualifications  or 












Figure  5-14.— Breast  insignia  worn  to  indicate  a  special  qualification  or  designation. 

designations.   Examples  of  these  (figure  5-14) 

Command  at  Sea  insignia,  worn  by 
persons  below  flag  rank  who  have,  or  Had, 
command  of  commissioned  ships  or  aviation 
squadrons  at  sea.  Officers  currently  in 
command  wear  the  insignia  on  the  right 
breast.  Those  not  presently  in  command,  but 
who  have  held  command,  wear  it  on  the  left 
breast  below  any  ribbons,  medals,  or  other 

Command  Ashore /Project  Manager  insignia 
worn  by  officers  below  flag  rank  who  have, 
or  had,  command  ashore  or  served  as  project 
manager.  It  is  worn  in  the  same  manner  as 
the  Command  at  Sea  insignia. 

Small  Craft  insignia,  worn  by  personnel 
currently  serving,  or  having  previously  served, 
as  officer  in  charge  of  small  craft.  This 

insignia  is  also   worn   in   the  same  manner  as 
the  Command  at  Sea  insignia. 

The  following  insignia  are  worn  on  the 
left  breast  above  any  ribbons,  medals,  or 

Surface  Warfare  insignia,  worn  by  officers 
who  have  qualified  in  all  phases  of  surface 

Submarine  insignia,  worn  by  personnel 
who  have  qualified  to  serve  in  submarines.  In 
addition  to  the  basic  insignia,  other  submarine 
insignia  include  those  for  submarine  medical, 
engineering,  and  supply  officers,  and  for  all 
who  participated  successfully  in  combat 

Aviation  insignia,  worn  by  personnel 
qualified  to  serve  in  flight.  In  addition  to  the 



aviator  insignia,  insignia  are  worn  by  flight 
officers,  flight  surgeons,  flight  nurses, 
aircrewmen,  and  combat  aircrewmen. 

Special  Warfare  insignia,  worn  by 
personnel  qualified  in  underwater  and  beach 
reconnaissance,  demolition,  and  special 
warfare  tactics.  They  are  usually  associated 
with  underwater  demolition  or  SEAL  team 

Explosive  Ordnance  Disposal  insignia, 
worn  by  personnel  who  are  qualified  in  the 
identification  and  safing  of  a  full  spectrum  of 
ordnance  produced  by  the  U.S.,  our  allies  and 

SSBN  Deterrent  Patrol  insignia,  worn  by 
personnel  who  successfully  complete  a  patrol 
on  a  Fleet  Ballistic  Missile  submarine.  Gold 
stars  are  mounted  on  the  scroll  to  indicate 

each  successful  patrol  subsequent  to  that  for 
which  the  original  insignia  was  awarded. 

Most  insignia  that  are  worn  by  officers 
and  enlisted  personnel  are  identical  with  the 
exception  of  color.  Those  worn  by  officers 
are  of  a  gold  color  while  enlisted 's  are  silver. 
Examples  of  some  of  these  are  submarine, 
small  craft,  and  explosive  ordnance  disposal. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  special 
insignia  are  worn  by  naval  astronauts, 
parachutists,  balloon  pilots,  aerospace 
physiologists/experimental  psychologists, 
master  divers,  diving  officers,  and  explosive 
ordnance  disposal  personnel;  and  identification 
badges  are  displayed  by  those  engaged  in 
Presidential  service  or  assigned  to  certain 
staffs,  such  as  the  Organization  of  the  JCS  or 
the  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense. 

NOTE:  As  this  text  was  going  to  press,  the 
Navy  announced  that  beginning  in  1978  enlisted 
men  in  pay  grades  E-l  thru  E-4  will,  on  a  trial 
basis,  gradually  return  to  the  traditional  uniform 
of  bell  bottoms,  junipers,  and  white  hats. 



Traditionally  the  terms  "officer"  and 
"gentleman"  have  been  synonymous.  Some  of 
the  requisite  traits  of  the  true  officer  are 
integrity,  loyalty,  dependability,  regard  for  the 
rights  of  others,  tolerance,  self-confidence,  sense 
of  humor,  ability  to  treat  all  as  equals,  tact,  and 
good  manners. 

John  Paul  Jones  in  a  letter  to  Congress  in 
1775  wrote,  "It  is  by  no  means  enough  that  an 
officer  of  the  Navy  should  be  a  capable  mariner. 
He  must  be  that,  of  course,  but  also  a  great  deal 
more.  He  should  be  as  well  a  gentleman  of 
liberal  education,  refined  manners,  punctilious 
courtesy,  and  the  nicest  sense  of  personal 

It  is  the  purpose  of  this  chapter  to  introduce 
most  of  the  main  aspects  of  military  courtesy 
and  etiquette,  both  as  to  the  traditional 
elements  that  still  survive  and  those  that  have 
changed  with  the  passage  of  time. 


One  of  the  essentials  of  military  courtesy  is 
the  salute.  Regulations  governing  its  use  are 
founded  on  military  etiquette  and,  as  such,  are 
deeply  rooted  in  traditions  and  customs  of  the 
service.  A  military  organization  functions 
efficiently  only  as  a  unit,  and  any  common  bond 
or  identifying  symbol  that  furthers  the  feeling  of 
comradeship  strengthens  that  unity. 

The  custom  of  saluting  is  a  time-honored 
demonstration  of  courtesy  among  military 
personnel  the  world  over  and  expresses  mutual 
respect  and  pride  in  the  service. 

In  form,  the  salute  is  simple  and  dignified, 
but  there  is  great  significance  in  that  gesture. 
The  privilege  of  saluting  is  generally  denied 

prisoners  because  their  status  is  unworthy  of  the 
comradeship  of  military  personnel. 

The  salute  probably  originated  in  the  days 
of  chivalry,  when  it  was  customary  for  knights  in 
mail  to  raise  their  visors  to  friends  for  the 
purpose  of  identification.  Because  of  strict 
gradations  or  rank,  the  junior  was  required  to 
make  the  first  gesture.  Another  school  of 
thought  traces  the  salute  back  to  a  custom  at  the 
time  of  the  Borgias.  Assassinations  by  dagger 
were  not  uncommon  at  that  time  and  it  became 
the  custom  for  men  to  approach  each  other  with 
raised  hand,  palm  to  the  front,  to  show  that 
there  was  no  weapon  concealed. 

In  the  American  Navy,  however,  it  seems 
reasonable  to  assume  that  the  hand  salute  came 
to  us  directly  from  the  British  Navy.  There  is 
general  agreement  that  the  salute  as  now 
rendered  is  really  the  first  part  of  the  movement 
of  uncovering.  From  the  earliest  days  of  military 
units,  the  junior  uncovered  when  meeting  or 
addressing  a  senior.  Gradually,  the  act  of  taking 
off  one's  cap  was  simplified  into  merely 
touching  the  cap  or,  if  uncovered,  the  head 
(forelock),  and  finally  into  the  present  form  of 


Except  when  walking,  one  should  be  at 
attention  when  saluting.  In  any  case,  head  and 
eyes  are  turned  toward  the  person  saluted  unless 
inappropriate  to  do  so,  such  as  when  a  division 
in  ranks  salutes  an  inspecting  officer  on 
command.  The  right  hand  is  raised  smartly  until 
the  tip  of  the  forefinger  touches  the  lower  part 
of  the  headgear  or  forehead  above  and  slightly 
to  the  right  of  the  right  eye.  Thumb  and  fingers 

1 1 


are  extended  and  joined.  The  palm  is  turned 
slightly  inward  until  the  person  saluting  can  just 
see  its  surface  from  the  corner  of  the  right  eye. 
The  upper  arm  is  parallel  to  the  ground,  the 
elbow  slightly  in  front  of  the  body.  The  forearm 
is  inclined  at  a  45°  angle;  hand  and  wrist  are  in  a 
straight  line.  One  completes  the  salute  (after  it  is 
returned)  by  dropping  the  arm  to  its  normal 
position  in  one  sharp,  clean  motion. 

The  first  position  of  the  hand  salute  is 
executed  when  six  paces  from  the  person 
saluted,  or  at  the  nearest  point  of  approach,  if 
more  than  six  paces.  (Thirty  paces  is  generally 
regarded  as  maximum  saluting  distance.)  The 
first  position  should  be  held  until  the  person 
saluted  has  passed  or  the  salute  is  returned. 

The   hand    salute,  under  naval  custom,  is 
accompanied  by  a  word  of  greeting.  The  junior 
stands  at  attention,  looks  the  senior  straight  in' 
the  eye  and  says,  depending  upon  the  time  of 
day,  as  follows: 

From  first  rising  until  noon-"Good 
morning, " 

From  noon  until  sunset -"Good  afternoon, 

From  sunset  until  turning  in-"Good 
evening " 

It  is  preferable  to  call  the  senior  by  grade 
and  name,  i.e.,  "Commander  Jones"  rather  than 
by  the  impersonal  "Sir." 

Naval  custom  permits  saluting  with  the  left 
hand  when  a  salute  cannot  be  rendered  with  the 
right  hand;  Army  and  Air  Force  custom  permits 
only  right-hand  salutes. 

Certain  common  errors  in  saluting  should  be 
avoided.  The  major  faults  to  watch  are  these: 

Bowing  the  head  as  the  salute  is  given. 
Dropping    the    salute    before   it   has   been 

Holding  the  arm  awkwardly  high  or  letting  it 

sag  too  low. 
Saluting  on  the  double. 
Avoiding  the  gaze  of  the  person  saluted. 
Saluting  with  pipe,  cigar,  or  cigarette  in  the 

mouth  or  in  the  hand. 
Waiting  too  long  to  begin  the  salute. 
Saluting  in  a  casual  or  perfunctory  manner. 


In  the  Navy,  as  in  practically  every  military 
service  in  the  world,  everybody  salutes-from 
the  bottom  to  the  top  and  down  again.  Enlisted 
personnel  salute  all  officers  and  every  officer 
salutes  his  seniors.  Salutes  are  returned  by  all 
who  are  saluted.  When  uncovered,  the  person 
saluted  usually  acknowledges  a  salute  by  an 
appropriate  oral  greeting  or  nod  of  the  head. 

Salutes  are  extended  to  officers  of  the  Navy, 
Army,  Air  Force,  Marine  Corps,  and  Coast 
Guard;  to  foreign  military  and  naval  officers 
whose  governments  are  formally  recognized  by 
the  Government  of  the  United  States;  and,  when 
in  uniform,  to  officers  of  the  Naval,  Army,  Air 
Force,  Marine  Corps,  and  Coast  Guard  Reserve, 
and  of  the  National  Guard.  Public  Health  and 
Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  officers,  when 
serving  with  the  Armed  Forces  of  the  United 
States,  rate  a  salute. 

When  several  officers  in  company  are 
saluted,  all  return  the  salute.  For  example,  if  an 
ensign  were  walking  with  a  commander  and  an 
Army  captain  approached,  it  would  be  improper 
for  the  ensign  to  salute  the  captain  until  the 
captain  first  saluted  the  commander.  As  the 
commander  returns  the  salute,  the  ensign  salutes 
simultaneously.  If  two  or  more  persons  of 
various  grades  accompany  the  senior  officer,  the 
same  rule  applies:  they  render  the  salute  when 
the  senior  officer  returns  the  salute  accorded. 

Civilians  entitled  by  reason  of  their  position 
to  gun  salutes  or  other  honors  also  are  entitled 
by  custom  to  the  hand  salute. 

There  are  five  types  of  personal  salutes;  hand 
salute,  hand  salute  under  arms,  present  arms, 
sword  salute,  and  "Eyes  right,"  given  by 
personnel  passing  in  review. 

Aboard  Ship 

When  boarding  a  ship  in  which  the  national 
ensign  is  flying,  all  persons  in  the  naval  service 
stop  on  reaching  the  upper  platform  of  the 
accommodation  ladder  or  the  shipboard  end  of 
the  brow,  face  the  ensign,  and  salute.  Following 
this,  they  salute  the  officer  of  the  deck.  On 
leaving  the  ship,  personnel  render  the  salutes  in 



reverse  order:  first  to  the  OOD  and  then  to  the 
national  ensign.  These  salutes  also  are  rendered 
aboard  foreign  men-of-war. 

All  officers  and  enlisted  personnel  on  board 
a  ship  of  the  Navy  salute  all  flag  officers 
(officers  above  the  grade  of  captain),  the 
commanding  officer,  and  visiting  officers  senior 
to  themselves  on  every  occasion  of  meeting, 
passing  near,  or  being  addressed.  On  their  first 
daily  meeting  they  salute  all  senior  officers  who 
are  attached  to  their  ship.  Many  ships  consider 
salutes  rendered  at  quarters  to  suffice  for  this 
first  salute  of  the  day.  They  salute  whenever 
they  are  addressing  or  being  addressed  by  their 
seniors.  They  salute  an  inspecting  officer  during 
the  course  of  an  official  inspection.  When  the 
progress  of  a  senior  officer  may  be  impeded, 
officers  and  men  clear  a  gangway  and  stand  at 
attention  facing  the  senior  officer  until  he  has 

In  Boats 

When  someone  is  in  charge  of  a  boat  that  is 
not  underway,  he  salutes  officers  that  come 
alongside  or  pass  nearby.  If  there  is  no  one  in 
charge,  all  those  in  the  boat  render  the  salute. 
Boat  coxswains  salute  all  officers  entering  or 
leaving  their  boats.  (Although  it  is  customary  to 
stand  when  saluting,  this  formality  is  dispensed 
with  if  the  safety  of  the  boat  is  imperiled  by  so 
doing.)  When  boat  awnings  are  spread,  enlisted 
personnel  sit  at  attention  while  saluting;  they  do 
not  rise.  Officers  seated  in  boats  rise  when 
rendering  salutes  to  seniors  who  are  entering  or 

When  boats  pass  each  other  with  embarked 
officers  or  officials  in  view,  hand  salutes  are 
rendered  by  the  senior  officer  and  coxswain  in 
each  boat.  Officers  seated  in  passing  boats  do 
not  rise  when  saluting;  coxswains  rise  to  salute 
unless  it  is  dangerous  or  impracticable  to  do  so. 

In  Civilian  Clothes 

The  proper  greeting  is  initiated  when  a 
junior  recognizes  a  senior  in  the  armed  services 
as  one  who  rates  a  salute,  even  though  the  senior 

may  be  in  civilian  clothing.  If  covered,  a  salute 
may  be  rendered.  In  time  of  war,  however,  an 
officer  not  in  uniform  may  be  deliberately 
avoiding  disclosure  of  his/her  naval  identity,  and 
one  should  be  discriminate  about  following  the 
normal  (peacetime)  rule. 

In  a  Group 

If  enlisted  personnel  or  officers  are  standing 
together  and  a  senior  officer  approaches,  the 
first  to  see  the  senior  calls  out  "Attention!"  and 
all  face  and  salute. 


No  junior  should  overhaul  and  pass  a  senior 
without  permission.  When  for  any  reason  it 
becomes  necessary  for  the  junior  to  pass,  he 
does  so  to  the  left,  salutes  when  abreast  of  the 
senior,  and  asks,  "By  your  leave,  sir/ma'am?" 
The  senior  replies,  "Very  well,"  and  returns  the 


When  reporting  on  deck  or  out-of-doors 
ashore,  one  is  covered  and  salutes  accordingly. 
When  reporting  in  an  office,  one  uncovers  upon 
approaching  the  senior,  and  therefore  does  not 


An  enlisted  person  being  seated  and  without 
particular  occupation  rises  upon  the  approach  of 
an  officer,  faces  and  salutes,  if  covered.  If  both 
remain  in  the  same  general  vicinity,  the 
compliments  need  not  be  repeated. 

Seniority  Unknown 

In  most  cases  officers  will  know  the  relative 
seniority  of  those  with  whom  they  are  in 
frequent  contact,  but  there  are  many  situations, 
especially  ashore,  where  that  is  an  obvious 
impossibility.  Perhaps  the  safest  advice  is,  at 
such  times,  to  salute,  doing  so  without  delay.  As 
a  matter  of  fact,  in  practically  every  case  where 
uncertainty  exists,  regardless  of  grade,  the  rule  is 
to  render  the  salute. 



Sentries  at  gangways  salute  all  officers  going 
or  coming  over  the  side,  and  when  passing  or 
being  passed  by  officers  close  aboard  in  boats  or 


Enlisted  personnel  and  officers  salute  all 
senior  officers  riding  in  vehicles,  while  those  in 
the  vehicle  both  render  and  return  salutes,  as 
may  be  required.  The  driver  of  a  vehicle  is 
obliged  to  salute  if  the  vehicle  is  at  a  halt;  to  do 
so  while  the  vehicle  is  in  motion  might  endanger 
the  safety  of  the  occupants  and  so  may  be 


There  are  some  situations  in  which  it  is 
improper  to  salute.  These  are  as  follows: 

When  uncovered,  except  where  failure  to 
salute  might  cause  embarrassment  or 

In  formation,  except  on  command. 

On  work  detail  (person  in  charge  of  detail 

When  engaged  in  athletics  or  assembled  for 
recreation  or  entertainment. 

When  carrying  articles  with  both  hands,  or 
otherwise  so  occupied  as  to  make 
saluting  impracticable. 

In  public  places  where  obviously 
inappropriate  (theaters,  restaurants,  etc.). 

In  public  conveyances. 

When  a  member  of  the  guard  engaged  in 
performance  of  a  duty  which  prevents 

In  action  or  under  simulated  combat 

At  mess.  (When  addressed,  stop  eating  and 
show  respectful  attention.) 


During  national  anthem.  When  the  national 
anthem  is  played,  persons  in  the  naval  service 
stand  at  attention,  facing  toward  the  colors,  if 
displayed;  otherwise,  they  face  the  music.  If 
covered,  they  salute  at  the  first  note  of  the 
anthem 'and  remain  at  the  salute  until  the  last 
note.  When  in  ranks,  the  officer-in-charge  orders 
"Attention"  and  renders  the  appropriate  hand 
or  sword  salute  for  the  formation.  In  boats,  only 
the  boat  officer-or,  in  his  absence,  the 
coxswain-stands  and  salutes  when  the  national 
anthem  is  played.  Other  members  of  the  crew 
and  passengers  who  are  already  standing,  stand 
at  attention.  All  others  remain  seated  at 
attention.  Personnel  in  civilian  clothing  standing 
at  attention  in  a  boat  during  the  playing  of  the 
national  anthem  do  not  render  the 
"hand-over-heart"  salute.  This  is  an  exception  to 
the  general  rule. 

The  above  rules  apply  only  to  a  formal 
rendition  of  the  national  anthem.  For  example, 
if  a  person  in  uniform  heard  "The  Star-Spangled 
Banner"  being  broadcast  over  the  radio,  he/she 
would  not  be  expected  to  stop,  face  toward  the 
music,  and  salute.  On  the  other  hand,  at  a  public 
gathering  where  the  anthem  was  being  broadcast 
as  part  of  the  ceremony,  he/she  would  render 
the  required  honors. 

During  parades.  Military  personnel  salute  the 
flag  when  they  are  passed  by  or  pass  the  flag 
being  carried  uncased  in  a  parade  or  military 

Funerals  and  religious  services.  During 
funerals  (figure  6-1),  officers  and  enlisted 
personnel  remain  covered  while  in  the  open  but 
uncover  during  the  committal  service  at  the 
grave.  During  burial  services  at  sea,  previously 
illustrated  in  figure  4-5,  they  remain  covered 
throughout  the  service. 

During  religious  services  aboard  ship  and 
during  formal  religious  ceremonies  outdoors 
ashore  (such  as  Easter  sunrise  service),  members 
remain  uncovered  throughout  the  ceremony. 

In  general,  a  military  person  uncovers  during 
a  religious  ceremony  but  remains  covered  during 
a  military  ceremony.  Church  services,  civilian 



Figure  6-1.— During  military  funerals,  officers  and  men  remain  covered  while  in  the  open. 

funerals,  or  burial  services  which  the  officer  or 
enlisted  person  attends  as  a  friend  or  relative 
rather  than  as  a  representative  of  the  Navy  are 
religious  ceremonies.  Military  funerals  and  burial 
at  sea  are  regarded  as  primarily  military 

At  a  military  ceremony  when  the  occasion 
requires,  an  officer  or  enlisted  person  salutes 
rather  than  uncovers,  as  that  is  the  traditional 
mark  of  respect.  If  an  officer  were  attending  a 
military  funeral  officially,  a  salute  would  be 
appropriate  whenever  honors  are  rendered ;  when 
the  body  is  removed  from  the  hearse  to  the 
chapel,  from  the  chapel  to  the  caisson,  and  from 
the  caisson  to  the  grave;  when  the  volleys  are 
fired;  and  when  "Taps"  is  sounded. 

As  a  participant  at  a  nonmilitary  funeral  or 
burial  service,  an  individual  may  follow  the 
civilian  custom  and  uncover  (rather  than  salute) 
when  such  honors  are  called  for,  as  during  the 

procession   to   the   grave,   the   lowering  of  the 
body,  and  so  on. 

Jewish  custom  calls  for  remaining  covered 
during  all  religious  ceremonies.  The  usual  rules 
regarding  uncovering  do  not  apply  when  the 
service  is  being  conducted  by  a  representative  of 
that  faith. 

Service  personnel  wearing  civilian  clothing  at 
a  military  funeral  follow  the  etiquette  prescribed 
for  civilians. 

Honors  to  the  Colors.  Naval  ships 
underway  hoist  the  national  ensign  at 
flagstaff  aft  at  0800  and  lower  it  at  sunset.  The 
union  jack,  likewise,  is  hoisted  and  lowered  at 
the  jackstaff  forward  at  the  same  times.  At 
colors,  the  ensign  is  hoisted  smartly,  lowered 
slowly,  and  is  never  allowed  to  touch  the  deck. 
At  both  morning  and  evening  colors, 
"Attention"  is  sounded,  and  all  officers  and 
enlisted  personnel  topside  face  the  ensign  and 


render  the  salute.  At  shore  stations  and,  in 
peacetime,  on  board  large  vessels  where  a  band  is 
present,  the  national  anthem  is  played  during 
the  ceremonies.  In  the  absence  of  a  band,  a 
bugler,  if  available,  sounds  'To  the  Colors"  at 
the  morning  ceremonies  and  "Retreat"  at  sunset 
formalities.  (When  a  naval  ship  is  underway,  the 
ensign  usually  is  flown  both  day  and  night  from 
the  mast  and  the  jack  is  not  hoisted.)  In 
half-masting  the  ensign,  it  is  first  raised  to  the 
truck  or  peak  and  then  lowered  to  half-mast. 
Before  being  lowered  from  half-mast,  the  ensign 
is  first  raised  to  the  truck  or  peak  and  lowered 
with  the  usual  ceremonies. 

During  colors,  a  boat  underway  within  sight 
or  hearing  of  the  ceremony  either  lies  to  or 
proceeds  at  the  slowest  safe  speed.  The  boat 
officer— or  in  his  absence,  the  coxswain-stands 
and  salutes  except  when  dangerous  to  do  so. 
Other  persons  in  the  boat  remain  seated  or 
standing  and  do  not  salute.  Vehicles  within  sight 
or  hearing  of  colors  are  stopped.  Persons  riding 
in  vehicles  sit  at  attention.  The  person  in  charge 
of  a  military  vehicle  (but  someone  other  than 
the  driver)  renders  the  hand  salute. 

When  a  vessel  under  the  flag  of  a  nation 
formally  recognized  by  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  salutes  a  ship  of  our  Navy  by 
dipping  her  ensign,  the  salute  is  returned  dip  for 
dip.  U.S.  naval  vessels  never  initiate  the  dipping 
of  the  ensign. 

In  the  large  assortment  of  flags  carried  by 
American  men-of-war,  only  one  flies  above  the 
ensign:  the  church  pennant  (figure  6-2), 
displayed  while  divine  service  is  being  held  by  a 
chaplain  or  visiting  church  dignitary. 


The  phase  of  military  courtesy  which  covers 
relations  among  officers  and  between  officers 
and  enlisted  personnel  undergoes  little  change 
during  a  war,  probably  because  these  relations 
are  the  most  fundamental  part  of  all  military 
courtesy  and  the  main  source  of  most  naval 

The  twin  foundations  of  military  courtesy 
among  officers  are:  (1)  precedence;  (2) 


Figure  6-2.— The  church  pennant,  hoisted  while  divine 
services  are  being  held,  is  the  only  emblem  that  may 
be  flown  above  the  ensign. 

deference  to  seniors.  Officers  take  precedence 
according  to  their  grade,  and  this  precedence  is 
not  confined  to  strictly  military  relations  on 
ship  or  shore,  but  extends  to  the  mess,  to  the 
club,  and  to  social  life. 

Naval  courtesy  prescribes  that  junior  officers 
accord  their  seniors  certain  indications  of 
deference  and  respect  which  correspond  to  those 
which  younger  people  would  accord  to  their 
elders  under  the  usages  of  polite  society.  It  also 
prescribes  that  seniors  shall,  with  equal 
punctiliousness,  acknowledge  and  respond  to 
these  tokens  of  respect  required  of  juniors,  so 
that  there  exists  no  semblance  of  servility  in  the 
interchange,  but  rather  a  sort  of  ritual  for 


observance  by  those  serving  their  country  in  a 
strictly  ordered  fraternity  of  military  service. 


A  junior  officer  approaching  a  senior  for  the 
purpose  of  making  an  official  report  remains  at 
attention  until  invited  to  be  seated  or  to  stand  at 
ease.  The  invitation  should  be  awaited  rather 
than  anticipated. 

Unless  on  watch,  a  person  in  the  naval 
service  uncovers  when  entering  a  room  in  which 
a  senior  is  present. 

When  a  senior  enters  a  room  in  which  junior 
officers  or  enlisted  persons  are  seated,  the  one 
who  first  sees  the  senior  calls  "Attention."  All 
present  remain  at  attention  until  ordered  to 
carry  on. 

When  addressed  by  a  senior,  the  junior,  if 
seated,  rises  and  remains  at  attention.  Personnel 
seated  at  work,  at  games,  or  at  mess  are  not 
required  to  rise  when  an  officer,  other  than  a 
flag  officer  or  the  captain  of  the  ship,  passes, 
unless  they  are  called  to  attention  or  when  it  is 
necessary  to  clear  a  gangway. 

The  place  of  honor  is  on  the  right. 
Accordingly,  when  a  junior  walks,  rides,  or  sits 
with  a  senior,  the  junior  takes  position  alongside 
and  to  the  left. 

When  entering  an  automobile  or  a  boat, 
officers  do  so  in  inverse  order  of  grade.  A 
lieutenant  and  a  captain  getting  into  an 
automobile  enter  in  that  order,  with  the 
lieutenant  taking  the  seat  in  the  far,  or  left-hand, 
corner,  the  captain  sitting  on  the  right  side. 
When  getting  out,  the  captain  leaves  first.  In 
entering  buildings  or  rooms,  however,  the  junior 
opens  doors  for  the  senior  and  enters  last. 

The  custom  of  the  "right-hand  rule"  is  an 
old  one,  quaintly  expressed  by  George 
Washington  in  his  30th  "Rule  of  Civility":  "In 
walking,  the  highest  place  in  most  countries 
seems  to  be  on  the  right  hand,  therefore,  place 
yourself  on  the  left  of  him  whom  you  desire  to 

At  parties,  it  is  not  considered  good  taste  to 
leave  before  the  commanding  officer.  If 
necessary  to  do  so,  respects  are  paid  to  the 
commanding  officer  before  departing. 

A  junior  never  offers  to  shake  hands  with  a 
senior;  the  latter  makes  the  first  gesture. 

A  junior  officer  avoids  keeping  a  senior 
waiting.  Normal  courtesy  aside,  punctuality  is 
essential  in  the  service.  When  called  by  a  senior, 
a  junior  responds  immediately. 

In  replying  to  questions  from  a  senior,  a 
junior  officer  avoids  a  great  deal  of 
embarrassment  by  giving  complete  and  explicit 
answers.  If  the  desired  information  cannot  be 
supplied,  an  "I  don't  know,  sir/ma'am,  but  I  will 
find  out  and  let  you  know,"  is  much  better  than 
an  indirect  answer  that  conveys  misinformation 
on  which  a  senior  may  be  basing  an  important 
decision.  To  avoid  admitting  ignorance,  juniors 
sometimes  make  evasive  statements  that  not 
only  seriously  affect  their  reputation  but  also 
confuse  the  issue. 

It  is  an  excellent  practice  for  a  junior  who 
has  been  ordered  to  do  an  assigned  task  to 
report  back  promptly  to  the  senior  either  the 
completion  of  the  task  or  exactly  what  has  been 
done  about  its  completion. 

When  given  orders,  juniors  must  ensure  that 
they  know  what  is  required  and  when  it  is 
required.  They  should  not  hesitate  to  ask 
questions  to  clarify  points.  If  advice  is  needed, 
they  should  attempt  to  get  it  from  their  peers; 
but  should  not  hesitate  to  go  to  the  senior  who 
gave  the  orders.  Juniors  should  anticipate  the 
wishes  of  a  senior,  whenever  possible. 

An  officer  should  not  jump  the  chain  of 
command.  When  necessary  to  proceed  to 
someone  higher  in  the  chain  of  command,  one's 
immediate  supervisor  should  be  kept  informed. 

Suggestions  for 
Junior  Officers 

Excuses  for  failure  or  negligence  are  always 
unacceptable.  An  officer  should  assume 
responsibility  and  not  depend  on  alibis.  If  at 
fault  freely  accept  the  blame. 

Bootlicking,  a  deliberate  courting  of  favor,  is 
despised.  Such  tactics  may  be  temporarily 
mistaken  for  sincere  desire  to  please  and  to 
make  good  but  in  time  seniors  through  long 
experience  with  such  demeanor  recognize 
"greasing."  However,  a  genuine  effort  to  be 
friendly  and  cooperative  is  essential  to  a  junior 



officer's  success.  A  continued  willingness  to 
undertake  any  task  assigned  and  perform  it 
cheerfully  and  efficiently  will,  in  time,  gam  for 
the  young  officer  a  reputation  for  dependability 
and  ensure  popularity  with  fellow  officers. 
Continued  grouching  and  loafing  will  have 
exactly  the  opposite  effect.  The  satisfaction  of 
having'  done  a  good  job  should  be  sufficient 
reward  in  itself.  The  junior  officer  should  not 
report  such  accomplishments  to  the  senior 
officer.  Of  course  a  report  that  is  required  must 
be  made,  but  work  well  done  generally  reaches 
the  attention  of  superiors. 

The  conduct  of  members  of  the  service  must 
be  above  criticism.  The  Navy  will  be  judged  by 
an  officer's  appearance  and  behavior. 

It  goes  without  saying  that  all  undertakings 
and  projects  must  be  carefully  considered  in 
advance  and  that  all  preparations  necessary  to 
the  success  thereof  must  be  made  well  in 
advance.  Officers  hold  their  positions  because 
they  are  believed  to  be  capable  of  thinking 
ahead  and  making  intelligent  plans,  and  they 
must  always  strive  to  demonstrate  that  they  are 
entitled  to  the  grade  they  hold. 

One  of  the  best  things  that  can  be  said  about 
junior  officers  by  their  seniors  is  that  when  given 
a  job  they  can  always  be  depended  upon  for 
satisfactory  results. 

Suggestions  for 
Shipboard  Officers 

One  cannot  learn  too  soon  that  every  officer 
has  two  personalities,  the  official  and  the 
unofficial.  An  officer  who  plays  the  "good 
fellow"  on  watch  is  sooner  or  later  bound  to 
come  to  grief.  Holding  a  boat  for  a  brother 
officer  who  is  late  is  an  example.  It  is  a  poor 
excuse  to  offer  an  executive  officer  that  his 
written  order  contained  in  the  boat  schedule  has 
been  disobeyed  simply  because  another  officer 
requested  it. 

Whenever  an  officer  receives  an  order 
requiring  transmittal  to  subordinates  for  action, 
it  is  his/her  duty  to  see  that  the  order  is 
promptly  and  smartly  executed.  The  officer's 
responsibility  in  the  matter  does  not  end  until 

the  order  has  been  carried  through  to  its  proper 

Sometimes  an  officer  may  dislike  certain 
orders  that  come  down  from  above. 
Nevertheless,  an  officer  must  follow  these  orders 
implicitly  and  see  that  they  are  obeyed  by  the 
personnel  in  his/her  charge.  The  promulgating  Of 
such  orders  may  seem  difficult,  but  an  officer 
should  never  apologize  for  them  and  should 
never  question  an  order  in  front  of  subordinates. 

When  a  young  officer  reports  on  board  ship, 
it  is  important  that  he  devote  most  of  his  spare 
time  to  professional  reading  and  getting 
acquainted  with  his  ship's  organization  and 
regulations.  A  certain  amount  of  time  each  day 
should  be  set  aside  for  professional  study. 

It  is  wise  procedure  for  an  officer  never  to 
request  permission  to  leave  ship  in  the  afternoon 
until  the  work  assigned  or  expected  of  him  has 
been  completed.  There  is  much  to  be  learned  in 
the  first  few  months  aboard  ship.  The  astute 
newcomer  will  not  let  himself  be  known  as  a 
"liberty  hound." 

A  junior  officer  of  a  division  should  always 
be  in  his  part  of  the  ship  in  the  morning 
BEFORE  his  division  officer  arrives.  He  should 
also  make  it  a  point  to  be  at  general  drills  before 
his  division  officer.  He  should  invariably  address 

that   officer   as    "Commander ,"   or  as 


A  junior  division  officer  should  keep  a 
complete  notebook  of  his  division,  showing 
names,  initials,  rate,  bunk  and  billet  numbers, 
with  all  watch,  quarter,  and  station  assignments. 
The  book  should  be  small  enough  to  be  carried 
on  his  person.  It  is  also  a  good  idea  to  keep  in 
the  security  of  one's  room  confidential  notes 
concerning  various  men.  This  information  will 
be  of  service  when  giving  evaluation  marks  and 
recommending  men  for  advancement  in  rating. 

The  new  officer  will  be  critically  evaluated 
by  all  hands  shortly  after  he  comes  aboard 
ship.  Senior  officers  do  not  always  call  attention 
to  minor  faults  or  errors  made  by  juniors,  but 
they  are  sure  to  notice  them  and  will  form  their 
opinions  accordingly.  While  they  will  make  due 
allowance  for  lack  of  experience,  their  final 
estimate  will  be  based  entirely  on  what  the 



young  officer  contributes.  He  should  be  alert 
and  analyze  his  conduct  frequently  to  determine 
if  by  chance  he  is  offending  unintentionally.  A 
lack  of  deference  toward  senior  officers  or  a 
tendency  to  become  familiar  with  them;  harsh, 
unreasonable  handling  of  enlisted  men;  or 
irresponsibility  and  lack  of  initiative  will  in  each 
case  produce  unfavorable  comment  and  an 
impression  that  may  be  lasting. 

Some  officers  are  prone  to  think  that  their 
badge  of  office  will  carry  them  through  all 
difficult  situations  even  though  they  are  not 
fully  qualified  for  the  responsibilities  of  that 
office.  Inevitably  they  suffer  a  rude  awakening. 
The  intelligent  and  effective  junior  officer 
knows  the  limits  of  his/her  abilities  and  is 
continually  striving  to  increase  those  limits  by 
learning  from  all  available  sources. 

An  officer's  appearance  is  very  important; 
therefore,  one's  good  clothes  should  be  worn  at 
quarters  and  best  clothes  at  inspections. 

An  outstanding  naval  officer  of  the  19th 
century,  Matthew  Fontaine  Maury,  said:  "Make 
it  a  rule  never  to  offend,  nor  to  seek  causes  of 
offense  in  the  conduct  of  others.  Be  polite  to  all, 
familiar  with  but  few.  The  rule  in  the  Navy  is  to 
treat  everybody  as  a  gentleman  until  he  proves 
himself  to  be  otherwise.  It  is  a  good 
rule-observe  it  well." 

It  has  long  been  the  custom  in  the  Navy  for 
officers  to  relieve  the  watch  not  later  than  15 
minutes  before  the  hour  that  the  watch  begins 
(usually  signaled  by  the  traditional  bell  system 
of  shipboard  timekeeping).  This  requires  being 
on  the  bridge  at  sea  30  minutes  before  the 
bell.  Late  relieving  is  not  only  a  breach  of  naval 
custom  but  is  discourteous  and  unpardonable. 

It  has  been  said  that  of  all  the  valuable 
qualities  an  officer  can  have,  few  of  them  are 
superior  in  importance  to  tact.  In  a  military 
sense  this  means  a  knowledge  and  an 
appreciation  of  when  and  how  to  do  things. 
Tactful  officers  know  how  to  deal  with  their 
shipmates-both  senior  and  junior.  The 
usefulness  of  many  an  otherwise  capable  officer 
has  been  marred  because  of  the  lack  of  tact. 

In  conclusion,  all  organizations  in  society 
have  certain  customs  and  etiquette.  These  are 

especially  necessary  for  smooth  cooperation 
between  men  living  close  together  as  is  done  on 
board  a  man-of-war.  Disregard  of  customs  and 
etiquette  marks  one  as  careless,  indifferent,  or 

Every  professional  officer  and  man  takes 
pride  in  naval  traditions  and  eagerly  conforms  to 
the  customs  and  etiquette  of  the  service.  These 
traditions  and  customs  are  the  honorable 
heritage  of  men  who  "go  down  to  the  sea  in 


Custom,  tradition,  and  social  change 
determine  the  form  of  verbal  address  of 
introduction  of  members  of  the  naval  service. 
Although  tradition  and  military  customs 
generally  predominate,  there  are  some 
differences  in  methods  of  addressing  and 
introducing  military  personnel,  according  to 
whether  you  are  in  civilian  or  military  circles  at 
the  time.  (See  figure  6-3.) 

Except  as  provided  in  the  paragraphs  that 
follow,  all  officers  in  the  naval  service  shall  be 
addressed  or  introduced  by  the  title  of  his  or  her 
grade  preceding  the  surname. 

Officers  of  the  Medical  Corps  or  Dental 
Corps,  and  officers  of  the  Medical  Service  Corps 
or  Nurse  Corps  having  a  doctoral  degree,  may  be 
addressed  as  "Doctor."  Likewise,  an  officer  of 
the  Chaplain  Corps  may  be  addressed  as 
"Chaplain."  However,  if  the  doctor  or  chaplain 
prefers  to  be  addressed  by  title,  such  preference 
should  be  honored.  When  addressing  an  officer 
whose  grade  includes  a  modifier  (e.g.,  lieutenant 
junior-grade),  the  modifier  may  be  dropped. 

In  general,  it  is  preferable  to  call  an  officer 
of  the  rank  of  Commander  or  above  by  his  title 

and  name;  that  is,  "Commander 1'  rather 

than  by  the  impersonal  "sir."  Other  officers  are 
addressed  in  the  same  manner.  In  prolonged 
conversation,  where  repetition  would  seem 
forced  or  awkward,  the  snorter  "sir"  naturally  is 
used  more  often. 

A    warrant    or    chief    warrant    officer    is 

addressed  as  "Warrant  Officer "  or  "Chief 

Warrant  Officer "  In  military  circles,  a 






Introduce  as: 

Address  as: 

Introduce  as: 

Address  as: 

CDR  or  above 

Captain  (or  ap- 
propriate rank) 

Captain  Smith 

Captain  Smitlr 

Captain  Smith 

LCDR  or  below 

Mr.  (Mrs.  ,  Miss, 
Ms.)  Smith 

Mr.  Smith 

LCDR  Smith2 

Mr.  Smith 

Medical  Corps 
officer  and 
Dental  Corps 

Dr.  Smith3 

Dr.  Smith3 

Lt.  Smith  of  the 
Navy  Medical 

Dr.  Smith3 

Chaplain  Corps 

Chaplain  Smith 

Chaplain  Smith 

Chaplain  Smith 


Navy  Nurse 
Corps  officer 

Commander  (Mrs., 
Miss,  Ms.)  Smith 

Commander  (Mrs.  , 
Miss,  Ms.)  Smith 

Commander  Smith 
of  the  Navy 
Nurse  Corps 

Commander  (Mrs.  , 
Miss,  Ms.)  Smith 

Chief  Warrant 

Mr.  (Mrs.  ,  Miss, 
Ms.)  Smith 

Mr.  Smith 

Warrant  Officer 

Mr.  Smith 


Mr.  Smith 

Mr.  Smith 


Mr.  Smith 

Warrant  officer 

Mr.  (Mrs.  ,  Miss, 
Ms.)  Smith 

Mr.  Smith 

Warrant  Officer 

Mr.  Smith 

Chief  Petty 

Chief  Petty 
Officer  Smitlr 

Chief,  or 
Chief  Smith 

Chief  Yeoman 

Mr.  (Mrs.  ,  Miss, 
Ms.)  Smith 

Aviation  cadet 

Aviation  Cadet 

Mr.  Smith 

Aviation  Cadet 

Mr.  Smith 

Petty  officer 

Petty  Officer 

Petty  Officer 

Yeoman  Smith 
or  Petty 
Officer  Smith 

Mr.  (Mrs.  ,  Miss, 
Ms.)  Smith 


Seaman  Smith 

Seaman  Smith 

Seaman  Smith 

Mr.  (Mrs.  ,  Miss, 
Ms.)  Smith 

•^When  not  in  uniform  a  captain  or  lieutenant  would  be  introduced  as  "of  the  Navy" 
to  distinguish  the  grade  from  the  other  services. 

2A  suggested  form  of  introduction  is:  "This  is  LCDR  Smith.  Mr.  (Mrs.,  Miss,  Ms.) 
Smith  is  now  stationed  here."  This  indicates  both  (a)  the  officer's  grade  and  (b)  the 
form  of  address. 

3If  a  senior  officer  of  the  Medical  or  Dental  Corps  prefers  to  be  addressed  by  title, 
such  preference  should  be  honored. 

^Prefixed  by  "Senior"  or  "Master"  as  appropriate. 

Figure  6-3.— Introducing  and  addressing  naval  personnel. 



cnapier  o— IVJIJLII/VKI 

midshipman  is  addressed  as  "Mr ./Ms. ;" 

when   with    civilians   he/she   is   introduced   as 

"Midshipman "  and  addressed  as  "Mr./Ms. 


Aboard  ship,  the  regularly  assigned 
commanding  officer  is  addressed  as  "Captain" 
regardless  of  his  grade.  The  regularly  assigned 
executive  officer  may  be  addressed  as 
"Commander"  without  appending  his  name. 

A  naval  officer  is  introduced  to  civilians  by 
title,  and  the  method  of  introduction  should 
give  the  cue  as  to  how  he  should  be  addressed 
from  then  on.  If  you  were  introducing  an  officer 
below  the  grade  of  commander,  you  might  say, 
"This  is  Lieutenant  Jones.  Mr.  Jones  is  an  old 
shipmate  of  mine."  This  serves  a  double 
purpose;  it  gives  the  civilian  to  whom  you  are 
introducing  an  officer  knowledge  of  the  naval 
man's  grade  in  the  event  that  person  does  not 
know  it,  and  it  also  gives  the  correct  method  of 
address,  "Mr.  Jones." 

Because  many  people  are  not  familiar  with 
Navy  grade  insignia  and  corps  devices,  it  is 
usually  a  good  idea  to  make  any  introduction, 
however  brief,  reasonably  informative.  A  woman 
lieutenant  or  lieutenant  commander  may  be 
introduced  with  the  words,  "This  is  Lieutenant 
Johnson.  Miss  Johnson  is  in  the  Nurse  Corps"; 
or  "This  is  Lieutenant  Commander  Jones.  Miss 
Jones  is  on  duty  in  the  Navy  Department." 

The  Navy  today  is  a  cross-section  of 
America.  In  the  same  family,  one  man  may  be  a 
machinist's  mate  and  his  brother  a  lieutenant. 
An  ensign  may  have  a  sister  who  is  a  yeoman, 
and  so  on.  General  Pershing  held  the  highest 
United  States  military  rank,  General  of  the 
Armies,  but  his  son  entered  World  War  II  as  a 
private.  The  first  Secretary  of  Defense  entered 
World  War  I  as  a  seaman  second  class. 

Accordingly,  even  though  the  distinction 
between  officer  and  enlisted  personnel  still 
exists  in  all  formal  and  official  relations,  it  does 
so  less  and  less  in  non-military  relations. 

Military  and  civilian  practices  differ  in 
introducing  and  addressing  enlisted  personnel. 
Under  military  conditions,  petty  officers  of  the 
Navy  shall  be  addressed  and  introduced  by  their 
respective  title  followed  by  their  last  name.  Petty 
officers  in  the  pay  grades  of  E-7,  E-8,  and  E-9 

are  addressed  informally  as  "Chief " 

prefixed  by  "Senior"  or  "Master,"  as 

appropriate.  They  are  introduced  formally  as 

"Chief  Petty  Officer "  prefixed  by 

"Senior"  or  "Master,"  as  appropriate.  Petty 
officers  in  pay  grades  E-4  through  E-6  are 
introduced  and  addressed  both  formally  and 

informally  as  "Petty  Officer ."  There  is  no 

change  in  the  form  of  verbal  address  (by  last 
name)  of  pay  grades  E-3  and  below.  However, 
when  introducing  them,  their  last  name  will  be 
preceded  by  "Seaman,"  "Fireman,"  "Airman," 
or  "Constructionman,"  etc.,  as  appropriate. 

Civilians  feel  unnecessarily  curt  in  social 
gatherings  when  addressing  enlisted  personnel  as 
described  in  the  preceding  paragraph.  It  is 
customary,  therefore,  for  those  outside  the 
service  to  extend  to  enlisted  personnel  the  same 
courtesies  they  would  extend  to  them  in  civilian 
life  and  to  prefix  their  names  with  "Mr.," 
"Mrs.,"  "Miss,"  or  "Ms.,"  as  the  case  may  be.  In 
introducing  them,  one  should  give  their  title  and 
name,  then  the  mode  of  address,  as  "This  is 
Petty  Officer  Smith.  Mr.  Smith  will  be  visiting 
us  for  a  while."  Thereafter  he  will  be  addressed 
as  "Mr.  Smith." 

There  is  only  one  proper  response  to  an  oral 
order— "Aye,  aye,  sir/ma'am."  This  reply  means 
more  than  "yes."  It  indicates  that  "I  understand 
and  will  obey."  Such  responses  to  an  order  as 
"O.K.,  sir,"  or  "All  right,  sir,"  are  taboo.  "Very 
well"  is  proper  when  spoken  by  a  senior  in 
acknowledgment  of  a  report  made  by  a  junior, 
but  a  junior  never  says  "Very  well"  to  a  senior. 

The  word  "sir /ma'am"  should  be  employed 
as  a  prefix  to  an  official  report,  statement,  or 
question  addressed  to  a  senior.  It  should  also  be 
used  when  addressing  an  official  on  duty 
representing  a  senior.  For  example,  the  officer 
of  the  deck,  regardless  of  grade,  represents  the 
commanding  officer,  and  should  be  addressed  as 

A  junior  addressing  a  senior  should 
introduce  himself/herself  unless  certain  the 
senior  knows  him/her  by  sight. 

There  are  certain  differences  in  phrasing 
which  should  be  noted.  A  senior  officer  sends 
his/her  "compliments"  to  a  junior.  For  example, 
"Admiral  Smith  presents  his  compliments  to 
Captain  Brown."  A  junior  sends  his/her 
"respects."  When  making  a  call  upon  a 
commanding  officer,  one  is  correct  in  saying, 
"Captain,  I  came  to  pay  my  respects,"  or  to  say 



to  the  orderly  before  entering  her  office,  "Tell 
the  captain  that  Ensign  Jones  would  like  to  pay 
her  respects." 

In  written  correspondence,  a  senior  officer 
may  "call"  attention  to  something,  but  a  junior 
may  only  "invite"  it.  It  is  Navy  custom  that  a 
junior  writing  a  memorandum  to  a  senior 
subscribes  it  "Very  respectfully";  a  senior 
writing  to  a  junior  may  use  "Respectfully." 


Quarterdeck  etiquette  remains  the  same  in 
peace  and  war.  It  is  well  to  remember  when  on 
the  quarterdeck  that  this  has  always  been  the 
honored,  ceremonial  part  of  the  ship  and  that  it 
still  retains  its  sanctity. 

When  an  officer  comes  on  board  ship,  he 
salutes  the  officer  of  the  deck  and  says,  "I 
report  my  return  aboard,  sir,"  if  it  is  his  own 
ship,  or  "I  request  permission  to  come  aboard, 
sir,"  if  visiting  the  ship.  Upon  leaving  his  own 
ship,  the  officer,  as  he  salutes  the  officer  of  the 
deck,  says,  "I  have  permission  to  leave  the  ship, 
sir."  If  a  visitor,  the  officer  says  as  he  salutes 
"With  your  permission.  I  shall  leave  the  ship, 
sir."  or  "I  request  permission  to  leave  the  ship, 

The  etiquette  of  the  quarterdeck  should  be 
strictly  enforced  by  the  watch  officer.  The 
quarterdeck  should  be  kept  immaculate  and  its 
ceremonial  character  maintained.  For  officers 
and  enlisted  men  alike,  adherence  to  these  rules 
is  required: 

1 .  Avoid  appearing  out  of  uniform. 

2.  Never  smoke. 

3.  Refrain  from  putting  hands  in  pockets. 

4.  Refrain  from  horseplay. 

5.  Don't  engage  in  recreational  athletics  on 
the  quarterdeck  unless  it  is  sanctioned  by  the 
captain,  and  then  only  after  working  hours. 

The  officer  of  the  deck  is  the  officer  on 
watch  in  charge  of  the  ship  (normally  on  duty 
for  four  hours)  and  represents  the  captain.  He  is 
responsible  for  the  safety  of  the  ship,  subject, 
however,  to  any  orders  he  may  receive  from  the 

commanding  officer.  Every  officer  or  other 
person  on  board  ship,  whatever  his  rank,  who  is 
subject  to  the  orders  of  the  commanding  officer, 
except  the  executive  officer,  is  subordinate  to 
the  officer  of  the  deck.  However,  when  the 
commanding  officer  considers  that 
circumstances  warrant,  he  may  delegate  to 
another  officer  for  a  specified  watch,  (ex: 
Command  Duty  Officer)  authority  to  direct  the 
officer  of  the  deck  how  to  proceed  in  time  of 
danger  or  during  an  emergency.  Such  an  officer, 
while  on  watch,  bears  the  same  relation  to  the 
officer  of  the  deck,  both  in  authority  and 
responsibility,  as  that  prescribed  for  the 
executive  officer,  but  shall  be  subordinate  to  the 
executive  officer. 

It  is  important  for  the  officer  of  the  deck  to 
know  who  is  approaching  his  ship  at  all  times. 
Small  boats  nearing  a  vessel  at  anchor  at  night 
are  hailed  by  the  sentries,  gangway  watch,  or 
quartermaster  with  "Boat  ahoy!"  The  boat 
coxswain  returns  the  hail  according  to  personnel 
aboard  as  shown  by  the  following  selected 

"United  States"-if  the  President  of  the 
United  States  is  aboard. 

"Navy"-if  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  is 

"Fleet"— if  the  commander-in-chief  of  the 
fleet  is  aboard. 

"Name  of  ship"— the  ship's  name  is  given 
indicating  that  its  commanding  officer  is  aboard. 

"Aye,  aye"— if  a  commissioned  officer  is 

"No,  no"— if  a  midshipman  or  noncom- 
missioned warrant  officer  is  aboard. 

"Hello"— if  an  enlisted  man  is  aboard. 

"Passing"— boats  not  intending  to  come 
alongside,  regardless  of  passenger  status. 


The  officers'  mess  is  organized  on  a 
business-like  basis.  There  is  a  mess  fund  to  which 
each  officer  must  contribute  his  share  on  joining 
the  mess.  An  officer  receives  a  subsistence 
allowance  from  the  Navy  and  it  is  a  courteous 
gesture  for  him  to  ask  the  mess  treasurer,  within 


the  first  24  hours  aboard,  for  his  mess  bill  and 
mess  entrance  fee  and  pay  them  at  once.  The 
monthly  mess  assessments  defray  the  cost  of 
food  as  well  as  conveniences  such  as  periodicals. 

The  fund  is  administered  by  the  mess 
treasurer,  who  is  elected  by  the  members.  In 
messes  where  the  treasurer  does  not  also  act  as 
caterer,  the  commanding  officer  appoints  a  mess 
caterer.  The  treasurer  then  is  responsible  for 
accounting  for  all  receipts  and  expenditures, 
while  the  duties  of  the  caterer  involve  the 
purchase  of  food,  preparation  of  menus,  and 
supervision  of  service.  These  are  recognized  as 
collateral  duties,  and  attention  is  paid  to  them  in 
the  marking  of  officers'  reports  of  fitness.  As 
with  all  things,  study  and  application  are 
required  to  do  the  job  well.  Some  caterers 
perform  their  tasks  exceptionally  well  with  full 
attention  to  balanced  diets,  light  appetizing 
luncheons,  and  planning  with  the  Mess 
Management  Specialist  for  new  dishes  and 
variety  in  menus.  At  the  close  of  each  month, 
the  mess  treasurer  gives  the  mess  members  a 
statement  of  the  mess  accounts. 

The  senior  officer  of  the  wardroom  mess  will 
always  welcome  a  junior  officer  and  treat  him  as 
a  full-fledged  member  of  the  mess  in  every 
respect.  Nevertheless,  a  junior  officer  should  not 
be  too  forward  in  conversation  or  action.  An 
error  on  the  side  of  formality  is  more  readily 
pardoned  than  one  in  the  other  direction. 

Like  many  other  phases  of  naval  courtesy, 
wardroom  etiquette  of  necessity  undergoes 
many  changes  in  time  of  war.  In  the  interest  of 
completeness,  perhaps  the  best  approach  to  the 
subject  would  be  to  take  up  the  generally 
prevailing  rules  of  wardroom  etiquette  as  they 
are  in  peacetime  and  then  to  give  some  of  the 
variations  that  would  be  brought  about  by  war. 

In  peacetime.  The  wardroom  is  the 
commissioned  officers'  mess  and  lounge  room. 
The  main  peacetime  rules  of  etiquette  are: 

1 .  Don't  enter  or  lounge  in  the  wardroom 
out  of  uniform. 

2.  Except  at  breakfast,  don't  sit  down  to 
meals  before  the  presiding  officer  does. 

3.  If     necessary     to     leave     before     the 
completion  of  the  meal,  ask  to  be  excused. 

4.  Introduce  guests  to  wardroom  officers, 
especially  on  small  ships. 

5.  Never   be    late    for    meals.    If  you   are 
unavoidably  late,  make  your  apologies  to  the 
presiding  officer. 

6.  Don't    loiter    in    the   wardroom   during 
working  hours. 

7.  Avoid  wearing  a  cap  in  the  wardroom,- 
especially  when  your  shipmates  are  eating. 

8.  Avoid  being  boisterous  or  noisy. 

9.  Don't  talk  shop  continuously. 

10.  Pay  mess  bills  promptly. 

11.  In    general,   the   young  officer   pursues 
the    correct  course  by  being  the  best  listener  in 
the  mess. 

12.  Religion,  politics,  and  women  should  not 
be  discussed. 

13.  "B  u  Ikhe  ading,"     or     expressing 
unfavorable     comments    and    opinions    about 
senior  officers,  is  not  tolerated. 

Good  manners,  with  a  consideration  for 
other  members  and  their  guests,  constitute  the 
first  principles  to  which  all  others  are  secondary. 

The  executive  officer  normally  is  president 
of  the  mess.  On  a  small  ship  such  as  a  DD, 
however,  a  separate  mess  is  not  provided  for  the 
commanding  officer.  In  this  case  the  CO,  who 
eats  his  meals  in  the  wardroom,  is  president  of 
the  mess. 

Officers  are  assigned  permanent  seats  at  the 
table,  alternately,  in  the  order  of  grade,  to  the 
right  and  left  of  the  presiding  officer,  except 
that  the  seat  opposite  that  of  the  presiding 
officer  is  occupied  by  the  mess  caterer.  (Second 
ranking  officer  sits  on  the  right  of  the  presiding 
officer,  third  on  the  left,  and  so  on.) 

In  wartime.  During  a  war,  the  routine  of  the 
wardroom  is  vastly  different  from  that  just 
described.  Regular  mealtimes  are  out  of  the 
question  during  general  quarters.  If,  before 
starting  to  eat,  one  always  waited  for  the 
presiding  officer  to  sit  down,  meals  would  be 
too  irregular  and  delayed. 

Many  officers  who  have  served  in  wartime 
can  report  that,  instead  of  dining  in  the 
wardroom,  they  have  eaten  sandwiches  and 
coffee  served  topside  whenever  they  could 
snatch  a  hasty  bite.  A  rule  about  never  being  late 
for  meals  is  hardly  binding  under  such 

The  seating  arrangements  in  wardrooms  may 
undergo  changes  during  a  war.  A  ship  may 


scatter  her  higher  ranking  officers  among  many 
tables  rather  than  concentrate  them  at  one 
place,  where  a  chance  enemy  hit  might  wipe  out 
all  of  them  at  once.  It  is  sometimes  the  custom 
for  men  eating  in  shifts  to  be  cross-sectioned  by 
grade  among  the  various  shifts,  for  the  same 

In  short,  in  peacetime,  wardroom  etiquette 
follows  the  old,  established  customs;  but  during 
a  war,  common  sense  and  necessity  dictate 
expedient  conduct. 


Boat  etiquette  may  be  summed  up  as 

1.  Unless  otherwise  directed  by  the  senior 
officer  present,  officers  enter  boats  in  inverse 
order  of  rank  (juniors  first)  and  leave  them  in 
order  or  rank  (juniors  last). 

2.  It  is  proper  to  stand  and  salute  when  a 
senior   enters   or  leaves  a  boat,  unless  as  an 
enlisted  man  you  have  an  officer  or  petty  officer 
in    charge    to    render    the    honors.    However, 
common  sense  and  safety  always  prevail. 

3.  When  a  senior  officer  is  present,  do  not 
sit  in  the  stern  seats  unless  asked  to  do  so. 

4.  The    seniors    are    accorded    the    most 
desirable  seats. 

5.  Always  offer  a  seat  to  a  senior. 

6.  When  leaving  a  ship,  get  in  the  boat  a 
minute   before   the   boat   gong,   or  when  the 
officer  of  the  deck  says  the  boat  is  ready— don't 
make  a  last-second  dash  down  the  gangway. 

7.  If  the  boat  is  crowded,  juniors  embark  in 
the  next  boat. 

8.  Juniors  in  boats  take  care  to  give  seniors 
room  to  move  about. 

9.  A  landing  over  another  boat  (using  the 
thwarts,  gunwales,  and  decking  of  another  boat 
as  a  walkway)  should  not  be  made  without 
permission,   and   permission   to   do   so  is  not 
requested  if  it  can  be  avoided. 


Except  during  wartime,  when  the  practice  is 
almost  universally  canceled,  officers  first 

reporting  to  a  command  make  a  visit  of  courtesy 
to  the  commanding  officer  within  48  hours.  This 
is  done  even  though  they  may  have  met  the 
captain  when  they  reported  for  duty.  The 
executive  officer  usually  arranges  a  time  for  the 
visit.  Aboard  ship,  the  social  call  is  made  in  the 
captain's  cabin,  although  in  small  ships  the 
captain  may  dispense  with  the  formality  of 
courtesy  visits. 

At  an  activity  ashore,  the  commanding 
officer  may  designate  "at  home"  hours  during 
which  juniors  make  their  social  calls.  At  other 
stations,  there  may  be  periodic  "hail  and 
farewell"  cocktail  parties  during  which  calls  are 
considered  made  and  returned.  Newly  reported 
juniors  also  should  call  at  the  homes  of  their 
department  head  and  executive  officer  within 
about  2  weeks.  If  married,  the  spouse  should 
accompany  the  officer. 

Officers  making  courtesy  visits  to  the 
commanding  officer's  cabin  or  office  should 
never  settle  back  for  a  long  conversation  but 
should  remain  for  only  about  10  minutes  unless 
requested  to  remain  longer.  They  should  try  to 
be  attentive  and  polite  but  not  servile  or 
wooden,  and  although  they  should  allow  their 
host  to  direct  the  conversation,  they  should  try 
to  add  more  to  it  than  simple  affirmatives  and 
negatives.  It  would  be  wise  to  refrain  from 
asking  leading  questions  about  their  new  duty, 
about  military  problems  facing  their  host,  or 
about  intimate  details  concerning  the 
commanding  officers  private  life. 

An  officer  invited  to  dinner  should  take 
particular  pains  to  be  punctual  and  to  leave 
before  the  welcome  has  worn  out.  It  is  not 
necessary  to  stay  all  afternoon  or  evening.  A 
visit  of  from  three-fourths  to  one  hour  after  a 
meal  is  all  that  courtesy  demands,  and  one 
should  ask  to  be  excused  within  this  time  unless 
urged  to  remain.  If  there  is  present  a  guest  of 
honor  who  is  not  a  houseguest,  other  guests 
should  await  her  or  his  departure,  if  possible. 

Conduct  in 
Foreign  Countries 

When  ashore  in  uniform  in  foreign  countries, 
an  officer  or  student  officer  will  do  well  to 
remember  that  his/her  conduct  will  be 



considered  as  representative  of  the  conduct  of 
all  members  of  the  United  States  naval  service. 
The  laws  and  customs  of  any  foreign  country 
must  be  scrupulously  respected.  Infractions  of  a 
seemingly  unimportant  nature,  even  though 
committed  unwittingly,  arouse  resentment  and 
may  result  in  serious  complications.  Under  no 
circumstances  should  an  officer  enter  into  an 
altercation  or  argument  with  anyone  abroad.  In 
case  of  trouble  of  any  nature,  the  officer  should 
refer  the  matter  to  appropriate  U.S.  naval 
authority  ashore  or  afloat.  If  senior  naval 
guidance  is  not  available,  the  consular  officer  of 
diplomatic  representatives  of  the  United  States 
should  be  consulted. 

United  States  customs  regulations  are  most 
explicit  in  stating  that  exemption  from  payment 
of  duty  for  articles  purchased  abroad  covers 
only  articles  intended  for  personal  use  of  the 
returning  traveler.  The  term  PERSONAL  USE  as 
used  in  the  regulations  is  intended  to  cover 
articles  purchased  with  the  traveler's  own 
money,  either  for  his/her  own  use  or  as  a  gift  to 
others.  The  importation  of  large  quantities  of 
material,  under  any  agreement  which  permits 
transfer  of  goods  after  importation,  is  an  evasion 
of  the  regulations.  Offenders  are  liable  to  heavy 
fines  as  well  as  to  imprisonment.  An  accurate 
record  of  purchases  made  abroad  should  be  kept 
so  that  a  correct  customs  declaration  can  be 
made.  The  prices  actually  paid  for  articles 
purchased  abroad,  either  in  the  currency  of  the 
country  where  purchased  or  the  equivalent  in 
United  States  currency,  must  be  stated  in  the 
customs  declaration. 


A  shipboard  environment  increases  the 
difficulty  with  which  the  proper  relationship 
between  an  officer  and  enlisted  man  is 
maintained.  An  officer's  relations  with  his  men 
should  be  founded  on  mutual  respect.  An 
American  bluejacket  is  intelligent,  cooperative, 
and  ambitious.  He  wants  to  be  treated  like  a 
man  and  expects  his  abilities  to  be  appreciated. 
He  wants  to  respect  his  officers-to  admire  them 
and  to  be  able  to  boast  about  them  to  the  men 

\f  ^- 

An  inexperienced  officer,  in  his  relationship 
with  his  men,  is  likely  to  be  hesitant  and 
uncertain.  He  finds  himself  in  an  unfamiliar 
situation,  among  people  whd  are  strangers  to 
him.  By  virtue  of  his  commission  he  is  placed  in 
charge  of  enlisted  personnel  and  this  newly 
acquired  authority  is  strange  to  him.  He  wants 
to  be  liked  by  his  men,  to  know  them  as 
individuals,  and  yet  maintain  his  rightful 
authority  over  them. 

Personal  dignity  is  a  quality  which  the  young 
officer  must  cultivate.  It  is  that  undefinable 
something  possessed  by  successful  leaders  which 
enables  them  to  converse  at  length  with  their 
men  on  casual  and  unofficial  matters,  and  yet  at 
the  same  time  maintain  that  reserve  which 
discourages  undue  familiarity. 

However,  consideration  for  enlisted  men  is  a 
"must."  For  example,  if  an  officer  of  the  deck 
finds  it  necessary  to  send  a  boatcrew  away 
during  meal  hours,  he  should  order  the  mess 
deck  mast er-at -arms  and  duty  cook  to  save  hot 
meals  for  them.  A  good  leader  always 
remembers  the  welfare  of  his  men. 

Some  new  officers  feel  that  they  promote 
friendliness  between  themselves  and  their  men 
by  calling  the  men  by  their  first  names,  or, 
worse  still,  by  their  nicknames.  The  men  should 
be  addressed  appropriately  as  previously 
discussed  in  this  chapter. 

An  officer  should  never  permit  enlisted  men 
to  visit  him  in  his  room  or  in  the  wardroom 
country  unless  the  matter  is  extremely  urgent. 
He  should  arrange  to  see  them  in  his  department 
office  or  in  his  part  of  the  ship. 

Financial  transactions  between  officers  and 
enlisted  men  are  forbidden. 

Mess  Management  Specialists  are  in  charge  of 
the  wardroom,  pantries,  galley,  and  officers' 
rooms.  Since  they  are  constantly  in  close 
contact  with  officers  and  have  frequent  occasion 
to  be  in  the  wardroom  and  in  officers'  rooms, 
there  is  a  tendency  to  become  too  familiar  with 
them,  or  perhaps,  at  times,  to  be  brusque  with 
them.  An  officer  should  always  be  tactful  in  his 
dealings  with  them.  If  an  officer  feels  that  a 
complaint  is  in  order  or  disciplinary  action  is 
necessary,  he  should  deal  directly  with  the  mess 
caterer  who  has  charge  of  the  Mess  Management 


In  summary,  relations  between  officers  and  and  bearing;  his  firmness  and   consistency  in 

men  are  founded  upon  the  same  mutual  respect  requiring  obedience  to  his  own,  or  the  captain's 

as  that  between  fellow  officers.  The  measure  of  orders;  and  his  interest  in  and  knowledge  of 

respect  which  an  officer  inspires  in  his  men  is  his    profession.   A    study    of  the    methods  of 

the  measure  of  that  officer  as  a  man  and  a  sailor;  officers  who  are  experts  in  handling  enlisted 

his  sincerity;  his  sense  of  justice;  his  interest  men   would   well   repay   the   novice    eager  to 

and  concern  for  his  men's  welfare;  his  dignity  acquire  the  technique. 




Now  these  are  laws  of  the  Navy 

Unwritten  and  varied  they  be; 
And  he  that  is  wise  will  observe  them, 

Going  down  in  his  ship  to  the  sea. 
As  the  wave  rises  clear  to  the  hawse  pipe, 

Washes  aft,  and  is  lost  in  the  wake, 
So  shall  ye  drop  astern,  all  unheeded, 

Such  times  as  the  law  ye  forsake. 
Now  these  are  the  laws  of  the  Navy, 

And  many  and  mighty  are  they. 
But  the  hull  and  deck  and  the  keel 

And  the  truck  of  the  law  is-OBEY. 
Admiral  Ronald  Hopwood,  R.N. 


To  the  average  person  the  word  "discipline" 
carries  with  it  connotations  of  severity,  an 
unreasonable  curtailment  of  freedom, 
unnecessary  restraints  on  personal  conduct, 
endless  restrictions,  and  compliance  with 
arbitrary  demands  of  authority.  Actually, 
discipline  is  the  basis  of  true  democracy;  for, 
without  depriving  an  individual  of  his 
fundamental  rights,  it  nevertheless  requires 
adherence  to  a  set  of  rules  of  conduct  that  man, 
through  the  experience  of  the  ages,  has  found 
best  suited  to  govern  relations  among  members 
of  society.  Some  of  these  rules  are  made  by  duly 
constituted  authority  and  are  laid  down  in 
writing.  These  are  called  laws.  Others, 
sanctioned  by  custom  and  usage,  are  called 

Discipline  is  not  peculiar  to  military 
organizations.  Discipline  is  the  training  that 
develops  self-control,  character,  and  efficiency, 
or  is  the  result  of  such  training.  Discipline, 
rightly  viewed,  is  a  character  builder  rather  than 

a  destroyer  of  individuality.  Discipline  implies 
adherence  to  a  control  exerted  for  the  good  of 
the  whole—the  compliance  with  rules  or  policies 
intended  for  the  orderly  coordination  of  effort. 
In  a  study  on  this  subject  Admiral  Arleigh 
Burke,  USN  (Ret.)  stated:  "A  well-disciplined 
organization  is  one  whose  members  work  with 
enthusiasm,  willingness,  and  zest  as  individuals 
and  as  a  group,  to  fulfill  the  mission  of  the 
organization  with  expectation  of  success."  The 
signs  of  discipline  are  manifested  in  smart 
salutes,  proper  wearing  of  the  uniform,  prompt 
and  correct  action  in  any  emergency  (figure 
7-1),  and  in  battle  efficiency  that  brings  victory 
in  wars.  Discipline,  obviously,  is  indispensable  to 
a  military  organization.  Without  it  almost  any 
effort  would  be  defeated  by  lack  of 
organization.  True  discipline  demands  habitual 
but  reasoned  obedience  to  command— an 
obedience  that  preserves  initiative  and  functions 
unfalteringly  even  in  the  absence  of  the 

The  purpose  of  discipline  in  the  military 
services  is  to  bring  about  an  efficient  military 
organization,  a  body  of  human  beings  trained 
and  controlled  for  concerted  action  for  the 
attainment  of  a  common  goal.  Each  individual 
understands  how  to  fit  into  the  organization  as  a 
whole.  The  members  understand  one  another 
through  the  sharing  of  common  knowledge  and 
are  bound  together  by  unity  of  will  and  interest 
that  is  expressed  by  their  willingness  to  follow 
and  obey  their  leader.  A  group  so  organized  is 
effective,  not  only  for  the  specific  purpose 
intended,  but  also  for  an  emergency.  Thus,  a  gun 
crew  may  be  readily  converted  into  a  repair 
party  for  carrying  out  any  essential  job  within 
its  capabilities;  a  company  of  midshipmen  may 
be  turned  into  a  fire  fighting  organization.  A 




Figure  7-1.— The  fruits  of  discipline  are  manifested  in  prompt  and  correct  action  in  an  emergency,  and  especially  in 

the  battle  efficiency  that  brings  victory  in  war. 

well-disciplined  naval  unit  responds 
automatically  to  an  emergency  and  is  not 
subject  to  panic.  An  actual  wartime  incident 
illustrates  this  point. 

Two  sister  ships  lay  in  adjoining  anchorages. 
One  was  known  as  a  taut  ship.  Her  commanding 
officer  recognized  the  value  of  proper 
organization,  discipline,  and  training. 

Her  sister  ship  lying  nearby  was  an  example 
of  the  opposite  condition.  Her  decks  were  dirty, 
her  crew  was  slovenly  and  careless  in  salutes,  and 
her  records  were  cluttered  with  courts-martial. 

It  was  nearly  midnight  and  the  tide  was 
running  out  strongly  against  the  wind,  making  a 
nasty  chop.  A  motor  launch  from  the  slack  ship 
was  bucking  the  sea,  her  liberty  party  huddled  in 
the  stem  under  a  tarpaulin.  The  coxswain  had 
ordered  the  men  to  distribute  their  weight  farther 
forward  so  that  he  could  better  see  over  the  bow 

of  his  boat,  but  their  concept  of  obedience  was 
in  keeping  with  that  of  their  ship.  In  the 
blackness  the  launch  struck  a  channel  buoy, 
capsized,  and  sank  almost  immediately. 

On  the  taut  ship  the  cries  of  the  victims  were 
heard  coming  from  the  dark  waters.  All  her 
boats  were  hoisted,  and  most  of  the  crew, 
except  the  anchor  watch,  had  turned  in.  But  at 
the  first  cry  for  help,  the  words  "Man 
overboard!"  rang  through  the  ship.  The  ship's 
organization  had  provided  a  man  be  on  the 
lookout— and  he  was.  Men  and  officers  came 
promptly  from  their  quarters  in  pajamas, 
underwear,  or  any  clothing  within  reach.  Three 
boats  reached  the  water  almost  simultaneously, 
and  by  the  time  they  were  away  the  searchlights 
had  been  manned  and  were  playing  over  the 
water.  Before  the  tide  could  sweep  the  helpless 
victims  away,  sixteen  men  from  the  liberty  boat 
had  been  saved. 


Meanwhile,  what  was  happening  on  the 
second  ship?  No  one  knows  exactly.  Perhaps  the 
officer  of  the  deck  had  been  engaged  in  some 
duty  on  the  far  side  of  the  deck;  perhaps  he  had 
stepped  below  for  a  moment.  Whatever  the 
facts,  the  second  ship  did  nothing  until  the 
lifeboat  from  the  first  ship  hailed  it  in  passing  in 
its  search  for  survivors.  At  this  point  the  officer 
of  the  deck  innocently  inquired  about  the 
excitement.  The  reply  of  the  lifeboat  officer 
unfortunately  has  not  been  preserved  in  the 
records.  Sixteen  men  owed  their  lives  not  to 
their  shipmates,  but  to  the  hard-earned 
discipline  of  the  crew  of  their  sister  ship. 

A  taut  ship  is  not  only  an  effective  ship,  but 
to  quote  a  naval  axiom,  "A  taut  ship  is  a  happy 
ship."  Aboard  a  taut  ship  every  officer  and  every 
man  knows  exactly  where  he  stands.  Each  one 
knows  what  is  expected  of  him.  Each  has 
complete  confidence  in  his  associates  and  knows 
that  an  incompetent  shipmate  will  be  brought 
up  with  a  round  turn.  Aboard  a  taut  ship  there 
are  no  soft  billets,  and  there  is  no  man  or  group 
of  men  "getting  away  with  it."  The  shiftless  are 
dealt  with  promptly— and  dealt  with  while  their 
offenses  are  still  minor. 



Various  ways  are  suggested  for  securing 
discipline.  The  method  that  is  based  on 
fear  of  the  consequences  of  disciplinary 
infractions- that  is,  the  discipline  of  fear-should 
be  less  and  less  necessary  in  the  modern  Navy. 
Current  Navy  discipline  is  based  on  what  we  like 
to  consider  the  American  ideal  of  discipline— a 
cheerful  and  spontaneous  one,  to  which  men 
willingly  and  gladly  subject  themselves  out  of 
belief  in  the  cause  for  which  they  are  striving 
and  out  of  respect  for  and  confidence  in  their 

Men  are  controlled  largely  by  one  of  two 
motives:  fear  of  punishment  and  hope  of 
reward.  Hope  of  reward  is  the  more  desirable 
stimulus  because  it  results  in  greater  efficiency 
and  harmony.  Nevertheless,  fear  of  punishment 
has  its  place  in  obtaining  immediate  results  in 
certain  cases.  To  use  punishment  as  a  club, 

1C   tr>    QHmit   foiln-ro    no   r.   lanAar- 

The  Navy  has  wholeheartedly  accepted  the 
preventive  theory  of  discipline,  which  holds  that 
preventing  disciplinary  problems  is  more 
important  than  trying  to  cure  them.  An 
extensive  welfare  and  recreation  program,  such 
as  is  carried  on  by  many  organizations  in  civilian 
life,  is  utilized  to  develop  healthy  interests  on 
the  part  of  Navy  personnel.  Naturally,  officers 
of  the  Chaplain  Corps  are  dedicated  to  this 
work,  but  the  program  must  be  administered  by 
line  officers,  particularly  division  officers  who 
are  constantly  in  contact  with  their  men. 

Add  to  this  the  Navy's  training  program, 
which  prepares  Navy  personnel  to  perform  their 
duties  effectively  and  efficiently,  with  or 
without  specific  instructions.  A  we  11- trained, 
capable  group  of  men  working  together  as  a 
team  soon  gains  a  feeling  of  group 
accomplishment  that  fosters  pride  and  loyalty  in 
the  organization.  This  group  pride  in  turn  tends 
to  prevent  disciplinary  breaches  that  would 
discredit  the  organization.  Men  who  know  their 
jobs  rarely  dislike  them,  and  men  who  like  their 
jobs  seldom  get  into  trouble. 

Junior  officers  and  petty  officers  may  have  a 
tendency  to  be  too  lenient  with  minor 
infractions  of  discipline,  thereby  penalizing  the 
good  man  while  favoring  the  poor  one.  When 
this  fact  is  pointed  out  to  the  junior  officers, 
they  may  become  uncertain  of  themselves  and, 
in  attempting  to  correct  the  fault,  become  too 
arbitrary.  In  either  case  they  lose  the  confidence 
of  their  men. 

An  officer  cannot  afford  to  lose  his  temper. 
He  may  not  always  find  it  easy  to  refrain  from 
anger,  but  he  must  make  a  conscious  effort  to 
do  so.  Otherwise,  he  loses  control  of  the 
situation  because  he  loses  control  of  himself.  In 
administering  punishment  he  must  be  calm, 
impersonal,  and  dignified.  If,  however,  he  is 
extremely  incensed,  precipitous  action  is  unwise; 
he  will  find  that  after  pacing  the  deck  for  a  few 
minutes,  he  will  be  better  able  to  handle  the 
situation  constructively.  The  offender,  also, 
should  be  given  the  opportunity  to  "cool  off." 
The  calmer  the  officer  is  in  his  usual 
performance  of  duty,  the  more  action  he  can  get 
when  the  occasion  demands.  An  officer  who  is 
constantly  shouting  creates  confusion  and  soon 
ceases  to  be  effective;  eventually  he  gets  little  or 


The  relationship  that  exists  between  officers 
and  men  exerts  an  important  influence  on 
discipline.  Officers  cannot  successfully  fraternize 
with  enlisted  men  or  attempt  to  be  "one  of  the 
boys."  Discipline  is  undermined  quickly  by  this 
type  of  familiarity.  If  the  men  presume  to 
become  familiar,  it  is  the  fault  of  the  officer  and 
not  of  the  men.  His  actions  have  encouraged 
them  to  do  so. 

There  is  a  vast  difference,  however,  between 
familiarity  and  friendship.  The  officer  who  talks 
to  his  men  in  a  friendly  manner,  taking  a  warm, 
personal  interest  in  them  and  becoming 
concerned  with  their  problems,  quickly  gains 
their  confidence  and  respect.  The  men  like  to 
look  to  their  superior  for  guidance;  they  want  to 
be  proud  of  him  as  a  good  officer.  Such  an 
officer,  because  he  is  friendly  and  approachable, 
will  be  the  first  one  to  whom  his  men  will  turn 
for  advice.  If  he  is  lacking  in  these  qualities,  they 
will  not  come  to  him  and,  as  a  result,  they  may 
either  grow  dissatisfied  or  get  into  trouble  which 
his  counsel  might  have  prevented.  Being  friendly 
with  enlisted  men  does  not  mean  being  easy 
with  them.  An  officer  may  be  as  exacting  as  the 
situation  requires,  so  long  as  he  is  just. 

Another  aid  in  securing  discipline  lies  in  the 
division  officer's  method  of  explaining  to  his 
men  the  rules  under  which  the  Navy 
functions— the  Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice. 
The  Code  is  the  basis  of  authority  and  discipline 
in  all  the  services.  If  these  rules  are  violated,  men 
are  punished  by  a  system,  not  by  an  individual. 
Officers  and  men  are  urged  to  study  the  Code 
and  review  it  frequently.  An  officer  should 
encourage  his  men  to  ask  questions  on  points 
that  are  confusing  to  them.  Worthwhile 
dividends  will  accrue  in  the  form  of  higher 
standards  of  discipline. 


At  this  point  it  may  be  well  to  consider 
carefully  the  words  of  John  Paul  Jones:  "No 
meritorious  act  of  a  subordinate  should  escape 
attention  or  be  left  to  pass  without  reward,  even 
if  the  reward  be  only  one  word  of  approval.  An 
officer  should  be  universal  and  impartial  in  his 
rewards  and  approval  of  merit,  so  should  he  be 

judicial  and  unbending  in  his  punishment  or 
reproof  of  misconduct."  It  is  to  be  noted  that 
Jones  stresses  appreciation  first  and,  only  if  that 
fails,  disciplinary  action.  The  officer  who  is 
unfamiliar  with  the  meaning  and  use  of 
commendation  is  laboring  under  a  tremendous 
disadvantage.  It  is  just  as  important  to  notice 
and  praise  a  job  well  done  as  it  is  to  censure  one 
poorly  done.  A  word  of  friendly  counsel  to  the 
new  men,  a  little  encouragement  to  the  easily 
discouraged,  a  look  of  approval  to  a  smart 
turnout  at  quarters,  a  nod  of  recognition  to  the 
missile  launcher  crew  after  an  exceptionally 
good  performance  at  drill,  or  a  willing  ear  to  the 
fellow  with  a  suggestion  will  do  much  to  keep 
men  loyal  to  their  officers. 

If  a  man  works  beyond  the  required  number 
of  hours,  as  frequently  happens  in  preparing  the 
ship  for  inspection,  his  effort  should  not  go 
without  a  word  of  praise;  and  the  captain  or 
inspecting  officer  should  be  told  of  the  extra 
effort  so  that  he  can  add  his  approbation  if  he 
considers  it  deserved.  If  a  Boatswain's  Mate  has 
been  working  at  some  job  in  charge  of  a  party  of 
men  and  has  handled  the  task  quietly  and 
efficiently,  he  might  be  commended  in  this  way: 
"Brown,  that  was  well  done."  The  next  time  he 
is  assigned  to  a  job,  he  will  take  pride  in  equaling 
or  surpassing  the  standard  that  he  has 
established.  However,  it  is  poor  judgment  to 
administer  praise  too  liberally.  The  men  dislike 
an  excess  of  it  and  feel  that  the  officer  who 
praises  profusely  is  either  insincere  or  trying  to 
make  himself  popular. 

On  the  other  hand,  what  should  be  done 
about  an  individual  like  coxswain  Smith  whose 
motorboat  has  continually  fallen  below  the 
required  standard  of  cleanliness? 

Heckling  and  driving  may  help,  but  if  Smith 
can  be  made  to  take  pride  and  an  intelligent 
interest  in  his  boat,  then  a  great  deal  has  been 
accomplished.  Not  only  is  the  boat  clean,  but 
Smith  has  become  an  asset  rather  than  a  likely 
disciplinary  case. 

Remember,  it  is  Smith  who  needs  changing. 
So,  encourage  him  or  reprimand  him;  teach  him 
or  guide  him;  handle  him  in  whatever 
constructive  way  your  experience  gives  you  the 
wisdom  to  do,  but  do  not  leave  him  to  muddle 
along  indefinitely. 




A  breach  of  discipline  cannot  be  smiled 
away  one  day  and  rebuked  the  next.  Under  such 
a  regime,  men  do  not  know  where  they  stand, 
and  confusion  results.  Discipline  deteriorates 
also  when  rules  are  not  enforced,  but  rather  are 
winked  at.  If  one  regulation  is  defied  openly  and 
with  impunity,  an  indifferent  attitude  toward 
other  regulations  naturally  follows.  Therefore,  a 
good  rule  is:  Never  make  a  regulation  that  you 
cannot  or  will  not  enforce. 

On  the  other  hand,  laxity  in  the 
performance  of  duty  cannot  be  tolerated,  and 
carelessness  cannot  be  condoned. 
Insubordination  must  be  routed  as  soon  as  it 
appears;  any  hint  of  trouble  must  be  promptly 

Before  taking  any  kind  of  disciplinary 
action,  however,  it  is  wise  to  verify  all  the  facts. 
Situations  should  be  evaluated.  For  example,  it 
is  best  to  avoid  contact  with  or  argument  with  a 
drunken  man  since  his  judgment  and 
commonsense  are  not  at  their  best.  The 
master-at-arms  should  take  him  into  custody 
until  he  is  sober.  This  rule,  if  followed,  will  save 
the  junior  officer  many  problems. 

When  disciplinary  measures  are  deemed 
necessary,  they  should  be  administered 
promptly.  Immediate  action  leaves  no  doubt  in 
the  mind  of  the  offender  as  to  why  he  is  being 
disciplined.  Nothing  is  gained  by  delay.  Rather, 
delay  generates  resentment  toward  the  entire 

Disciplinary  action  should  be  appropriate  to 
the  offense.  Indiscriminately  bringing  men  to 
mast  for  trivial  offenses  is  unwise.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  "good  Joe,"  or  the  officer  who  under 
no  condition  reports  a  man,  is  a  menace  to 
discipline  and  a  nuisance  to  his  fellow  officers. 
An  officer  who  attempts  to  curry  favor  in  this 
way  will  find  his  men  despising  him. 

Discipline  can  be  strict  without  being  stiff 
and  formal.  Oral  reprimands,  admonitions, 
rebukes,  or  other  expressions  of  disapprobation 
employed  as  nonpunitive  measures  may  prove 

more    effective    than    a    stiff   murt    spnte.nrp.     A 

early  stage  may  prevent  an  appearance  at  mast 
or  a  court-martial  later. 

Navy  disciplinary  measures  must  be  justly 
administered.  To  accomplish  their  purpose,  such 
measures  must  be  recognized  as  just  by  the 
offender  as  well  as  by  his  shipmates.  The  penalty 
should  be  of  such  a  nature  as  not  to  lower  the 
man's  self-respect  nor  so  severe  as  to  be  out  of 
proportion  to  the  gravity  of  the  offense. 
Personal  likes  and  dislikes  should  never  motivate 
a  reprimand  nor  function  in  the  matter  of 
administering  discipline.  No  matter  how 
exacting  a  leader  may  be,  if  he  is  fair  and  just, 
his  subordinates  will  not  only  live  up  to  his 
demands  but  respect  and  admire  his  attitude  as 
well.  To  find  fault  with  a  man  who  is  doing  his 
best  is  only  to  discourage  him;  to  discipline  a 
man  for  incompetence  when  he  has  done  his 
best  is  useless. 

The  desired  goal  of  the  Navy  is  that  quality 
of  discipline  which  is  based  on  respect  for 
leaders,  confidence  in  justice  and  fairness,  and 
the  compulsion  of  moral  force.  Discipline  based 
on  force  alone  cannot  endure;  lasting  discipline 
must  be  induced.  True  discipline  develops 
loyalty  and  intelligent  initiative. 

Disciplinary  actions  are  not  personal, 
vindictive,  or  inflicted  as  revenge  for 
misconduct.  They  are  not  intended  to  right  the 
wrong  that  has  resulted  from  an  act  of 
dereliction.  A  young  officer  bears  in  mind  that 
when  a  senior  finds  it  necessary  to  reprimand 
him,  the  senior  is  acting  in  the  official  capacity 
of  discharging  his  duties.  It  is  a  fact  that  all 
persons  in  the  naval  service  are  required  to  obey 
readily  and  strictly,  and  to  execute  promptly, 
the  lawful  orders  of  their  superiors. 

Great  leaders  have  always  been  sound 
disciplinarians.  The  following  quotation  is  taken 
from  a  letter  that  George  Washington  wrote  to 
Colonel  William  Woodford  in  1776.  The  great 
general's  counsel  is  as  appropriate  today  as  it 
was  when  he  wrote  it. 

"The  best  general  advice  I  can  give,  and 
which  I  am  sure  you  stand  in  no  need  of, 
is  to  be  strict  in  your  discipline;  that  is, 

tn   rpniMrp  nnthincr  nnrpa'srmahlp   r\f 


whatever  is  required  be  punctually 
complied  with.  Reward  and  punish  every 
man  according  to  his  merit,  without 
partiality  or  prejudice;  hear  his 
complaints;  if  well  founded  redress  them, 
in  order  to  prevent  frivolous  ones. 
Discourage  vice  in  every  shape,  and 
impress  upon  the  mind  of  every  man, 
from  the  first  to  the  lowest,  the 
importance  of  the  cause  and  what  it  is 
they  are  contending  for." 


The  following  quotation  is  from  a  letter 
promulgated  by  Admiral  T.C.  Kinkaid,  USN, 
relative  to  officers'  conduct  and  its  influence  on 
enlisted  personnel: 

"Unless  and  until  officers  conduct  them- 
selves at  all  times  as  officers  should,  it  is 
useless  to  demand  and  hopeless  to  expect 
any  improvement  in  the  enlisted  ranks. 
Conduct  means  speech,  dress,  manner, 
attitude  toward  seniors  and  juniors  and 
vested  authority  in  general.  An  officer's 
basic  military  character  is  directly  and 
faithfully  reflected  in  all  of  these  things, 
and  he  can  expect  success  or  failure  as  a 
leader  in  direct  proportion  to  his  efforts 
along  these  lines.  It  is  not  enough  that  an 
officer  go  through  the  motions.  He  must 
constantly  strive  to  cultivate  the  correct 
attitude  and  to  make  it  part  and  parcel  of 
his  everyday  existence.  If  the  military 
philosophy  seems  all  wrong  and  the  en- 
listed men  are  unmilitary,  uninterested, 
and  irresponsible,  let  each  officer  look  to 
himself  for  the  source  of  trouble,  for  it  is 
the  attitude  and  conduct  of  the  officer 
group  that  make  or  break  the  entire 
democratic  military  system." 

Nothing  tends  to  destroy  discipline  more 
readily  than  the  attitude  of  an  officer  who  by 
work  and  deed  says  to  his  subordinates,  "Don't 
do  as  I  do.  Do  as  I  say."  To  promote  a  high 
quality  of  discipline,  an  officer  must  set  high 
standards  by  example  and  precept  and  insist  that 
they  be  maintained.  No  man  will  extend  respect 

and  loyalty  to  a  superior  who  allows  hypocrisy 
and  insincerity  to  govern  his  actions.  The  officer 
must  practice  what  he  preaches.  In  this 
connection,  it  is  well  to  remember  the  words  of 
Aristotle:  "Men  are  praised  for  knowing  both 
how  to  rule  and  how  to  obey,  and  he  is  said  to 
be  a  citizen  of  approved  virtue  who  is  able  to  do 

If  an  officer  hopes  to  receive  loyalty  and 
obedience  from  those  under  him,  he  must  earn 
them  by  demonstrating  like  qualities.  If  by  word 
or  action  he  is  disloyal  to  his  superiors,  the  men 
will  doubt  his  loyalty  to  them;  their  loyalty  to 
him  will  suffer  correspondingly.  It  is  essential 
for  the  officer  to  let  his  men  know  that  he 
respects  and  honors  the  policies  and  motives  of 
their  common  senior.  With  equal  zeal  he  renders 
loyalty  to  his  men  and  looks  out  for  them.  He 
takes  an  interest  in  them,  knows  them  by  name, 
is  zealous  about  their  rights  and  privileges. 


It  is  the  duty  of  an  officer  to  study  his  men, 
watch  them,  learn  their  language  and  point  of 
view,  work  with  them,  guide  them,  and  counsel 
them.  Many  disciplinary  problems  can  be 
prevented  by  the  division  officer's  understanding 
of  his  men  and  knowing  their  abilities.  In  this 
manner  the  talents  and  limitations  of 
subordinates  can  be  truly  evaluated,  and  officers 
can  assign  them  tasks  and  responsibilities 
corresponding  to  their  abilities. 

If  discipline  is  to  be  maintained,  the  division 
officer  must  be  continually  concerned  about  his 
men,  continually,  not  merely  when  they  get  into 
difficulties.  This  means  ensuring  that  his  men  are 
as  comfortable,  well  cared  for,  and  contented  as 
circumstances  permit,  and  that  they  always  get 
their  fair  share  of  the  privileges.  They  will  then 
feel  that  their  interests  are  the  division  officer's 
first  concern. 

In  handling  his  division,  an  officer  should 
bear  in  mind  that  every  one  wants,  needs,  and 
responds  to  recognition.  It  is  well  to  remember 
that  each  man  is  to  himself  the  most  important 
person  in  the  world.  A  division  officer  should 
know  the  names  of  his  men  and  call  them  by 
their  names-last  names,  not  first  names  or 


nicknames.  When  making  the  rounds  in  the 
morning  before  quarters,  the  officer  should 
return  his  men's  salutes  smartly,  giving  them  a 
pleasant  "Good  morning,  Wilson,"  or  "Good 
morning,  Smith."  Should  the  officer  meet 
one  of  his  men  ashore,  he  might,  as  he 
returns  the  subordinate's  salute,  say  something 
appropriate— particularly  if  the  subordinate  is 
with  men  whom  the  officer  does  not  know.  This 
gives  the  enlisted  man  a  sense  of  recognition  just 
as  it  does  any  officer  when  he  is  identified  by 
name  by  a  superior. 

If  the  best  in  men  is  to  be  brought  out,  they 
must  feel  important  in  their  own  eyes,  they 
must  feel  respect  from  their  associates,  and  they 
must  definitely  feel  competent  in  the  eyes  of 
their  superiors.  A  sense  of  confidence  in 
themselves  and  in  each  other  is  desirable.  When  a 
man  is  given  a  job  to  do,  he  should  be  impressed 
with  the  fact  that  he  is  given  that  job  because  he 
has  the  ability  to  perform  it  satisfactorily.  He 
should  feel  his  importance;  he  should  feel 
respect  for  his  job  because  the  job  he  is  doing  is 

An  officer  will  need  to  use  all  the 
understanding  of  human  nature  that  he  can  gain 
through  experience  and  study.  The  better  his 
insight  into  human  nature,  the  more  effective  he 
will  be  in  handling  his  men.  Different  levels  of 
intelligence,  education,  and  background,  as  well 
as  many  other  human  variables,  dictate  a 
separate  and  well-considered  approach  to  each 
man's  problems. 


Mastless  discipline  is  not  a  one-man  show, 
nor  is  it  dependent  on  officers  alone.  Every 
petty  officer  is  a  technical  expert  in  some  line, 
and  his  rating  badge  signifies  that  he  is  a  leader 
of  men.  He  is  an  important  part  of  the  ship's 
disciplinary  organization.  Therefore,  he  should 
be  vested  with  authority.  It  is  wise  to  work 
through  him,  support  him,  and  hold  him 
responsible  for  results. 

The  burden  of  developing  good  petty 
officers  rests  upon  division  officers.  Petty 
officers  require  officer  supervision.  However,  it 

is  not  required  that  officers  interrupt  them  in 
the  midst  of  a  task  except  in  unusual  cases 
involving  danger  to  personnel  or  valuable 
material.  Division  officers  often  irritate  petty 
officers  by  encroaching  on  the  sphere  of  the 
subordinate's  initiative.  Sometimes  an  officer 
changes  the  method  used  by  a  petty  officer  for 
one  of  his  own  that  is  no  better  and  sometimes 
is  worse.  The  weary  patience  with  which  the 
petty  officer  makes  the  change  indicates  that 
morale,  efficiency,  and  discipline  have  not  been 

In  such  a  situation,  if  a  change  in  method  is 
imperative,  it  is  wise  to  discuss  the  matter  later 
with  the  petty  officer,  preferably  in  private, 
suggesting  better  methods  or  techniques  in  an 
encouraging  manner.  Under  normal 
circumstances,  nothing  is  more  unfair  or  creates 
greater  confusion  and  resentment  than  for  an 
officer  to  give  orders  over  a  petty  officer's  head 
without  first  advising  him  that  he  has  been 
relieved  of  direct  supervision  of  the  particular 

A  petty  officer  should  never  be  reproved  in 
public.  When  this  happens,  both  his  authority 
and  morale  are  undermined.  If  he  is  at  fault,  a 
private  talk  will  clear  up  the  matter.  Above  all, 
the  use  of  sarcasm  is  to  be  avoided;  a 
subordinate  resents  it  because  it  is  a  weapon  that 
gives  unfair  advantage  to  the  superior. 

Much  that  has  been  said  regarding  the 
handling  of  petty  officers  comes  under  the 
heading  of  tact,  which  may  at  times  be  termed 
plain  common  sense— or  even  uncommon  sense. 
Tact  is  the  oil  that  lubricates  human  relations 
and  helps  prevent  the  friction  that  frequently 
results  in  disciplinary  problems. 

If  petty  officers  are  to  be  held  responsible, 
they  must  be  supported  by  their  division 
officers.  They  must  be  made  to  feel  that  they 
have  the  confidence  and  trust  of  the  division 
officer  and  that  they  have  responsibility.  They 
must  know  that  they  will  be  allowed  to  do  the 
assigned  job  without  interference  as  long  as  they 
do  it  well.  They  should  be  made  to  feel  that 
they  have  a  share  and  a  voice  in  the  management 
of  the  division.  This  can  be  done  in  many  small 
ways  without  interfering  in  the  least  with  the 
military  authority  of  the  division  officer.  Above 


all,  an  officer  should  always  be  willing  to  listen 
to  suggestions  from  his  men  and  accept  them  if 
they  are  good  ones. 

The  men  in  the  division  should  understand 
clearly  that  an  order  from  a  petty  officer  must 
be  obeyed  as  if  it  were  an  order  from  the 
division  officer,  because  the  petty  officer  is  a 
part  of  the  chain  of  command.  No  insolence  or 
disrespect  to  a  petty  officer  should  escape  its 
merited  attention.  On  the  other  hand,  the  petty 
officers  should  not  be  supported  blindly,  and 
any  tendency  on  their  part  to  bully  or  to  mete 
out  unnecessary  harshness  should  not  be 

A  petty  officer's  responsibility  for  the 
conduct  of  naval  personnel  follows  him 
wherever  he  goes.  Even  after  he  leaves  the  ship, 
if  any  trouble  develops— such  as  a  fight  in  a 
liberty  boat  or  a  melee  ashore-it  is  the  duty  of 
the  senior  petty  officer  present  to  take  over  in 
the  absence  of  a  commissioned  officer.  Later  a 
report  to  the  proper  authority  is  in  order.  This 
responsibility  cannot  be  avoided. 

Petty  officers  have  an  increasingly  important 
role  in  the  disciplinary  system.  For  example,  if 
an  enlisted  man  makes  a  mistake  in  the  presence 
of  both  an  officer  and  a  petty  officer,  it  is  the 
duty  of  the  latter  to  instruct  the  man.  A  petty 
officer  who  stands  and  complacently  watches  a 
man  commit  a  breach  of  discipline,  without 
endeavoring  to  correct  him  immediately, 
commits  a  worse  offense  than  the  man  he 
watches.  There  is  no  room  for  the  petty  officer 
who  is  not  alert  and  who  is  not  actively  assertive 
for  the  good  of  the  ship. 


The  following  principles  of  effective 
discipline  present  in  summarized  form  the  ideas 
developed  in  this  discussion  of  discipline.  These 
are  guides  that  any  young  officer  will  find 
valuable  in  his  dealings  with  subordinates. 

The  happiest  and  most  efficient  ships  are 
those  wherein  the  discipline  is  firm  and 
infractions  are  punished  promptly,  uniformly, 
and  adequately. 

Men  feel  more  secure  if  they  know  that 
reward  and  punishment  come  to  them  because 
of  their  behavior  and  not  because  of  an  officer's 
whim,  mood,  or  preference. 

Consideration,  courtesy,  and  respect  from 
officers  toward  enlisted  men  are  not 
incompatible  with  discipline. 

It  is  not  the  severity  of  punishment  that 
restrains  men  but  the  certainty  of  it. 

A  "Dutch  uncle"  talk  or  a  private  reprimand 
may  save  a  mast  or  a  court  sentence  later. 

Emphasis  should  be  placed  upon  keeping 
men  out  of  trouble,  or  detecting  it  before  it 
becomes  serious  and  leading  them  from  it. 

Punishment  is  not  personal  or  vindictive;  it  is 
not  an  instrument  of  revenge  nor  a  means  of 
righting  a  wrong.  It  does,  however,  furnish  an 
object  lesson  to  the  wrongdoer  and  to  others. 

An  officer  must  be  loyal  to  his  men,  take  an 
interest  in  them,  and  make  sure  they  are  granted 
rights  and  privileges.  He  can  drive  men  to 
obedience,  but  he  cannot  drive  them  to  loyalty. 

An  officer  should  not  talk  or  argue  with  a 
drunken  man  but  should  turn  him  over  to  the 
master-at-arms  for  safekeeping  until  sober. 

An  officer  commends  publicly  and  reproves 

He  gains  the  confidence  of  his  men  and  is 
worthy  of  it. 

He  does  not  lose  his  temper  or  use  sarcasm 
and  ridicule  in  dealing  with  his  men. 

He  does  not  nag  his  men,  neglect  them, 
coddle  them,  or  play  the  clown. 

He  is  unbending  in  the  reproof  of 
misconduct-does  not  allow  men  to  get  away 
with  anything. 

He  uses  the  Uniform  Code  of  Military 
Justice  as  a  tool  for  better  discipline. 

In  maintaining  discipline  an  officer  gives  his 
petty  officers  authority,  works  through  them, 
supports  them,  and  holds  them  responsible  for 

Good  example  on  the  part  of  the  officers  is  a 
prime  requisite  both  in  the  establishment  of 
discipline  and  in  its  maintenance.  Officers  must 
practice  what  they  preach. 

A  ship's  company  must  be  said  to  have  been 
brought  to  an  ideal  state  of  discipline  when 
there  exists  in  it  a  maximum  of  efficiency  and 
contentment,  combined  with  a  minimum  of 




In  civil  life,  criminal  law  seeks  to  protect 
society  from  the  depredations  of  its 
irresponsible  members  without  prejudice  to 
fundamental  individual  rights  by  hasty, 
ill-considered  action.  Military  law  must  not  only 
restrain  individuals  for  the  protection  of  military 
society  but  must  assist  in  assuring  that  all 
members  of  a  service  march  in  a  prescribed 
order.  For  this  reason,  certain  acts  which  are 
considered  inalienable  rights  in  civil  society  are 
offenses  in  military  society.  For  instance, 
"telling  off  the  boss"  is  an  inalienable  right  of 
the  American  civilian,  but  in  the  military  service 
it  may  well  constitute  an  offense  punishable  by 
court-martial.  In  civil  life,  if  a  man  does  not 
like  his  job  he  can  quit.  Such  action  in  the 
military  service  might  be  desertion.  In  civil  life, 
if  a  group  of  people  decide  they  do  not  like 
working  conditions  and  jointly  walk  off  the  job, 
that  is  a  strike.  In  the  military  service,  such 
action  is  mutiny. 

Discipline  is  considered  to  be  that  attribute 
of  a  military  organization  which  enables  it  to 
function  in  a  coordinated  manner  under  varying 
circumstances.  Many  factors  contribute  to  the 
attainment  of  a  well-disciplined  organization. 
One  of  the  instruments  for  achieving  and 
maintaining  a  high  state  of  discipline  is  military 

The  trial  and  punishment  of  offenders 
within  all  branches  of  the  Armed  Forces  of  the 
United  States  are  governed  by  a  single  set  of 
laws-the  Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice 
(UCMJ).  The  courts  that  try  military  personnel 
are  of  the  same  types  and  operate  in  basically 
the  same  manner,  regardless  of  the  service 

In  addition  to  the  Code,  the  publications 
governing  the  administration  of  the  law  in  the 
Navy  are  the  Manual  for  Courts-Martial  United 
States,  1969  (Revised  ed.),  which  is  abbreviated 
as  MCM,  1969  (Rev.  ed.);and  the  Manual  of  the 
Judge  Advocate  General,  which  supplements  the 

The  UCMJ  is  discussed  more  fully  in  the 
second  half  of  this  chapter.  Suffice  it  to  say  here 
that  a  naval  officer  is  responsible  for  ensuring 

that  his  own  knowledge  of  the  code  is  adequate. 
The  basic  essentials  of  military  law  and  the 
procedure  in  naval  courts  must  be  thoroughly 
familiar  to  him.  An  officer  may  be  called  upon 
at  any  time  to  fill  various  roles  in  the  conduct  of 
naval  courts. 

Naval  courts  are  conducted  with  all  the 
formality  and  gravity  of  similar  courts  in  civil 
life.  Every  individual  participating  is  there  for  a 
definite  purpose  and  has  a  great  responsibility 
assigned  him.  Each  participant  must  play  his 
part  in  maintaining  the  dignity  of  the  court  and 
ensuring  swift,  efficient  administration  of 
justice.  It  is  essential  that  the  individuals 
composing  such  a  court  have  as  a  background 
the  study  of  the  fundamentals  of  military  law 
and  that  they  be  instilled  with  a  thorough 
awareness  of  the  importance  of  their  roles  in  its 
practical  application. 


When  an  officer  is  seeking  the  truth 
concerning  an  alleged  offense,  he  should  first 
question  the  man  making  the  report  and  then 
question  the  accused,  after  advising  him  of  his 
legal  rights  (discussed  later).  He  should  accord 
little  credence  to  the  story  of  either  party  until 
all  facts  are  clear.  Before  a  case  is  brought  to 
mast,  the  names  of  all  witnesses  should  be 
obtained  and  the  investigation  of  all  details 
should  be  completed.  If  the  inquiring  officer  is 
convinced  that  there  is  a  definite  case  against  the 
alleged  wrongdoer,  or  if  he  feels  that  further 
investigation  under  more  mature  judgment  of 
the  commanding  officer  is  needed,  then  and 
only  then  should  the  culprit  be  reported. 


Apprehension  is  the  taking  of  a  person  into 
lawful  custody.  Arrest  is  the  restraint  of  a 
person  by  an  order  directing  him  to  remain 
within  certain  specified  limits.  Arrest  is  not 
imposed  as  punishment  for  an  offense,  and  the 
restraint  imposed  is  binding  upon  the  person 
arrested,  not  by  physical  force,  but  by  virtue  of 

1  A  1 

his  moral  and  legal  obligation  to  obey  the  order 
of  arrest.  A  person  in  arrest  cannot  be  required 
to  perform  his  full  military  duties.  Moreover,  the 
determinations  as  to  whether  there  is  probable 
cause  to  confine  the  accused  and  whether,  under 
the  circumstances,  he  should  be  confined  must 
be  made  by  a  neutral  and  detached  magistrate. 

In  lieu  of  arrest,  an  accused  person  may  be 
restricted  to  specified  areas,  without  imposing 
arrest,  and  it  may  be  provided  that  he  will 
participate  in  all  military  duties  and  activities  of 
his  organization  while  under  such  restriction. 

Confinement  is  physical  restraint,  imposed 
by  either  oral  or  written  orders,  depriving  a 
person  of  freedom.  Although  confinement  can 
be  imposed  by  an  oral  or  written  order,  it  is 
required  that  a  written  confinement  order  be 
delivered  to  the  individual  in  charge  of  the  place 
of  confinement.  Confinement  is  not  imposed 
pending  trial  unless  deemed  necessary  to  ensure 
the  presence  of  the  accused  at  the  trial  or 
because  of  the  seriousness  of  the  offense 


The  usual  procedure  for  placing  enlisted 
personnel  on  report  aboard  ship  consists  of 
submitting  the  report  of  a  man's  charges  and 
necessary  details  in  writing  to  the  executive 
officer  of  the  ship  or  to  another  officer 
designated  by  the  commanding  officer.  For 
example,  anyone  making  a  charge  may  sign  a 
Report  and  Disposition  of  Offense(s)  slip,  which 
contains  the  name  of  the  alleged  offender,  the 
offense  charged,  the  name  of  the  person  making 
the  charge,  and  the  names  of  any  witnesses. 
Anyone  in  the  naval  service  may  place  a  person 
directly  on  report  for  a  breach  of  discipline 
either  afloat  or  ashore.  For  example,  if  a  man 
were  late  in  returning  to  his  ship  from  liberty, 
the  officer  of  the  deck  would  place  him  on 
report  as  he  came  over  the  gangway. 

In  each  instance,  the  report  is  sent  to  the 
executive  officer  (or  other  officer  designated  by 
the  commanding  officer),  who  makes,  or  causes 
to  be  made,  a  preliminary  investigation  of  the 

If  the  investigating  officer,  as  a  result  of  his 
analysis  of  the  facts,  feels  that  the  offense 
warrants  disciplinary  action,  he  will  make  out  a 
charge  sheet,  swear  to  it,  and  sign  it.  If  the 
investigating  officer  feels  that  a  court-martial  is 
not  called  for,  as  is  the  case  for  most  reported 
offenses,  he  merely  reports  the  facts  to  the 
commanding  officer,  who  may  have  the  accused 
brought  to  mast  for  the  alleged  commission  of  a 
minor  military  offense. 

There  is  no  formal  method  of  initiating 
charges  against  naval  personnel  accused  of 
committing  offenses  against  the  Code.  It  might 
conceivably  consist  of  a  telephone  ca|l  or  a  letter 
from  a  civilian  to  the  commanding  officer  of  a 
ship  or  station.  The  initiating  of  charges,  either 
aboard  ship  or  ashore,  is  merely  the  process  of 
informing  the  proper  authority  that  an  offense 
has  been  committed  and  that  a  certain  individual 
is  suspected  of  having  committed  it.  Anyone 
may  initiate  charges,  but  only  a  person  subject 
to  UCMJ  may  prefer  them— that  is,  sign  and 
swear  to  them. 

When  the  commanding  officer  has  only  an 
official  interest  (see  next  paragraph)  in  the 
disposition  of  the  case,  it  is  customary  for  him 
to  direct  an  officer  of  his  command  to  make  a 
preliminary  inquiry  into  the  suspected  offense 
and  to  prefer  appropriate  charges  if  the  facts 
shown  by  such  inquiry  should  warrant  the 
preferring  of  charges. 

At  this  point  it  would  be  well  to  clarify  the 
legal  term,  "accuser."  An  "accuser"  is  defined 
by  the  code,  in  substance,  as  one  who  signs 
charges;  directs  that  charges,  which  he  is  in  fact 
preferring,  be  nominally  signed  by  another;  and 
has  other  than  an  official  interest  in  the 
prosecution.  A  commanding  officer  who  is,  in 
legal  fact,  the  accuser  is  precluded  from 
convening  either  a  general  or  a  special 
court-martial  in  the  particular  case.  It  is 
advisable,  therefore,  that  if  possible  he  avoid 
becoming  an  accuser.  A  commanding  officer 
who  convenes  a  summary  court-martial  may  be 
the  accuser,  but  if  the  accused  exercises  his  right 
to  refuse  trial  by  summary  court,  the 
commanding  officer  may  not  then  convene  the 
special  or  general  court-martial  for  the  trial.  A 
commanding  officer  in  those  cases  where  he 
does  not  in  truth  have  any  real  personal  interest 



(which  will,  of  course,  be  the  vast  majority  of 
cases)  should  delegate  the  task  of  making  the 
preliminary  inquiry  and  the  preferring  of 
appropriate  charges  to  a  subordinate  officer. 

Self-incrimination  should  also  be  considered 
at  this  point,  as  it  relates  to  the  investigation  of 
a  suspected  offense.  Article  31  of  the  Code 
forbids  anyone  subject  to  the  Code  to  compel 
any  person  to  answer  any  question  the  answer  to 
which  might  tend  to  incriminate  that  person 

By  this  same  article  any  person  subject  to 
the  Code  is  forbidden  to  interrogate  or  to 
request  a  statement  from  an  accused  person  or 
from  a  person  suspected  of  any  offense  without 
first  informing  him  of— 

1 .  The  nature  of  the  accusation. 

2.  The  fact  that  he  does  not  have  to  make 
any  statement  regarding  the  offense  of  which  he 
is  accused  or  suspected. 

3.  The   fact   that  any  statement  he  does 
make  may  be  used  as  evidence  against  him  in  a 
trial  by  court-martial. 

In  addition,  persons  subjected  to  custodial 
interrogations  must  be  advised  that  they  have 
the  right  to  consult  with  a  civilian  lawyer  and 
have  him  present  during  the  interview,  and  that 
such  lawyer  may  be  retained  at  the  individual's 
own  expense  or  appointed  by  military  authority 
without  cost  to  the  individual  concerned. 
Custodial  interrogations  are  those  in  which  the 
accused  has  no  choice  about  reporting  to  an 

No  statement  obtained  from  any  person  in 
violation  of  Article  31  or  through  the  use  of 
coercion,  unlawful  influence,  or  unlawful 
inducement  may  be  received  in  evidence  against 
the  accused  in  a  trial  by  court-martial. 

The  preliminary  inquiry  normally  is  an 
informal  proceeding  conducted  for  the  purpose 
of  making  inquiry  into  the  question  of  whether 
an  offense  chargeable  under  UCMJ  has  been 
committed  and  whether  reasonable  grounds 
exist  for  the  belief  that  the  accused  in  fact 
committed  the  offense.  The  officer  making  the 
preliminary  inquiry  collects  and  examines  all 
evidence  that  is  essential  to  a  determination  of 
the  guilt  or  innocence  of  the  accused  as  well  as 
evidence  in  mitigation  or  extenuation. 

If,  on  the  basis  of  his  findings,  the 
investigating  officer  believes  that  charges  should 
be  preferred  against  the  accused,  he  executes  a 
charge  sheet  under  oath.  The  charge  sheet  sets 
forth  the  name,  organization,  and  service 
number  of  the  accused;  identifies  witnesses, 
documents,  or  objects  that  may  be  introduced  in 
evidence;  and  most  importantly,  lists  the  charges 
and  specifications.  The  commanding  officer 
ensures  that  the  accused  receives  a  copy  of  the 
charge  sheet. 

Under  the  Code,  disposition  of  infractions  of 
discipline  or  violations  of  the  law  is 
accomplished  by  two  types  of  proceedings: 
nonjudicial  punishment  and  courts-martial. 



Nonjudicial  punishment  is  better  known  in 
the  Navy  as  captain's  mast,  or  merely  mast,  a 
term  derived  from  the  fact  that  in  early  sailing 
days  the  usual  setting  for  application  of  this 
type  of  naval  justice  was  on  the  weather  deck  at 
the  foot  of  the  ship's  mainmast. 

A  commanding  officer  may,  for  minor 
offenses,  impose  nonjudicial  punishment  upon 
the  military  personnel  (including  officers)  of  his 
command.  This  authority  of  a  commanding 
officer  is  personal  and  may  not  be  delegated 
unless  he  is  a  general  or  flag  officer.  A  general  or 
flag  officer  may  delegate  the  authority  to  a 
principal  assistant  only  with  the  express  prior 
approval  of  the  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel  or 
Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps.  Captain's 
mast  constitutes  the  cornerstone  of  the  whole 
structure  of  naval  justice  and  discipline. 

The  executive  officer  holds  a  preliminary 
investigation,  usually  just  before  captain's  mast. 
Although  he  cannot  assume  the  authority  to 
punish,  the  executive  officer  does  have  the  main 
responsibility  for  ship's  routine,  efficiency,  and 
discipline.  His  purpose  in  screening  mast  cases  is 
to  ensure  that  alleged  offenses  do,  in  fact, 
warrant  some  form  of  punishment.  If  conditions 
justify,  he  may  dismiss  the  charges  against  a 
man.  He  then  furnishes  the  commanding  officer 
with  a  list  of  personnel  against  whom  charges 
have  been  preferred  during  the  preceding  day(s) 
and  whom  he  believes  should  appear  at  mast. 



The  captain  holds  mast  for  those  persons  at  a 
time  most  convenient  for  all  concerned,  usually 
before  noon. 

The  executive  officer  may  stand  by  to  lend 
assistance  in  the  conduct  of  the  proceedings.  A 
Yeoman  or  Personnelman  stands  by  with  the 
service  records  of  all  men  brought  to  mast.  Also 
standing  by  are  the  master-at-arms,  accusers, 
witnesses,  and  division  officers  of  the  accused. 

The  first  action  of  the  commanding  officer  is 
to  warn  all  accused  as  well  as  any  witnesses 
about  the  possible  effect  of  their  answers  to  any 
of  his  questions;  at  the  same  time,  he  explains 
their  rights.  These  rights,  among  other  things, 
encompass  not  being  required  to  answer  any 
questions  that  degrade  or  tend  to  incriminate 
them;  not  being  required  to  make  any  statement 
regarding  the  offenses  of  which  accused;  the 
opportunity  to  present  any  matter  in  defense, 
mitigation,  or  extenuation  of  the  alleged 
offenses;  and  the  right  (unless  the  accused  are 
attached  to  or  embarked  in  a  vessel)  to  demand 
trail  by  court-martial  in  lieu  of  accepting 
nonjudicial  punishment.  To  save  time,  the 
captain  may  conduct  a  preliminary  hearing  in 
which  all  accused  and  witnesses  are  brought 
before  him;  he  warns  them,  explains  their  rights, 
dismisses  them,  and  then  calls  the  first  case. 

As  each  man  is  called  before  the  captain,  the 
reporting  individual  and  the  man's  division 
officer  also  step  forward.  The  offense  is  read. 
The  captain  then  hears  the  man's  statement,  if 
any,  and  those  of  any  witnesses.  The  division 
officer  may  wish  to  put  in  a  word,  or  the  captain 
may  wish  to  ask  some  questions  about  the 
man.  The  captain  carefully  examines  an 
accused's  service  record  before  he  makes  a 
decision.  During  the  entire  procedure  all  the 
dignity  and  seriousness  of  a  higher  court  are 

In  passing  judgment,  the  commanding 
officer  may  (1)  dismiss  the  case,  (2)  officially 
warn  the  accused,  (3)  administer  an  oral  or 
written  admonition  or  reprimand,  (4)  impose 
punishment,  or  (5)  order  the  accused  to  be  tried 
by  court-martial. 

Figure  7-2  shows  maximum  punishments 
that  may  be  imposed  in  the  Navy  as  nonjudicial 

punishment  Applicable  blocks  indicate  the 
section  of  the  Manual  of  the  Judge  Advocate 
General  (JAG  Manual)  that  authorizes  deviation 
from  article  15  of  the  Code  (the  article 
authorizing  and  placing  limitations  on 
nonjudicial  punishment,  quoted  fully  later  in 
this  chapter)  in  accordance  with  the  doctrine 
that  a  departmental  secretary  (SECNAV)  has 
latitude  in  applying  the  article  within  his 

In  regard  to  punishments  of  enlisted 
members,  reduction  in  grade  may  be  imposed 
only  by  a  commanding  officer  who  is  authorized 
to  promote  to  the  grade  from  which  demoted. 
Confinement  on  bread  and  water  or  diminished 
rations  may  be  imposed  only  upon  a  member 
attached  to  or  embarked  in  a  ship  but  may  not 
be  imposed  on  a  petty  officer;  nor  may 
correctional  custody  be  imposed  on  a  petty 

An  officer  in  charge  cannot  impose 
disciplinary  punishment  upon  officers.  He  has 
the  same  power  as  a  commanding  officer  in 
disciplining  enlisted  personnel  assigned  to  his 
unit,  but  he  may  not  impose  a  punishment  that 
is  greater  than  that  authorized  by  a  commanding 
officer  of  pay  grade  0-3  and  below. 

At  the  time  the  commanding  officer  informs 
an  accused  of  his  punishment,  he  also  informs 
him  of  his  right  to  appeal. 

A  person  (officer  or  enlisted  man) 
who  deems  his  punishment  unjust  or  dis- 
proportionate to  the  offense  may,  through 
proper  channels,  make  a  written  appeal  to  the 
commanding  officer's  next  superior  authority. 
The  appeal  may  include  a  signed  statement  of 
the  reasons  for  regarding  the  punishment  as 
unjust  or  disproportionate.  Although  an  appeal 
is  forwarded,  the  person  ordered  to  be  punished 
may  in  the  meantime  be  required  to  undergo  the 
punishment  adjudged  only  if  attached  to  or 
embarked  in  a  vessel.  If  the  accused  is  not 
attached  to  or  embarked  in  a  vessel,  such 
punishment  will  be  stayed  pending  completion 
of  his  appeal.  The  superior  authority  ordinarily 
will  hear  no  witnesses.  If  he  feels  there  has  been 
a  miscarrriage  of  justice  he  may  modify  the 
punishment  or  set  it  aside,  but  he  may  not 
increase  it,  and  in  no  case  may  he  award  a 
different  kind  of  punishment. 




Flag  or  general 

in  command 

CO  if  LCDR 
or  above 

CO  if  below 


Admonition  or 






60  days 

30  days 

15  days 
-JAG  Man.  0101 


Arrest  in 

30  days 




Forfeiture  of 

1/2  of  1  mo.  pay 
per  mo.  for  2  mo. 




Detention  of 

1/2  of  1  mo.  pay 
per  mo.  for  3  mo. 




Admonition  or 

Any  officer  commanding, 
LCDR  and  above 

Commanding  officers  below  LCDR; 
OICs,  any  grade 



Confinement  on 
B&W  or  dimin 
ished  rations 

3  consecutive  days  (only  on  E-3 
and  below,  aboard  ship) 
-JAG  Man.  0101- 

3  consecutive  days  (only  on  E-3 
and  below,  aboard  ship) 
-JAG  Man.  0101- 


30  consecutive  days  (only  on  E-3 

and  below) 
-JAG  Man..  0101- 

7  consecutive  days  (only  on  E-3 

and  below) 
-JAG  Man.  0101- 

Forfeiture  of 

1/2  of  1  mo.  pay  per  mo.  for  2  mo. 

7  days'  pay 

Reduction  in 

To  next  inferior  grade 
-JAG  Man.  0101- 

To  next  inferior  grade 

Extra  duty 

45  days 

14  days 


60  days 

14  days 

Detention  of 

1/2  of  1  mo.  pay  per  mo.  for  3  mo. 

14  days'  pay 


Figure  7-2.-One  or  more  of  the  maximum  punishments  authorized  by  article  15,  UCMJ,  may  be  imposed  upon 
military  personnel  of  their  commands  by  the  categories  of  commanding  officers  (including  officers  in  charge) 
shown  above.  Punishments  authorized  by  article  15  are  primarily  corrective  in  nature. 


When  a  commanding  officer's  punishment  is 
imposed  upon  a  naval  officer,  it  is  necessary  to 
make  a  report  by  letter  to  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Personnel.  A  notation  of  this  report  is  made  in 
the  next  report  of  fitness  submitted  upon  the 


Military  offenses,  as  distinguished  from 
conventional  misdemeanors  and  crimes,  may  be 
divided  into  two  classes:  those  involving  neglect 
of  duty,  and  those  involving  deliberate  violations 

of  instructions,  orders,  or  regulations.  Offenses 
classified  as  neglect  of  duty  may  result  in 
punishment  extending  from  restriction  to  that 
awarded  by  a  court-martial  (see  figure  7-3). 
Deliberate  violations  of  instruction,  orders,  or 
regulations  are  usually  tried  by  court-martial; 
such  offenses,  as  a  rule,  lie  not  so  much  in  the 
consequences  of  the  act  as  in  the  defiance  of 
authority.  Offenses  involving  moral  turpitude 
such  as  theft,,  forgery,  rape,  and  murder 
invariably  result  in  trial  by  either  naval 
court-martial,  or  by  civilian  courts  if  the  crime  is 
committed  apart  from  military  control  areas. 


Figure  7-3.-The  court-martial  has  been  a  military  tribunal  for  hundreds  of  years.  Its  aim  always  has  been  prompt, 

efficient  administration  of  military  law. 



When  nonjudicial  punishment  is  considered 
inadequate  for  an  offense  charged,  a 
commanding  officer  who  is  a  convening 
authority  may  refer  the  case  to  one  of  three 
types  of  courts-martial.  In  ascending  order  of 
severity  (punishment  that  may  be  awarded  by 
the  court)  these  are  the  summary,  special,  and 
general  courts-martial. 

Summary  Court-Martial  (SCM) 

The  function  of  a  summary  court-martial 
is  to  administer  justice  for  relatively  minor 
(noncapital)  offenses  promptly  and  through  a 
simple  procedure. 

The  jurisdiction  of  a  summary  court-martial 
extends  only  to  enlisted  personnel.  An  accused 
may  object  to  trial  by  summary  court-martial,  in 
which  case  he  may  be  ordered  to  trial  by  either 
special  or  general  court-martial,  whichever  is 


summary  court  consists  of  one  commissioned 
officer,  who  is  called  the  summary  court  officer, 
or  simply  the  summary  court.  Whenever 
practicable,  the  summary  court  is  an  officer 
whose  grade  is  equivalent  to  lieutenant  in  the 
Navy  or  above.  (If  the  commanding  officer  is  the 
only  officer  present,  he  is  the  summary  court.) 
It  is  advisable  to  have  a  summary  court-martial 
officer  appointed  who  is  not  the  accuser  or  who 
has  not  previously  investigated  the  case. 

The  summary  court  officer  is  not  sworn  in  as 
such;  he  performs  his  duties  under  the  sanction 
of  his  oath  of  office  as  a  commissioned  officer. 
The  convening  authority,  if  he  wishes,  may 
order  any  person  under  his  command  to  perform 
the  duties  of  reporter.  If  a  reporter  is  appointed, 
he  usually  is  an  enlisted  man  whose  task  it  is  to 
keep  a  true  record  of  the  case. 

The  formal  written  accusation  in 
court-martial  practice  consists  of  two  parts:  the 
technical  .charge  and  the  specification.  The 
charge  indicates  merely  what  article  of  the  code 
the  accused  is  alleged  to  have  violated,  while  the 
specification  sets  forth  the  specific  facts  and 
circumstances  constituting  the  violation.  A 
specification  is  written  in  simple,  concise 

language  and  in  such  a  manner  as  to  enable  a 
person  of  common  understanding  to  know  with 
what  offense  he  is  charged.  The  facts  stated 
include  all  elements  of  the  offense  charged  and 
must  exclude  every  reasonable  hypothesis  of 

Prior  to  trial,  the  summary  court  officer, 
having  received  the  charge  sheet,  checks  the 
charges  and  specifications  to  be  sure  that  they 
are  legally  correct.  He  arranges  for  the  presence 
of  the  accused  and  advises  him  of— 

1 .  The  general  nature  of  the  charges. 

2.  The    fact    that    the  charges  have  been 
referred  to  a  summary  court-martial  for  trial. 

3.  The  name  of  the  officer  who  appointed 
the  court. 

4.  The  name  of  the  accuser 

5.  The  names  of  contemplated  witnesses. 

6.  His  (the  accused's)  right  to- 

a.  Cross-examine  witnesses  or  have  the 
court    ask    questions    which    the    accused 
desires  answered. 

b.  Call    witnesses    or    produce    other 
evidence,  with  the  assurance  that  the  court 
will  assist  him  to  do  so. 

c.  Testify  or  remain  silent. 

The  summary  court  advises  the  accused  of 
his  right  to  object  to  trial  by  summary 
court-martial,  regardless  of  whether  he  has  been 
permitted  and  elected  to  refuse  punishment 
under  article  15. 

During  the  trial  the  summary  court 
represents  both  the  Government  and  accused. 
Witnesses,  testifying  under  oath,  are  examined 
by  the  summary  court,  who  conducts  the  entire 
trial.  In  the  absence  of  a  plea  of  guilty,  he 
thoroughly  and  impartially  investigates  both 
sides  of  the  matter  and  ensures  that  the  interests 
of  both  the  Government  and  the  accused  are 
safeguarded.  If  the  accused  is  found  guilty  of  an 
offense,  the  summary  court  advises  him  of  his 
right  to  submit  any  matter  in  extenuation  or 
mitigation,  including  the  making  of  an  unsworn 


summary  court-martial  may  adjudge  any 
punishment  not  forbidden  by  the  Code 


(forbidden  punishments  are  contained  in  article 
55,  which  is  discussed  later)  except  death, 
dismissal,  dishonorable  or  bad  conduct 
discharge,  confinement  for  more  than  1  month, 
hard  labor  without  confinement  for  more  than 
45  days,  restriction  to  specified  limits  for  more 
than  2  months,  forfeiture  of  more  than 
two-thirds  of  1  month's  pay,  or  detention  of 
more  than  two-thirds  of  1  month's  pay. 

In  addition  to,  or  in  lieu  of,  other 
punishments,  all  courts-martial  may  adjudge 
reprimand  or  admonition. 

The  maximum  amount  of  confinement  and 
forfeiture  of  pay,  or  of  confinement  and 
detention  of  pay,  may  be  adjudged  together  in 
one  sentence.  (Detention  of  pay  is  a  less  severe 
form  of  punishment  than  a  forfeiture,  because 
the  amount  detained  is  ultimately  returned  to 
the  accused.) 

Since  confinement  and  restriction  to 
specified  limits  are  both  forms  of  deprivation  of 
liberty,  only  one  of  those  punishments  may  be 
adjudged  in  maximum  amount  in  any  one 
sentence.  An  apportionment  must  be  formulated 
if  it  is  desired  to  adjudge  both  forms  of 
punishment— confinement  and  restriction  to 
specified  limits— in  the  same  sentence. 

In  case  of  enlisted  persons  above  the  fourth 
enlisted  pay  grade,  summary  courts-martial  may 
not  adjudge  confinement,  hard  labor  without 
confinement,  or  reduction  except  to  the  next 
inferior  rate. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  trial,  the  summary 
court  notifies  the  accused  of  its  findings  and,  if 
the  accused  is  convicted,  the  sentence  of  the 
court.  The  punishment,  if  any,  is  entered  in  the 
ship's  log,  and  an  entry  is  made  in  the  man's 
service  record. 

Special  Court-Martial 

For  offenses  that  warrant  greater 
punishment  than  a  summary  court-martial  can 
adjudge,  a  commanding  officer  may  convene  a 
special  court-martial  to  try  any  enlisted  person 
or  officer  in  his  command.  The  SpCM  has 

jurisdiction  to  try  anyone  subject  to  the  Code 
for  any  noncapital  offense  made  punishable  by 
UCMJ,  as  well  as  for  certain  capital  offenses. 
The  convening  authority  draws  up  a  convening 
order  that  specifies  the  time  and  place  of 
meeting  of  the  SpCM  and  indicates  the 
composition  of  the  court. 


consist  of— 


1 .  Not  less  than  three  members. 

2.  A  military  judge  (certified  as  a  judge  by 
the  Judge  Advocate  General)  and  not  less  than 
three  members. 

3.  Only  a  military  judge,  if  one  has  been 
detailed  to  the  court,  and  the  accused,  knowing 
the  identity  of  the  judge  and  after  consultation 
with  defense  counsel,  requests  in  writing  a  court 
composed  only  of  a  military  judge,   and  the 
military  judge  approves. 

The  convening  authority  appoints  a  reporter 
to  keep  a  record  of  the  proceedings  of  and 
testimony  taken  before  the  court-martial. 

An  accused  enlisted  person  may  request 
(unless  the  court  consists  of  only  a  military 
judge)  that  the  court's  membership  include 
enlisted  personnel.  There  are  two  restrictions 
upon  this  right:  first,  the  enlisted  members  of  a 
court  may  not  be  members  of  the  same  unit  as 
the  enlisted  person  being  tried;  and  second,  the 
accused  must  make  the  request  personally  and  in 
writing  before  the  court  is  assembled.  When  the 
request  is  granted,  enlisted  personnel  comprise 
at  least  one-third  of  the  court's  membership.  If 
enlisted  persons  meeting  the  qualifications 
cannot  be  obtained  because  of  physical 
conditions  or  military  exigencies,  the  convening 
authority  appends  to  the  record  of  trial  a 
statement  explaining  why  enlisted  persons  were 

When  it  can  be  avoided,  no  person  in  the 
Armed  Forces  is  tried  by  a  court-martial,  any 
member  of  which  is  junior  to  him  in  grade;  e.g., 
an  officer  should  be  tried  only  by  a 
court-martial  composed  of  officers  senior  to  him 
on  the  same  promotion  list. 

Members  of  courts-martial  should  be  of  the 
same  branch  of  the  Armed  Forces  as  the 



accused.  A  commander  of  a  joint  command  or 
joint  task  force,  however,  when  specifically 
empowered  by  the  President  or  the  Secretary  of 
Defense,  may  appoint  as  court-martial  members 
any  eligible  persons  of  his  command  or  of 
another  command  when  they  are  made  available 
to  him.  In  exceptional  cases,  a  Judge  Advocate 
General  may  authorize  a  commanding  officer  of 
other  than  a  joint  command  or  task  force  to 
appoint  members  of  other  branches  of  the 
Armed  Forces  to  serve  on  courts-martial. 

COURT  PROCEDURE.-The  senior  member 
of  the  special  court-martial  is  the  president;  his 
grade  should  not  be  below  lieutenant.  The 
military  judge,  if  one  is  detailed  to  the  court, 
must  be  a  member  of  the  bar  of  a  Federal  court 
or  of  the  highest  court  of  a  state  and  must  be 
certified  as  qualified  for  such  duty  by  the  Judge 
Advocate  General. 

The  president  (or  military  judge,  if  one  is 
detailed)  presides  over  each  open  session  of  the 
court-martial,  assuming  responsibility  for  the 
fair  and  orderly  conduct  of  the  proceedings  in 
accordance  with  law.  During  the  trial  he  rules 
upon  interlocutory  questions  and  advises  the 
court  on  aspects  of  legal  procedure  that  arise. 
Before  the  court  closes  to  vote  on  the  findings, 
he  instructs  it  as  to  the  elements  of  each  offense 
charged,  the  presumption  of  innocence, 
reasonable  doubt,  and  burden  of  proof.  Before 
the  court  closes  to  vote  upon  a  sentence,  he 
advises  it  as  to  the  maximum  authorized 
punishment  for  each  offense  of  which  the 
accused  has  been  found  guilty. 

If  the  military  judge  is  the  only  member  of 
the  court,  he  of  course  has  sole  responsibility  for 
conduct  of  the  trial,  including  the  findings  and 
imposition  of  a  sentence  for  a  finding  of  guilty. 
Otherwise,  he  is  not  considered  a  member  of  the 
court  per  se,  and  does  not  vote  with  the 

The  convening  authority  appoints  an  officer 
as  trial  counsel  to  conduct  the  case  for  the 
Government  (act  as  prosecuting  attorney)  and 
another  officer  to  act  as  defense  counsel  for  the 
accused.  An  accused  will  be  afforded  the  right  to 
have  certified  counsel  for  his  defense.  If  at  all 
possible,  trial  counsel  should  be  certified  to  act 
as  judge  advocate. 

The  accused,  it  should  be  pointed  out,  has 
the  right  to  be  represented  (before  either  a 
special  or  general  court-martial)  by  civilian 
counsel  at  his  own  expense  if  he  so  desires,  by 
military  counsel  of  his  own  selection  if  such  is 
reasonably  available,  or  by  the  appointed 
defense  counsel. 

Members  of  special  courts-martial  hear  the 
evidence,  determine  the  guilt  or  innocence  of 
the  accused,  and,  if  the  accused  is  found  guilty, 
adjudge  a  proper  sentence.  Each  member  has  an 
equal  voice  and  votes  with  other  members  in 
deliberating  upon  and  deciding  all  questions 
submitted  to  vote. 

In  most  cases,  convictions  and  sentences 
require  a  two-thirds  majority.  In  special 
courts-martial  without  a  military  judge,  all  other 
questions,  such  as  those  on  challenges  and 
interlocutory  questions,  are  decided  by  a  simple 
majority.  A  tie  vote  on  a  challenge  disqualifies 
the  member  challenged.  A  tie  vote  on  a  motion 
for  a  finding  of  not  guilty  or  on  a  question  of 
accused's  sanity  is  a  determination  against  the 
accused.  A  tie  vote  on  any  other  question  is  a 
determination  in  favor  of  the  accused. 

Voting  is  by  secret  ballot,  and  each  member 
must  vote.  The  junior  member  counts  the  votes, 
and  the  president  verifies  the  count  and 
announces  the  result  of  the  ballot  to  the 
members  of  the  court. 

If  a  fraction  results  when  the  votes  are 
counted,  such  fraction  counts  as  one  in  favor  of 
the  accused;  thus,  if  five  members  are  to  vote,  a 
requirement  that  two-thirds  concur  is  not  met 
unless  four  concur. 

courts-martial  may,  under  such  limitations  as  the 
president  may  prescribe,  adjudge  any 
punishment  not  forbidden  by  the  Code,  except 
death,  dishonorable  discharge,  dismissal, 
confinement  for  more  than  6  months,  hard  labor 
without  confinement  for  more  than  3  months, 
forfeiture  of  pay  exceeding  two-thirds  pay  per 
month  for  6  months,  or  (for  enlisted)  detention 
of  pay  for  more  than  two-thirds  pay  per  month 
for  3  months.  A  bad-conduct  discharge  may  not 
be  adjudged  by  a  special  court-martial  unless  (1) 
a  military  judge  was  detailed  to  the  trial,  except 



in  any  case  in  which  a  military  judge  could  not 
be  detailed  because  of  physical  conditions  or 
military  exigencies;  (2)  a  qualified  counsel  was 
detailed  to  represent  the  accused;  and  (3)  a 
complete  and  verbatim  record  of  the 
proceedings  and  testimony  was  made. 

As  with  summary  courts-martial,  special 
courts-martial  are  not  limited  to  one  kind  of 
punishment.  Apportionment  of  confinement  or 
restriction,  and  of  forfeiture  or  detention  of  pay 
may  be  formulated  as  in  the  summary 
court-martial.  In  adjudging  a  bad  conduct 
discharge,  the  court-martial  cannot  also  adjudge 
forfeiture  of  all  pay  and  allowances,  but  it  may 
properly  adjudge  aTorfeiture  of  two-thirds  pay 
per  month  for  not  more  than  6  months. 

General  Court-Martial 

A  general  court-martial  is  the  highest 
military  tribunal.  It  may  be  convened  only  by 
the  President,  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  a  flag 
officer  in  command  of  a  unit  or  activity  of  the 
Navy  or  Marine  Corps,  the  commanding  officer 
of  a  naval  station  or  larger  shore  activity  beyond 
the  continental  limits  of  the  United  States,  and 
such  other  officers  as  may  be  authorized  by  the 
President  or  SecNav. 

A  GCM  has  jurisdiction  to  try  any  person 
subject  to  the  code  for  any  offense  made 
punishable  by  the  code.  It  also  may  try  anyone 
who  by  the  law  of  war  is  subject  to  trial  by 
a  military  tribunal. 

No  charge  may  be  referred  to  a  general 
court-martial  for  trial  until  it  has  been 
thoroughly  and  impartially  investigated.  At  this 
pretrial  investigation  the  accused  has  the  rights 
to  be  represented  by  counsel,  to  cross-examine 
available  witnesses,  to  present  anything  he 
desires  in  his  own  behalf,  to  have  the 
investigating  officer  examine  available  witnesses, 
and  to  make  any  statement  he  desires.  If,  as  a 
result  of  the  investigation,  it  appears  that  the 
case  should  be  referred  to  a  general 
court-martial,  the  investigating  officer  makes  a 
formal  report  to  the  officer  who  directed  the 

Ordinarily,  the  pretrial  investigation  is 
ordered  by  the  commanding  officer  of  the 
accused  and  the  report  is  forwarded  by  him, 
with  appropriate  recommendation,  to  the 
officer  exercising  general  court-martial 

When  an  officer  who  exercises  general 
court-martial  jurisdiction  receives  the  charges, 
report  of  investigation,  and  allied  papers,  he 
refers  them  to  his  staff  judge  advocate  for 
consideration  and  advice.  Before  he  refers  a 
charge  to  a  general  court-martial,  the  officer 
exercising  general  court-martial  jurisdiction 
assures  himself  that  the  charge  alleges  an  offense 
under  the  code  and  that  trial  is  warranted  by 
evidence  indicated  in  the  report. 

COMPOSITION. -A  general  court-martial 
consists  of  a  military  judge  and  not  less  than  five 
members.  The  convening  authority  appoints  a 
trial  counsel  and  a  defense  counsel-both  of 
whom  are  lawyers,  properly  certified— as  well  as 
such  assistants  as  he  deems  necessary.  Note  that 
the  presence  of  a  military  judge  is  mandatory,  as 
are  the  qualifications  of  counsel. 

Trial  provisions  (some  already  mentioned)  of 
special  courts-martial  apply  also  to  general 
courts-martial:  the  president  should  not  be 
below  the  grade  of  lieutenant;  officers  may  be 
tried  only  by  officers;  warrant  officers  may  be 
tried  only  by  officers  and/or  warrant  officers; 
enlisted  persons  may  be  members  under  certain 
conditions;  and,  if  possible,  no  member  of  the 
court  should  be  junior  to  the  accused. 

COURT  PROCEDURE. -The  responsibilities 
of  the  military  judge,  members  of  the  court,  and 
counsel  are  the  same  as  in  special  courts-martial. 
As  already  pointed  out,  the  principal  difference 
between  a  special  and  general  court-martial  is 
the  greater  severity  of  punishment  possible  at 
the  latter. 

A  conviction  of  any  offense  that  carries  a 
mandatory  death  penalty  requires  the 
concurrence  of  all  members  present;  and  no 
person  may  be  sentenced  to  death  unless  all 
members  present  concur.  A  three-fourths 
majority  of  all  members  present  is  required 
to  vote  a  penalty  of  life  imprisonment  or 


Chapter   /—  jjiaL.irj_iiNn  AINU 

umruKM  L,UL>£,  ur   MiLilAKY 

confinement  in  excess  of  1 0  years.  Convictions 
of  offenses  not  carrying  a  mandatory  death 
penalty  require  a  two-thirds  majority;  and  all 
sentences,  other  than  death,  life  imprisonment, 
or  confinement  in  excess  of  1 0  years,  require  the 
vote  of  two-thirds  of  the  members  present  when 
the  sentence  is  voted  on.  All  other  questions  to 
be  decided  by  the  members  require,  as  in  a 
special  court-martial,  a  simple  majority. 

court-martial  can  adjudge  any  punishment  not 
forbidden  by  article  55  of  UCMJ,  including  death 
(when  specifically  authorized  by  the  Code,  such 
as  for  desertion  in  time  of  war,  mutiny,  sedition, 
or  spying),  confinement  for  life,  dishonorable 
discharge,  bad  conduct  discharge,  dismissal  of  an 
officer,  and  total  forfeiture  of  pay  during  the 
remaining  period  of  an  accused's  obligated 

Reviews  of 

When  a  person  has  been  tried  and  convicted 
by  court-martial,  the  machinery  for  review  of 
the  court's  findings  and  sentence  is 
automatically  set  in  motion. 

Review  means  study  by  higher  authorities, 
or  by  a  higher  court,  to  determine  whether  the 
trial  court  acted  correctly,  whether  the  accused 
was  denied  any  rights  to  which  he  was  entitled, 
and  whether  the  sentence  was  illegal  or  too 
severe.  A  review  is  very  much  like  an  appeal 
from  a  civilian  trial  court  to  a  higher  court  and  is 
designed  to  accomplish  the  same  purpose.  The 
important  difference  is  that  reviews  of 
court-martial  trials  are  automatic;  that  is,  every 
convicted  person  in  the  service  is  entitled  to  a 
review  at  no  cost.  At  several  stages  before  the 
review  is  finished,  findings  may  be  set  aside  in 
whole  or  in  part;  charges  may  be  dismissed;  or 
the  sentence  may  be  reduced,  but  it  may  never 
be  increased. 

The  convening  authority  (CA)  reviews  the 
record  of  each  court-martial  convened  by  him, 
after  his  staff  judge  advocate  or  legal  officer  has 
studied  the  complete  record  and  rendered  an 
opinion  to  the  CA  concerning  adequacy  and 

weight  of  evidence  in  the  case,  irregularities 
respecting  the  proceedings,  and  so  on.  With  this 
opinion  before  him,  the  CA  may,  among  other 
actions,  approve  or  disapprove  the  findings  and 
sentence,  or  any  part  of  them,  direct  a  rehearing, 
or  take  such  other  action  as  is  provided  by  the 
Code.  When  a  trial  results  in  an  acquittal  or  a 
finding  of  not  guilty,  however,  the  CA  may  not 
disturb  the  result  or  send  the  case  back  to  the 
court  for  reconsideration. 

In  the  case  of  a  summary  or  special 
court-martial,  the  CA  forwards  the  record,  with 
his  recommendations,  to  the  superior  exercising 
general  court-martial  jurisdiction  over  the 
command  for  further  review.  A  staff  judge 
advocate  furnishes  that  superior  with  a  second 
legal  opinion  on  the  merits  of  the  case.  The 
officer  exercising  general  court-martial 
jurisdiction  may,  with  reason,  override  the 
action  of  the  CA.  There  might  be,  for  example,  a 
fatal  error  not  discovered  by  the  CA's  legal 
officer  which  would  necessitate  a  rehearing.  In 
any  event,  the  superior  exercising  general 
court-martial  jurisdiction  may,  in  the  interest  of 
justice,  set  aside  in  whole  or  in  part  the  findings 
of  guilty  and  the  sentence,  thereby  restoring  any 
rights  and  privileges  affected  by  the  part  of  the 
sentence  set  aside.  He  may  mitigate  or  suspend 
any  part  or  amount  of  the  unexecuted  portion 
of  the  sentence.  (Many  sentences  may  be  ordered 
executed  upon  their  approval  by  the  CA.) 

The  record  of  trial  for  a  special  court-martial 
involving  a  bad-conduct  discharge,  with  the 
recommendations  of  both  the  CA  and  the 
officer  exercising  general  court-martial 
jurisdiction,  is  forwarded  to  the  Office  of  the 
Judge  Advocate  General. 

The  CA  who  convenes  a  general 
court-martial  ordinarily  forwards  the  general 
court-martial  record  of  trial  by  self-convened 
general  court-martial  direct  to  the  Office  of  JAG 
(the  CA  having  general  court-martial 
jurisdiction,  no  intermediate  review  is  needed). 

Within  the  Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate 
General  is  a  Court  of  Military  Review,  consisting 
of  three-judge  appellate  review  panels,  which  has 
the  function  of  reviewing  the  record  of  every 
case  in  which  an  approved  sentence  affects  a  flag 
officer  or  in  which  a  sentence  imposes  the  death 



penalty,  the  dismissal  of  an  officer,  a 
dishonorable  or  bad-conduct  discharge,  or 
confinement  for  1  year  or  more  (the  appellate 
military  judges  may  be  commissioned  officers  or 
civilians).  General  courts-martial  not  included  in 
the  categories  of  those  automatically  reviewed 
by  the  Court  of  Military  Review  are  reviewed  by 
other  qualified  lawyers  in  the  Office  of  JAG. 

A  review  panel  considers  all  the  facts  and 
law  involved  in  any  case  under  review.  It  may, 
among  other  actions,  reduce  the  sentence  to 
whatever  penalty  it  thinks  appropriate,  set  aside 
the  entire  findings  and  sentence  and  order  a 
rehearing,  or  order  the  charges  dismissed.  The 
Judge  Advocate  General,  unless  there  is  to  be 
further  action  by  the  Court  of  Military  Appeals, 
normally  instructs  the  convening  authority  to 
take  action  in  accordance  with  the  decision  of 
the  Court  of  Military  Review. 

Upon  the  request  of  a  convicted  offender 
whose  trial  record  is  before  the  Court  of  Military 
Review  a  qualified  lawyer  is  assigned  to 
represent  him  before  the  court. 

the  Court  of  Military  Review  is  a  "supreme 
court"  of  military  justice,  the  Court  of  Military 
Appeals,  composed  of  three  civilian  judges 
appointed  by  the  President  and  confirmed  by 
the  Senate. 

Every  offender  whose  conviction  has  been 
passed  upon  and  upheld  by  the  Court  of  Military 
Review  has  the  right  to  petition  the  Court  of 
Military  Appeals  to  review  his  case.  Such  appeals 
are  automatic,  only  when  the  sentence  as 
affirmed  by  the  Court  of  Military  Review  affects 
a  general  or  flag  officer  or  extends  to  death.  In 
all  other  cases,  if  the  petition  is  granted  by  the 
high  court,  the  convicted  person  is  entitled  to  a 
lawyer,  who  will  prepare  a  brief  for  him  and 
argue  his  case  before  the  court.  If  the  accused 
desires,  he  may  employ  civilian  counsel. 

Naval  Personnel  and 
Civil  Court  Actions 

The  fact  that  a  man  is  in  the  naval  service 
does  not  free  him  from  his  obligation  to  obey 
the  laws  governing  the  civilian  population.  Naval 
personnel  are  subject  also  to  civil  courts  when 

they  are  within  their  jurisdiction.  Commanding 
officers  afloat  and  ashore  are  authorized  to 
permit  the  service  of  subpoenas  or  other  process 
upon  the  person  named  therein,  provided  such 
person  is  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  court  out 
of  which  the  process  is  issued. 

In  some  circumstances  a  commanding  officer 
has  authority  to  deliver  naval  personnel  to  civil 
authorities  upon  proper  warrant;  in  others,  such 
delivery  requires  the  specific  authorization  of 
the  Secretary  of  the  Navy.  For  example,  the 
commanding  officer  of  a  naval  station  located  in 
a  given  state  is  authorized  to  deliver  personnel  of 
his  command  to  civil  authorities  of  .that  state 
when  proper  warrant  is  presented.  If  delivery  is 
sought  by  some  other  state  and  extradition  is 
not  waived,  the  commanding  officer  must  not 
transfer  or  order  the  member  out  of  the  state  in 
which  he  is  then  located  without  the  permission 
of  SECNAV  (JAG).  Such  authorization  is  also 
required  if  disciplinary  proceedings  involving 
military  offenses  are  pending  or  if  the  person 
sought  is  undergoing  a  sentence  of  a 

If  a  Navy  man  is  held  by  civil  authorities,  he 
should  take  steps  to  have  his  commanding 
officer  notified  at  once  of  the  pertinent  facts.  If 
he  is  acquitted,  of  the  offense  for  which  he  was 
apprehended  by  the  civilians,  his  enforced 
absence  normally  will  not  be  punished  when  he 
is  released.  If  he  is  already  absent  without  leave 
when  detained  by  civil  authority,  the  entire 
period  of  absence  is  considered  as  time  lost  for 
pay  purposes,  regardless  of  whether  he  is 
subsequently  released  without  trial  or  is  tried 
and  acquitted  by  civil  authority.  But  if  he  is 
convicted  by  the  civil  authorities  the  fact  that  he 
was  arrested,  held,  and  tried,  does  not  excuse 
any  unauthorized  absence. 

Vacation  of  Suspension 

If  either  a  general  court-martial  sentence,  or 
a  special  court-martial  sentence  that  includes  a 
bad  conduct  discharge,  has  been  suspended,  and 
the  serviceman  is  later  accused  of  violating 
probation,  he  must  be  given  a  hearing  by  an 
officer  having  special  court-martial  jurisdiction 
before  the  suspension  can  be  vacated  and  the 



sentence  executed.  At  this  hearing  the  accused  is 
entitled  to  be  represented  by  a  competent 
counsel  if  he  so  requests.  The  record  of  the 
hearing  and  the  recommendations  of  the  officer 
having  special  court-martial  jurisdiction  are 
forwarded  for  action  to  the  officer  exercising 
general  court-martial  jurisdiction  over  the 
probationer.  In  any  case,  the  review  procedure 
which  has  been  described  must  be  completed 
before  any  suspended  sentence  may  be 

An  official  letter  that  is  written  for  the  sole 
or  chief  purpose  of  making  a  final  adversely 
critical  determination  of  allegations  of 
misconduct,  error  in  judgment,  or  unsatisfactory 
performance  of  duty  on  the  part  of  an  officer, 
and  that  is  destined  for  inclusion  in  the  official 
record  of  that  officer  in  the  Bureau  of  Naval 
Personnel,  is  an  "admonition"  or  "reprimand," 
and  a  "punishment"  under  the  Uniform  Code  of 
Military  Justice.  Such  a  punitive  letter  of 
censure  may  be  imposed  as  commanding 
officer's  nonjudicial  punishment  or  as  a  result  of 
sentence  by  court-martial.  This  is  true  whether 
or  not  the  censorious  letter  has  the  word 
"admonition"  or  the  word  "reprimand"  as  its 
subject  or  in  the  body  of  the  letter. 

The  customary  form  for  such  a  letter  is  an 
official  letter  addressed  to  the  officer  concerned, 
bearing  the  subject  '"'Reprimand"  or 
"Admonition"  (in  descending  order  of  severity 
under  naval  usage).  It  contains  a  specific, 
narrative,  factual  description  of  the  time,  place, 
and  circumstances  of  the  acts  or  omissions  of 
the  officer  concerned  and  of  any  consequences 
thereof;  concluding  that  the  officer  is 
blameworthy  under  the  circumstances  set  forth 
and  that  he  is,  by  the  letter  addressed  to  him, 
"reprimanded"  or  "admonished."  It  informs 
him  that  a  copy  of  the  letter  will  be  filed  in  his 
official  record  and  advises  him  as  to  any  right 
that  he  may  have  to  appeal  and/or  submit  a 
written  statement  concerning  the  punitive  letter. 

Although  the  immediate  commanding 
officer  is  expressly  empowered  to  address  letters 
of  censure  to  officers  and  warrant  officers  of  his 
command  as  nonjudicial  punishment 
administered  in  accordance  with  article  15  of 
the  Code,  departmental  policy  discourages 

exercise  of  such  authority  by  commanders  who 
are  not  flag  officers.  Such  commanding  officers 
normally  recommend  to  a  superior  of  flag  grade 
in  the  chain  of  command  that  his  office  address 
the  punitive  letter  of  censure.  In  cases  of 
unusual  gravity  or  in  cases  involving  very  senior 
officers,  it  may  be  recommended  that  letters  of 
censure  be  addressed  by  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Personnel,  the  Chief  of  Naval  Operations,  or  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy. 

Effect  of  Censure 

A  letter  of  censure  normally  represents  final 
determination,  adverse  to  the  officer  censured, 
of  charges,  allegations,  or  complaints  against 
him.  Under  the  code,  an  officer  who  has  been 
addressed  a  letter  of  censure  for  a  minor  offense 
may  not  be  thereafter  convicted  before  a 
court-martial  of  the  identical  offense  for  which 
he  was  censured.  If,  however,  the  offense  was  a 
major  one  initially,  or  if  a  more  serious  offense 
has  grown  out  of  a  minor  offense  for  which  the 
officer  was  censured,  a  letter  of  censure 
constitutes  no  bar  to  subsequent  court-martial 

Whether  or  not  any  trial  or  other  action 
follows  the  letter  of  censure,  the  filing  of  such  a 
letter  in  an  officer's  official  record  is  a  matter  of 
serious  consequence,  both  immediate  and 
long-range.  The  record  is  utilized  in  numerous 
connections,  including  determination  of  future 
assignments  of  the  officer,  consideration  for 
selection  for  promotion,  consideration  for 
special  training,  consideration  for  transfer  to 
another  Corps  or  category,  and  evaluation  in  the 
Department  of  any  subsequent  adverse  reports 
or  complaints  concerning  the  officer.  Such  an 
officer  is  naturally  at  a  disadvantage  when  he  is 
being  considered  in  competition  with  others 
who  have  comparable  experience  and  ability  and 
whose  records  are  unblemished.  However, 
contrary  to  a  frequently  encountered 
assumption,  there  is  no  unwritten  law  of  the 
Navy  precluding  favorable  consideration  of  an 
officer  who  has  been  censured  on  one  or  even 
more  occasions.  Consistently  outstanding 
performance  on  the  part  of  the  censured  officer 
may  in  time  offset  the  effects  of  the  censure. 


Among  the  more  frequently  occurring  causes 
for  censure  of  officers  are  carelessness  in  the 
custody  of  registered  publications  and 
negligence  in  the  performance  of  collateral 
duties,  such  as  mess  treasurer  or  auditing  board 
duties.  Such  duties  often  constitute  a  junior 
officer's  first  independent  responsibility  and  his 
first  experience  with  business  management  and 
accounting  procedures.  There  is,  therefore,  a 
great  temptation  to  drift  along,  blindly 
following  forms  and  procedures  previously 
employed,  and  relying  without  question  upon 
the  assurances  of  subordinates.  Among  other 
occasions  for  censure  of  officers  are  minor 
security  violations,  failure  to  comply  with 
censorship  regulations  and  procedures  when 
such  are  in  effect,  negligently  damaging  or 
failing  to  account  for  Government  property, 
neglect  of  obligations  to  creditors  or  legal 
dependents,  sharp  or  unethical  private  dealings, 
and  isolated  incidents  of  drunkenness  while  off 
duty  or  of  boorish  social  behavior.  Whether 
censure  or  more  serious  disciplinary  action 
results  from  any  of  the  actions  described  above 
depends,  of  course,  on  the  seriousness  of  the 
offense  and  on  the  surrounding  circumstances. 


In  addition  to  dismissal  pursuant  to  sentence 
of  a  general  court-martial  or  by  order  of  the 
President,  and  dropping  from  the  rolls  as 
provided  under  the  Code  and  other  sections  of 
the  legislation  which  enacted  the  Code,  statutes 
provide  other  means  for  separations  of  officers. 
Officers  are  subject  to  revocation  of  their 
commissions  prior  to  the  time  that  they 
complete  three  years  of  continuous 
commissioned  service.  Regular  Navy  officers 
who  hold  permanent  commissions  and  who  have 
completed  less  than  20  years'  service  are  subject 
to  discharge  if  reported  as  unsatisfactory  in  the 
approved  report  of  selection  boards  considering 
them  for  promotion.  Lieutenants  (junior  grade) 
and  lieutenants  are  subject  to  discharge  upon 
twice  failing  selection  for  promotion.  Congress 
may  at  any  time  by  law  provide  for  separation 
of  officers  under  other  stipulated  circumstances. 
An  officer  facing  or  anticipating  disciplinary 

action  may  submit  a  resignation  from  the 
service,  and  his  separation  may  be  effected  if  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy  accepts  the  resignation. 

Officers  separated  from  the  service,  other 
than  by  dismissal  or  dropping  from  the  rolls, 
normally  receive  one  of  three  forms  of  discharge 
certificate,  i.e.,  Certificate  of  Honorable 
Discharge,  Certificate  of  General  Discharge 
(under  honorable  conditions),  or  Certificate  of 
Discharge  (under  conditions  other  than 
honorable).  The  type  of  discharge  certificate 
awarded  in  any  particular  case  is  governed  by 
the  circumstances  prompting  separation  and  the 
quantitative  and  qualitative  character  of 
previous  service  rendered. 

The  "character"  of  an  officers'  separation 
(i.e.,  whether  "under  honorable  conditions," 
"under  conditions  other  than  honorable,"  or 
other  descriptive  phraseology)  represents  the 
opinion  of  the  naval  service  relative  to  the 
circumstances  attending  the  separation.  The 
character  of  separation  is  important  in 
connection  with  veterans'  benefits.  Further, 
many  employers  are  inclined  to  refuse  either 
initial  or  continued  employment  to  persons  who 
have  been  separated  from  any  branch  of  the 
Armed  Forces  with  an  inferior  type  of 
separation.  Bar  associations  and  boards  of 
professional  and  occupational  groups  that  have 
regulatory  powers  sometimes  inquire  searchingly 
into  previous  armed  service  experience  and  the 
character  of  separation  received. 

Naval  Reserve  officers  on  active  duty  are 
subject  to  separation  in  the  same  manner  as 
officers  of  the  Regular  Navy.  They  are  subject  to 
the  Code  from  the  date  they  are  required  to 
obey  lawful  orders  for  duty  or  training  in  the 
Armed  Forces.  Reserve  officers  on  inactive  duty 
training  are  subject  to  the  Code  so  long  as  they 
have  voluntarily  accepted  written  orders 
authorizing  such  training  and  specifying  that 
they  are  subject  to  the  Code  while  undergoing 
such  training. 

While  not  on  active  duty,  Reserve  officers 
are  subject  to  discharge  (1)  if  they  are  found  not 
physically  qualified  for  active  service;  (2)  if  they 
have  attained  certain  stipulated  ages;  and  (3)  if 
there  is  full  and  sufficient  cause  in  the  discretion 
of  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy.  Prior  to  discharge 



for  cause,  a  Reserve  officer  is  required  to  be 
given  notice  by  letter  of  the  projected  action 
and  an  opportunity  for  a  hearing  concerning  it. 


Incidents  that  require  investigation  occur 
almost  daily.  For  example,  when  a  ship  is 
involved  in  a  collision  or  has  an  accident  that 
requires  repairs,  when  an  aircraft  is  lost  or 
damaged,  when  there  is  a  serious  fire,  and  when 
naval  personnel  are  injured  or  die  from  an 
accident  or  under  peculiar  circumstances,  the 
commanding  officer  must  find  out  what 
happened,  why  it  happened,  how  it  happened, 
and  to  whom.  His  method  of  learning  the  facts 
in  the  case  is  to  appoint  a  fact-finding  body, 
usually  composed  of  one  or  more  officers,  to 
investigate  the  incident  for  him. 

The  reporting  of  facts  by  investigative  bodies 
is  necessary  in  order  that  the  Navy  may  be  more 
efficiently  managed.  For  instance,  fact-finding 
reports  on  aircraft  accidents  are  routed  to  the 
Naval  Air  Systems  Command.  If  an  accident 
discloses  a  material  or  equipment  failure,  that 
command  might  issue  new  regulations  or 
instructions  to  forestall  another  accident  of  the 
same  type.  In  another  field,  it  is  important  that 
all  the  facts  upon  which  may  depend  future 
rights  and  benefits  be  gathered  and  preserved  at 
the  time  a  personal  injury  occurs.  If  necessary  to 
determine  whether  misconduct  or  actions  not  in 
the  line  of  duty  are  involved,  favorable  findings 
should  be  made  a  matter  of  record  to  protect 
the  persons  involved. 

The  primary  function  of  a  fact-finding  body 
is  to  develop  and  consider  evidence  related  to 
the  matter  under  investigation;  to  arrive  at 
clearly  expressed  findings  of  fact  based  on  that 
evidence;  and,  if  directed,  to  offer  opinions  and 

The  main  purpose  of  a  fact-finding  body  is 
to  provide  convening  and  reviewing  authorities 
with  adequate  information  on  which  to  base 
decisions  in  the  matters  involved.  Fact-finding 
bodies  are  administrative,  not  judicial.  Their 
reports,  therefore,  are  purely  advisory. 

There  are  two  types  of  administrative 
fact-finding  bodies:  courts  of  inquiry  and 

investigations.  The  composition  of  a  fact-finding 
body  depends  in  part  upon  the  nature  of  the 
investigation.  A  court  of  inquiry  is  always 
formal;  investigations  may  be  either  formal  or 

The  order  appointing  a  court  of  inquiry  or  a 
formal  investigation  is  in  official  letter  form  and 
signed  by  the  convening  authority.  A  court  of 
inquiry  is  composed  of  at  least  three 
commissioned  officers  and  counsel;  a  formal 
investigation  must  be  conducted  by  one  or  more 
commissioned  officers.  An  informal 
investigation  may  be  appointed  orally  or  in 
writing,  and  may  consist  of  one  or  more  officers, 
senior  enlisted  persons,  or  senior  civilian 
employees  of  the  Department  of  Defense.  The 
appointing  order  contains  explicit  instructions  as 
to  the  scope  of  the  inquiry. 

A  formal  fact-finding  body  utilizes  a  formal 
hearing  procedure,  ordinarily  takes  all  testimony 
under  oath  and  maintains  a  verbatim  record  of 
all  evidence,  and  may  be  authorized  to  designate 
parties.  On  the  other  hand,  an  informal 
fact-finding  body  normally  employs  the  pre- 
liminary inquiry  method  of  gathering  evidence, 
using  telephone  inquiries,  correspondence,  and 
informal  interviews  to  assemble  the  required 
information;  it  is  not  authorized  to  designate 

A  court  of  inquiry  always  is  a  formal 
investigative  proceeding,  authorized  by  statutes 
of  the  United  States  to  order  persons  subject  to 
the  laws  of  the  United  States  to  appear  before  it, 
answer  questions,  and  produce  written  matter  or 
other  material  in  their  custody.  It  is  convened 
by  a  written  order,  takes  all  testimony  under 
oath,  and  records  all  proceedings  verbatim.  A 
court  of  inquiry  has  the  power  to  subpoena 

An  investigation  is  a  purely  internal 
investigative  proceeding  within  the  branch  of  the 
Armed  Forces  concerned.  It  is  established  and 
governed  solely  by  directives  of  the  Secretary, 
and,  at  the  utmost,  its  powers  cannot  extend 
beyond  those  of  the  Secretary.  In  the  naval 
service  an  investigation  may  be  made  by  one  or 
more  persons,  may  or  may  not  have  counsel  to 
assist  it,  and  may  be  conducted  in  a  manner 
similar  to  a  judicial  trial  (i.e.,  with  witnesses 
under  oath,  direct  and  cross-examination,  a 

verbatim  transcript  of  proceedings);  or  it  may  be 
conducted  less  formally,  with  narrative  sum- 
maries of  the  information  given  by  witnesses 
or  copies  of  written  statements  or  other 
material  supplied  by  them.  As  stated,  it  may 
be  formal  or  informal,  but  normally  it  does  not 
have  the  power  to  subpoena  civilian  witnesses. 
Based  upon  the  information  obtained  by  it, 
the  court  of  inquiry  or  investigation  makes 
"findings  of  fact,"  and  if-but  only  if-so 
directed  by  the  authority  ordering  the 
proceeding,  may  also  express  "opinions" 
concerning  the  matter  investigated  and/or 
"recommendations"  as  to  future  action  that 
should  be  taken.  To  illustrate,  a  court  of  inquiry 
that  was  directed  only  to  inquire  into 
circumstances  surrounding  the  destruction  of  a 
naval  airplane  might  include  in  its  "findings  of 
fact"  statements  to  the  effect  that  at  a  certain 
time  the  plane  was  proceeding  west  at  a  speed  of 

mph,  at  an  altitude  of feet 

above  the  eastern  end  of  the runway  of 

field;  that  at  such  time  the  wheels  of  the 

plane  and  its  landing  flaps  were  up;  and  that 

seconds    later    the   plane   struck   the 

ground ^_  feet  from  the  eastern  end  of  the 

runway.  The  court  would  not  "find"  that  the 
pilot  of  the  plane  was  "inadequately  trained"  or 
"incompetent,"  these  being  expressions  of 
opinion;  nor  would  it  "find"  that  training  of 
naval  pilots  in  landing  techniques  should  be 
amplified,  which  is  a  recommendation.  If  the 
appointing  order  specifically  directed  the  court 
to  express  opinions,  to  submit 
recommendations,  or  both,  then  it  should 
explore  the  "how"  and  the  "why,"  but  in  the 
absence  of  such  a  direction,  it  is  required  to 
limit  itself  to  "who,  what,  when,  and  where." 


The  findings  of  facts,  opinions,  or 
recommendations  of  a  court  of  inquiry  or 
investigation  have  no  binding  legal  effect,  within 
or  outside  the  service.  That  is  to  say,  the  fact 
that  a  naval  court  of  inquiry  investigated  an 
automobile  collision  and  found  that  it  occurred 
in  a  certain  way  in  no  way  invalidates  or 
discredits  subsequent  different  and 

irreconcilable  findings  by  a  civil  court, 
administrative  body,  or  a  naval  court-martial! 
For  this  reason  the  expression  that  an  officer  has 
been  cleared  by  a  court  of  inquiry  (Of 
culpability  in  a  particular  connection)  is 
inaccurate.  A  court  of  inquiry  cannot  clear  any 
more  than  it  can  convict.  Its  findings  of  facts 
and  opinions  or  recommendations  are  only 
advisory.  The  appointing  authority,  his 
superiors,  or  any  person  who  is  subsequently 
required  to  re-examine  the  same  matter  in  any 
official  connection  may  accept  or  reject  all  or 
any  part  of  the  findings. 

The  court  of  inquiry  is  the  most  formal  type 
of  administrative  fact-finding  body.  Other 
fact-finding  bodies  may  be  conducted  with 
virtually  all,  some,  or  none  of  the  same 
formality,  depending  on  the  prevailing 
circumstances.  An  officer  assigned  to  conduct  or 
to  participate  in  an  investigation  should  (1)  read 
carefully  the  appointing  order;  (2)  review 
pertinent  provisions  of  the  Manual  of  the  Judge 
Advocate  General;  and  (3)  to  the  greatest  extent 
practicable,  in  advance  of  questioning  and 
writing,  familiarize  himself  with  the  matter  to  be 
investigated,  by  carefully  studying  any  pertinent 
written  material,  inspecting  the  locale,  and 
carrying  on  unrecorded  conversations  with 
witnesses,  in  which  the  investigator  confines  his 
activity  chiefly  to  listening  and  silent  analysis. 


Until  1951,  the  various  branches  of  our 
Armed  Forces  functioned  under  different 
military  codes.  The  Army  and  Air  Force  were 
guided  in  the  administration  of  discipline  and  in 
legal  processes  by  the  Army's  Articles  of  War; 
the  Navy,  by  the  Articles  for  the  Government  of 
the  Navy  ("Rocks  and  Shoals");  and  the  Coast 
Guard,  by  the  Disciplinary  Laws  of  the  Coast 
Guard.  It  was  not  surprising,  then,  if  an  act  that 
was  considered  an  offense  in  the  eyes  of  the 
Navy  was  not  so  judged  by  the  Army.  Even  if  an 
act  was  a  breach  of  discipline  in  all  branches  of 
the  Armed  Forces,  there  were  variances  in  the 
type  of  trial  and  severity  of  punishment 


Following  the  passage  of  the  National 
Security  Act  of  1 947,  it  was  recognized  that  a 
homogeneous  code  of  military  justice  was  a 
logical  and  necessary  unification  measure.  After 
long  investigation  by  various  committees,  James 
Forrestal,  the  Secretary  of  Defense,  appointed 
an  interservice  committee  to  prepare  a  uniform 
code  applicable  to  all  branches  of  the  Armed 
Forces.  Following  intensive  study,  the 
committee  drafted  what  is  now  known  as  the 
Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice  (hereafter 
referred  to  as  the  Code),  which  was  passed  by 
Congress  on  5  May  1950,  signed  into  law  by  the 
President,  and  became  effective  31  May  1951. 
The  Manual  for  Courts-Martial,  United  States 
1951  (MCM,  1951),  which  consolidated  and 
standardized  varying  military  legal  procedures, 
became  effective  the  same  date. 

By  Act  of  10  August  1956,  the  original 
law,  as  amended,  was  repealed  and  reenacted, 
without  substantial  change,  as  Chapter  47  of 
Title  10,  United  States  Code.  Chapter  47 
contains,  as  sections  801-940  (10  USC  801-940), 
the  140  articles  of  the  Code. 

In  1963,  a  tri-service  committee  was 
appointed  to  revise  the  MCM,  mainly  because  of 
case  decisions  of  the  Court  of  Military  Appeals 
which  required  redefinition  of  some  punitive 
articles.  The  revised  manual  was  signed  by 
President  Johnson  on  1 1  September  1 968,  and 
became  effective  1  January  1969,  making  the 
Manual  for  Courts-Martial,  United  States  1969, 
the  new  touchstone  of  military  justice. 

About  a  month  after  he  signed  the  Executive 
Order  promulgating  the  1969  manual,  the 
President  signed  into  law  the  Military  Justice 
Act  of  1969,  which  requires  increased  lawyer 
participation  in  courts-martial  and  provides  for 
other  changes  in  court-martial  procedure.  The 
main  provisions  of  that  Act  became  effective  1 
August  1969,  but  they  made  necessary  a 
substantial  revision  of  the  new  MCM. 

Everyone  in  the  Armed  Forces  must  be 
familiar  with  the  Code.  The  Code  itself  (in 
article  137)  requires  that  certain  articles  of  the 
Code  be  explained  periodically  to  enlisted 

ART.  137. 

"Articles  2,  3,  7  through  15,  25,  27, 
31,  37,  38,  55,  77  through  134,  and  137 
through  139  of  this  code  shall  be 
carefully  explained  to  each  enlisted 
member  at  the  time  of  his  entrance  on 
active  duty,  or  within  six  days 
thereafter.  They  shall  be  explained  again 
after  he  has  completed  six  months  of 
active  duty,  and  again  at  the  time  when 
he  reenlists.  A  complete  text  of  the 
Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice  and  of 
the  regulations  prescribed  by  the 
President  thereunder  shall  be  made 
available  to  any  person  on  active  duty, 
upon  his  request,  for  his  personal 

It  is  the  duty  of  each  naval  officer  to  be 
fujly  aware  of  the  substance  and  meaning  of  the 
specified  articles. 

The  "regulations  prescribed  by  the 
President"  are  contained  in  MCM,  1969  (Rev. 
ed.),  with  implementing  regulations  included  in 
the  Manual  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General. 
Texts  of  articles  designated  by  article  137 
should  be  posted  in  a  conspicuous  place,  readily 
accessible  to  personnel  of  the  command. 

The  remainder  of  this  chapter  consists  of  the 
articles  specified  by  article  137;  included,  where 
appropriate,  are  explanations.  The  notes  are 
based  on  the  Manual  for  Courts-Martial,  which 
should  be  consulted  for  more  complete 
information  on  the  provisions  of  the  code. 

ART.  2. 



"The  following  persons  are  subject 
to  this  code: 

"(1)  Members  of  a  regular 
component  of  the  armed  forces, 
including  those  awaiting  discharge  after 
expiration  of  their  terms  of  enlistment; 
volunteers  from  the  time  of  their  muster 



or  acceptance  into  the  armed  forces; 
inductees  from  the  time  of  their  actual 
induction  into  the  armed  forces;  and 
other  persons  lawfully  called  or  ordered 
into,  or  to  duty  in  or  for  training  in,  the 
armed  forces,  from  the  dates  when  they 
are  required  by  the  terms  of  the  call  or 
order  to  obey  it. 

"(2)  Cadets,  aviation  cadets,  and 

"(3)  Members  of  a  reserve 
component  while  they  are  on  inactive 
duty  training  authorized  by  written 
orders  which  are  voluntarily  accepted  by 
them  and  which  specify  that  they  are 
subject  to  this  code. 

"(4)  Retired  members  of  a  regular 
component  of  the  armed  forces  who  are 
entitled  to  pay. 

"(5)  Retired  members  of  a  reserve 
component  who  are  receiving 
hospitalization  from  an  armed  force. 

"(6)  Members  of  the  Fleet 
Reserve  and  Fleet  Marine  Corps  Reserve. 

"(7)  Persons  in  custody  of  the 
armed  forces  serving  a  sentence  imposed 
by  a  court-martial. 

"(8)  Members  of  the 
Environmental  Science  Services 
Administration,  Public  Health  Service, 
and  other  organizations,  when  assigned 
to  and  serving  with  the  armed  forces. 

"(9)  Prisoners  of  war  in  custody 
of  the  armed  forces. 

"(10)  In  time  of  war,  persons 
serving  with  or  accompanying  an  armed 
force  in  the  field. 

"(11)  Subject  to  any  treaty  or 
agreement  to  which  the  United  States  is 
or  may  be  a  party  or  to  any  accepted 
rule  of  international  law,  persons  serving 
with,  employed  by,  or  accompanying  the 
armed  forces  outside  the  United  States 
and  outside  the  following:  the  Canal 
Zone,  Puerto  Rico,  Guam,  and  the 
Virgin  Islands. 

"(12)  Subject  to  any  treaty  or 
agreement  to  which  the  United  States  is 

or  may  be  a  party  or  to  any  accepted 
rule  of  international  law,  persons  within 
an  area  leased  by  or  otherwise  reserved 
or  acquired  for  the  use  of  the  United 
States  which  is  under  the  control  of  the 
Secretary  concerned  and  which  is 
outside  the  United  States  and  outside 
the  following:  the  Canal  Zone,  Puerto 
Rico,  Guam,  and  the  Virgin  Islands." 

The  following  provisions  of  article  2  should 
be  noted  particularly: 

1.  Any  person  serving  a  sentence  imposed 
by  a  court-martial  remains  subject  to  the  Code. 
Thus,  a  prisoner  who  is  serving  a  court-martial 
sentence  may  be  tried  for  a  crime  he  commits 
while    a    prisoner,   even    though   his   term  of 
enlistment    had     expired     at     the     time    of 
commission  of  the  crime. 

2.  A  Reservist  on  inactive  duty  training  is 
subject  to  the  Code  when  (a)  the  training  is 
authorized  by  written  orders;  (b)  the  orders  are 
voluntarily  accepted  by  him;  and  (c)  the  orders 
specify  that  the  Reservist  is  subject  to  the  Code. 

3.  A    Reservist    ordered    into    the    active 
military  service  is  subject  to  the  Code  from  the 
date  he  is  required  by  his  orders  to  report  for 
active  duty. 

The  United  States  Supreme  Court  has  held 
unconstitutional  the  exercise  of  court-martial 
jurisdiction  over  civilians  in  time  of  peace. 

ART.  3. 



"(a)  Subject  to  article  43,1-no 
person  charged  with  having  committed, 
while  in  a  status  in  which  he  was  subject 
to  this  code,  an  offense  against  this  code, 
punishable  by  confinement  of  five  years 
or  more  and  for  which  the  person  cannot 
be  tried  in  the  courts  of  the  United 
States  or  of  a  State,  a  Territory,  or  the 
District  of  Columbia,  may  be  relieved 
from  amenability  to  trial  by 
court-martial  by  reason  of  the 
termination  of  that  status. 

-Concerns  statutes  of  limitations. 



"(b)  Each  person  discharged  from 
the  armed  forces  who  is  later  charged 
with  having  fraudulently  obtained  his 
discharge  is,  subject  to  article  43,  subject 
to  trial  by  court-martial  on  that  charge 
and  is  after  apprehension  subject  to  this 
code  while  in  the  custody  of  the  armed 
forces  for  that  trial.  Upon  conviction  of 
that  charge  he  is  subject  to  trial  by 
court-martial  for  all  offenses  under  this 
code  committed  before  the  fraudulent 

"(c)  No  person  who  has  deserted 
from  the  armed  forces  may  be  relieved 
from  amenability  to  the  jurisdiction  of 
this  code  by  virtue  of  a  separation  from 
any  later  period  of  service." 

The  United  States  Supreme  Court  has 
declared  article  3 (a)  unconstitutional  in  so  far  as 
that  provision  would  place  under  court-martial 
jurisdiction  a  civilian  ex-serviceman  with  no 
remaining  military  status. 

ART.  7. 

"(a)  Apprehension  is  the  taking  of 
a  person  into  custody. 

"(b)  Any  person  authorized  under 
regulations  governing  the  armed  forces 
to  apprehend  persons  subject  to  this 
code  or  to  trial  thereunder  may  do  so 
upon  reasonable  belief  that  an  offense 
has  been  committed  and  that  the  person 
apprehended  committed  it. 

"(c)  Commissioned  officers, 
warrant  officers,  petty  officers,  and 
noncommissioned  officers  have 
authority  to  quell  quarrels,  frays,  and 
disorders  among  persons  subject  to  this 
code  and  to  apprehend  persons  subject 
to  this  code  who  take  part  therein." 

In  addition  to  those  listed  in  7.c.,  air  police, 
military  police,  shore  patrolmen,  and  others 
designated  to  perform  guard  or  police  duties 
may  apprehend  persons  subject  to  the  code. 

Enlisted  persons  performing  police  duties 
should  not  apprehend  an  officer  except  on 
specific  orders  of  a  commissioned  officer,  unless 
such  action  is  necessary  to  prevent  disgrace  to 
the  service,  the  commission  of  a  serious  offense, 
or  the  escape  of  one  who  has  committed  a 
serious  offense.  In  such  cases,  the  apprehending 
individual  immediately  notifies  the  officer  to 
whom  he  is  responsible  or  an  officer  of  the  air 
police,  military  police,  or  the  shore  patrol. 

An  apprehension  is  effected  by  clearly 
notifying  the  offender  that  he  is  thereby  taken 
into  custody.  The  order  may  be  oral  or  written. 

There  is  a  clear  distinction  between  the 
authority  to  apprehend  and  the  authority  to 
arrest  or  confine  (article  9).  Any 
person  empowered  to  apprehend  an  offender, 
however,  is  authorized  to  secure  the  custody  of 
an  alleged  offender  until  proper  authority  may 
be  notified,  notwithstanding  limitations  on  his 
power  to  arrest  or  confine. 

ART.  8. 


"Any  civil  officer  having  authority 
to  apprehend  offenders  under  the  laws 
of  the  United  States  or  of  a  State, 
Territory,  Commonwealth,  or 
possession,  or  the  District  of  Columbia 
may  summarily  apprehend  a  deserter 
from  the  armed  forces  and  deliver  him 
into  the  custody  of  those  forces." 

When  a  military  service  sends  out  a 
description  of  a  deserter,  with  a  request  for  his 
apprehension,  the  notice  is  sufficient  authority 
for  his  apprehension  by  a  civil  officer. 

ART.  9. 


"(a)  Arrest  is  the  restraint  of  a 
person  by  an  order,  not  imposed  as  a 
punishment  for  an  offense,  directing  him 
to  remain  within  certain  specified  limits. 
Confinement  is  the  physical  restraint  of 
a  person. 

"(b)  An  enlisted  member  may  be 
ordered  into  arrest  or  confinement  by 


any  commissioned  officer  by  an  order, 
oral  or  written,  delivered  in  person  or 
through  other  persons  subject  to  this 
code.  A  commanding  officer  may 
authorize  warrant  officers,  petty 
officers,  or  noncommissioned  officers  to 
order  enlisted  members  of  his  command 
or  subject  to  his  authority  into  arrest  or 

"(c)  A  commissioned  officer,  a 
warrant  officer  or  a  civilian  subject  to 
this  code  or  to  trial  thereunder  may  be 
ordered  into  arrest  or  confinement  only 
by  a  commanding  officer  to  whose 
authority  he  is  subject,  by  an  order,  oral 
or  written,  delivered  in  person  or  by 
another  commissioned  officer.  The 
authority  to  order  such  persons  into 
arrest  or  confinement  may  not  be 

"(d)  No  person  may  be  ordered 
into  arrest  or  confinement  except  for 
probable  cause. 

u(e)  Nothing  in  this  article  limits 
the  authority  of  persons  authorized  to 
apprehend  offenders  to  secure  the 
custody  of  an  alleged  offender  until 
proper  authority  may  be  notified." 

ART.  10. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
charged  with  an  offense  under  this  code 
shall  be  ordered  into  arrest  or 
confinement,  as  circumstances  may 
require;  but  when  charged  only  with  an 
offense  normally  tried  by  a  summary 
court-martial,  he  shall  not  ordinarily  be 
placed  in  confinement.  When  any  person 
subject  to  this  code  is  placed  in  arrest  or 
confinement  prior  to  trial,  immediate 
steps  shall  be  taken  to  inform  him  of  the 
specific  wrong  of  which  he  is  accused 
and  to  try  him  or  to  dismiss  the  charges 
and  release  him." 

This  article,  requiring  "immediate  steps"  to 
try  the  accused,  is  strengthened  by  article  98 

which  makes  punishable  by  court-martial  any 
unnecessary  delay  in  the  disposition  of  a  case. 
However,  undue  haste  also  is  frowned  upon.  In 
time  of  peace  no  person  may,  against  his 
objection,  be  brought  to  trial  before  a  general 
court-martial  within  5  days  after  he  has  been 
served  with  the  charges,  or  before  a  special 
court-martial  within  3  days  after  the  service  of 
charges  (article  35). 

To  monitor  pretrial  confinement,  the  general 
court-martial  convening  authority  for  each  shore 
confinement  facility  appoints  one  or  more 
military  magistrates.  For  Navy  facilities  the 
magistrate  must  be  a  judge  advocate.  For  Marine 
correctional  facilities  the  magistrate  may  be  a 
judge  advocate. 

Every  officer  ordering  a  service  member  into 
pretrial  confinement  must  provide  the 
appropriate  military  magistrate  with  a  report 
containing  the  hour,  date,  and  place  of 
confinement;  the  offense(s)  allegedly 
committed;  the  general  circumstances  of  each 
offense;  the  previous  discipline  record  of  the 
individual;  any  mitigating  circumstances;  and  the 
reason  pretrial  confinement  is  deemed  necessary. 

Upon  receipt  of  this  report,  the  military 
magistrate  will  hold  an  informal  hearing,  with 
the  service  member  present,  to  determine 
whether  continued  confinement  is  necessary.  If 
continued  confinement  is  found  unjustified,  the 
military  magistrate  will  notify  the  commanding 
officer,  who  immediately  must  order  the  service 
member's  release. 

ART.  11. 

"(a)  No  provost  marshall, 
commander  of  a  guard,  or  master  at  arms 
may  refuse  to  receive  or  keep  any 
prisoner  committed  to  his  charge  by  a 
commissioned  officer  of  the  armed 
forces,  when  the  committing  officer 
furnishes  a  statement,  signed  by  him,  of 
the  offense  charged  against  the  prisoner. 

"(b)  Every  commander  of  a  guard 
or  master  at  arms  to  whose  charge  a 
prisoner  is  committed  shall,  within 
twenty-four  hours  after  that 
commitment  or  as  soon  as  he  is  relieved 



from  guard,  report  to  the  commanding 
officer  the  name  of  the  prisoner,  the 
offense  charged  against  him,  and  the 
name  of  the  person  who  ordered  or 
authorized  the  commitment" 

An  arrest  is  imposed  by  notifying  the  person 
to  be  arrested  that  he  is  under  arrest  and 
informing  him  of  the  limits  of  his  arrest.  The 
order  of  arrest  may  be  oral  or  written.  A  person 
to  be  confined  is  placed  under  guard  and  taken 
to  the  place  of  confinement. 

ART.  12. 



"No  member  of  the  armed  forces 
may  be  placed  in  confinement  in 
immediate  association  with  enemy 
prisoners  or  other  foreign  nationals  not 
members  of  the  armed  forces." 

Members  of  the  Armed  Forces  may  be 
confined  in  the  same  jails,  prisons,  or  other 
confinement  facilities,  however,  so  long  as  they 
are  separated  from  the  other  categories 

ART.  13. 



"Subject  to  article  57,  no  person, 
while  being  held  for  trial,  may  be 
subjected  to  punishment  or  penalty 
other  than  arrest  or  confinement  upon 
the  charges  pending  against  him,  nor 
shall  the  arrest  or  confinement  imposed 
upon  him  be  any  more  rigorous  than  the 
circumstances  require  to  insure  his 
presence,  but  he  may  be  subjected  to 
minor  punishment  during  that  period  for 
infractions  of  discipline." 

The  minor  punishment  permitted  under 
article  13  includes  that  authorized  for  violations 
of  the  discipline  of  the  place  in  which  the  person 
is  confined.  The  article  does  not  prevent  a 
person  from  being  required  to  do  ordinary 
cleaning  or  policing,  or  from  taking  part  in 
routine  training  and  duties  not  involving  the 
bearing  of  arms. 

ART.   14. 



"(a)  Under  such  regulations  as  the 
Secretary  concerned  may  prescribe,  a 
member  of  the  armed  forces  accused  of 
an  offense  against  civil  authority  may  be 
delivered,  upon  request,  to  the  civil 
authority  for  trial. 

"(b)  When  delivery  under  this 
article  is  made  to  any  civil  authority  of  a 
person  undergoing  sentence  of  a 
court-martial,  the  delivery,  if  followed 
by  conviction  in  a  civil  tribunal, 
interrupts  the  execution  of  the  sentence 
of  the  court-martial,  and  the  offender 
after  having  answered  to  the  civil 
authorities  for  his  offense  shall,  upon 
the  request  of  competent  military 
authority,  be  returned  to  military 
custody  for  the  completion  of  his 

ART.   15. 



"(a)  Under  such  regulations  as  the 
President  may  prescribe,  and  under  such 
additional  regulations  as  may  be 
prescribed  by  the  Secretary  concerned, 
limitations  may  be  placed  on  the  powers 
granted  by  this  article  with  respect  to 
the  kind  and  amount  of  punishment 
authorized,  the  categories  of 
commanding  officers  and  warrant 
officers  exercising  command  authorized 
to  exercise  those  powers,  the 
applicability  of  this  article  to  an  accused 
who  demands  trial  by  court-martial,  and 
the  kinds  of  courts-martial  to  which  the 
case  may  be  referred  upon  such  a 
demand.  However,  except  in  the  case  of 
a  member  attached  to  or  embarked  in  a 
vessel,  punishment  may  not  be  imposed 
upon  any  member  of  the  armed  forces 
under  this  article  if  the  member 
has,  before  the  imposition  of  such 
punishment,  demanded  trial  by 

court-martial  in  lieu  of  such  punishment. 
Under  similar  regulations,  rules  may  be 
prescribed  with  respect  to  the  suspension 
of  punishment  authorized  hereunder.  If 
authorized  by  regulations  of  the 
Secretary  concerned,  a  commanding 
officer  exercising  general  court-martial 
jurisdiction  of  an  officer  of  general  or 
flag  rank  in  command  may  delegate  his 
powers  under  this  article  to  a  principal 

"(b)  Subject  to  subsection  (a)  of 
this  section,  any  commanding  officer 
may,  in  addition  to  or  in  lieu  of 
admonition  or  reprimand,  impose  one  or 
more  of  the  following  disciplinary 
punishments  for  minor  offenses  without 
the  intervention  of  a  court-martial— 

"(1)  upon     officers     of    his 

"(A)  restriction  to  certain 
specified  limits,  with  or  without 
suspension  from  duty,  for  not 
more  than  30  consecutive  days; 

"(B)  if  imposed  by  an 
officer  exercising  general 
court-martial  jurisdiction  or  an 
officer  of  general  or  flag  rank  in 

"(i)  arrest  in  quarters 
for  not  more  than  30 
consecutive  days; 

"(ii)  forfeiture  of  not 
more  than  one-half  of  one 
month's  pay  per  month  for 
two  months; 

"(iii)  restriction  to 
certain  specified  limits,  with 
or  without  suspension  from 
duty,  for  not  more  than  60 
consecutive  days; 

"(iv)  detention  of  not 
more  than  one-half  of  one 
month's  pay  per  month  for 
three  months; 

"(2)  upon  other  personnel  of 
his  command— 

"(A)  if  imposed  upon  a 
person  attached  to  or  embarked 
in  a  vessel,  confinement  on  bread 
and  water  or  diminished  rations 
for  not  more  than  three 
consecutive  days; 

"(B)  correctional  custody 
for  not  more  than  seven 
consecutive  days; 

"(C)  forfeiture  of  not 
more  than  seven  days'  pay; 

"(D)  reduction  to  the  next 
inferior  pay  grade,  if  the  grade 
from  which  demoted  is  within 
the  promotion  authority  of  the 
officer  imposing  the  reduction  or 
any  officer  subordinate  to  the 
one  who  imposes  the  reduction; 

"(E)  extra  duties,  includ- 
ing fatigue  or  other  duties, 
for  not  more  than  1  4  consecutive 

"(F)  restriction  to  certain 
specified  limits,  with  or  without 
suspension  from  duty,  for  not 
more  than  14  consecutive  days; 

"(G)  detention  of  not 
more  than  14  days'  pay; 

"(H)  if  imposed  by  an 
officer  of  the  grade  of  major  or 
lieutenant  commander,  or 

"(i)     the     punishment 
authorized  under  subsection 

"(ii)  correctional  cus- 
tody for  not  more  than  30 
consecutive  days; 

"(iii)  forfeiture  of  not 
more  than  one-half  of  one 
month's  pay  per  month  for 
two  months; 



"(iv)  reduction  to  the 
lowest  or  any  intermediate 
pay  grade,  if  the  grade  from 
which  demoted  is  within  the 
promotion  authority  of  the 
officer  imposing  the 
reduction  or  any  officer 
subordinate  to  the  one  who 
imposes  the  reduction,  but 
an  enlisted  member  in  a  pay 
grade  above  E-4  may  not  be 
reduced  more  than  two  pay 

"(v)  extra  duties, 
including  fatigue  or  other 
duties,  for  not  more  than  45 
consecutive  days; 

"(vi)  restriction  to 
certain  specified  limits,  with 
or  without  suspension  from 
duty,  for  not  more  than  60 
consecutive  days; 

"(vii)  detention  of  not 
more  than  one-half  of  one 
month's  pay  per  month  for 
three  months. 

"Detention  of  pay  shall  be  for  a 
stated  period  of  not  more  than  one  year 
but  if  the  offender's  term  of  service 
expires  earlier,  the  detention  shall 
terminate  upon  that  expiration.  No  two 
or  more  of  the  punishments  of  arrest  in 
quarters,  confinement  on  bread  and 
water  or  diminished  rations,  correctional 
custody,  extra  duties,  and  restriction 
may  be  combined  to  run  consecutively 
in  the  maximum  amount  impossible  for 
each.  Whenever  any  of  those 
punishments  are  combined  to  run 
consecutively,  there  must  be  an 
apportionment.  In  addition,  forfeiture  of 
pay  may  not  be  combined  with 
detention  of  pay  without  an 
apportionment.  For  the  purposes  of  this 
subsection,  'correctional  custody'  is  the 
physical  restraint  of  a  person  during 
duty  or  nonduty  hours  and  may  include 
extra  duties,  fatigue  duties,  or  hard 

labor.  If  practicable,  correctional 
custody  will  not  be  served  in  immediate 
association  with  persons  awaiting  trial  or 
held  in  confinement  pursuant  to  trial  by 

"(c)  An  officer  in  charge  may 
impose  upon  enlisted  members  assigned 
to  the  unit  of  which  he  is  in  charge  such 
of  the  punishments  authorized  under 
subsection  (b)  (2)  (A)-(G)  as  the 
Secretary  concerned  may  specifically 
prescribe  by  regulation. 

"(d)  The  officer  who  imposes  the 
punishment  authorized  in  subsection  (b), 
or  his  successor  in  command,  may,  at 
any  time,  suspend  probationally  any  part 
or  amount  of  the  unexecuted 
punishment  imposed  and  may  suspend 
probationally  a  reduction  in  grade  or  a 
forfeiture  imposed  under  subsection  (b), 
whether  or  not  executed.  In  addition,  he 
may,  at  any  time,  remit  or  mitigate  any 
part  or  amount  of  the  unexecuted 
punishment  imposed  and  may  set  aside 
in  whole  or  in  part  the  punishment, 
whether  executed  or  unexecuted,  and 
restore  all  rights,  privileges,  and  property 
affected.  He  may  also  mitigate  reduction 
in  grade  to  forfeiture  or  detention  of 
pay.  When  mitigating— 

"(1)  arrest  in  quarters  to 

"(2)  confinement  on  bread 
and  water  or  diminished  rations  to 
correctional  custody; 

"(3)  correctional  custody  or 
confinement  on  bread  and  water  or 
diminished  rations  to  extra  duties  or 
restriction,  or  both;  or 

"(4)  extra  duties  to  restric- 
tion; "the  mitigated  punishment 
shall  not  be  for  a  greater 
period  than  the  punishment 
mitigated.  When  mitigating  forfeiture 
of  pay  to  detention  of  pay,  the 
amount  of  the  detection  shall  not  be 
greater  than  the  amount  of  the 

forfeiture.  When  mitigating 
reduction  in  grade  to  forfeiture  or 
detention  of  pay,  the  amount  of  the 
forfeiture  or  detention  shall  not  be 
greater  than  the  amount  that  could 
have  been  imposed  initially  under 
this  article  by  the  officer  who 
imposed  the  punishment  mitigated. 

"(e)  A  person  punished  under  this 
article  who  considers  his  punishment 
unjust  or  disproportionate  to  the  offense 
may,  through  the  proper  channel,  appeal 
to  the  next  superior  authority.  The 
appeal  shall  be  promptly  forwarded  and 
decided,  but  the  person  punished  may  in 
the  meantime  be  required  to  undergo  the 
punishment  adjudged  only  if  attached  to 
or  embarked  in  a  vessel.  If  the  accused  is 
not  attached  to  or  embarked  in  a  vessel 
such  punishment  will  be  stayed  pending 
completion  of  his  appeal.  The  superior 
authority  may  exercise  the  same  powers 
with  respect  to  the  punishment  imposed 
as  may  be  exercised  under  subsection  (d) 
by  the  officer  who  imposed  the 
punishment.  Before  acting  on  an  appeal 
from  the  punishment  of— 

"(1)  arrest  in  quarters  for 
more  than  seven  days; 

"(2)  correctional  custody  for 
more  than  seven  days; 

"(3)  forfeiture  of  more  than 
seven  days'  pay; 

"(4)  reduction  of  one  or  more 
pay  grades  from  the  fourth  or  a 
higher  pay  grade; 

"(5)  extra  duties  for  more 
than  14  days; 

"(6)  restriction  for  more  than 
14  days;  or 

"(7)  detention  of  more  than 
14  days'  pay;  "the  authority  who  is 
to  act  on  the  appeal  shall  refer  the 

case  to  a  judge  advocate  of  the 
Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  or  Marine 
Corps,  or  a  law  specialist  or  lawyer 
of  the  Marine  Corps,  Coast  Guard,  or 
Treasury  Department  for 
consideration  and  advice,  and  may  so 
refer  the  case  upon  appeal  from  any 
punishment  imposed  under 

"(f)  The  imposition  and 
enforcement  of  disciplinary  punishment 
under  this  article  for  any  act  or  omission 
is  not  a  bar  to  trial  by  court-martial  for 
a  serious  crime  or  offense  growing  out 
of  the  same  act  or  omission,  and  not 
properly  punishable  under  this  article; 
but  the  fact  that  disciplinary  punishment 
has  been  enforced  may  be  shown  by  the 
accused  upon  trial,  and  when  so  shown, 
shall  be  considered  in  determining  the 
measure  of  punishment  to  be  adjudged 
in  the  event  of  a  finding  of  guilty. 

"(g)  The  Secretary  concerned 
may,  by  regulation,  prescribe  the  form 
of  records  to  be  kept  of  proceedings 
under  this  article  and  may  also  prescribe 
that  certain  categories  of  those 
proceedings  shall  be  in  writing." 

Nonjudicial  punishment  is  authorized  for 
minor  offenses  that  constitute  a  violation  of  one 
of  the  punitive  articles  of  the  Code.  Whether  an 
offense  may  be  considered  minor  depends  upon 
factors  such  as  its  nature  and  the  circumstances 
surrounding  its  commission.  Generally,  the  term 
includes  misconduct  not  involving  a  greater 
degree  of  criminality  than  involved  in  the 
average  offense  tried  by  summary  court-martial. 

Minor  offenses  ordinarily  do  not  include 
those  involving  moral  turpitude,  such  as  larceny, 
forgery,  and  maiming;  escape  from  confinement; 
willful  disobedience;  prolonged  unauthorized 
absence;  or  any  offense  punishable  by 
dishonorable  discharge  or  confinement  for  more 
than  a  year. 

1  /  "Treasury  Department,"  for  purposes  of 
this  article,  is  now  "Department  of  Trans- 



ART.  25. 



"(a)  Any  commissioned  officer  on 
active  duty  is  eligible  to  serve  on  all 
courts-martial  for  the  trial  of  any  person 
who  may  lawfully  be  brought  before 
such  courts  for  trial. 

"(b)  Any  warrant  officer  on  active 
duty  is  eligible  to  serve  on  general  and 
special  courts-martial  for  the  trial  of  any 
person,  other  than  a  commissioned 
officer,  who  may  lawfully  be  brought 
before  such  courts  for  trial. 

"(c)  (1)  Any  enlisted  member 
of  an  armed  force  on  active  duty  who  is 
not  a  member  of  the  same  unit  as  the 
accused  is  eligible  to  serve  on  general  and 
special  courts-martial  for  the  trial  of  any 
enlisted  person  of  an  armed  force  who 
may  lawfully  be  brought  before  such 
courts  for  trial,  but  he  shall  serve  as  a 
member  of  court  only  if,  before  the 
conclusion  of  a  session  called  by  the 
military  judge  under  article  39(a)  prior 
to  trial  or,  in  the  absence  of  such  a 
session,  before  the  court  is  assembled  for 
the  trial  of  the  accused,  the  accused 
personally  has  requested  in  writing  that 
enlisted  persons  serve  on  it.  After  such  a 
request,  the  accused  may  not  be  tried  by 
a  general  or  special  court-martial  the 
membership  of  which  does  not  include 
enlisted  persons  in  a  number  comprising 
at  least  one-third  of  the  total  mem- 
bership of  the  court,  unless  eligible 
enlisted  persons  cannot  be  obtained  on 
account  of  physical  conditions  or  mili- 
tary exigencies.  If  such  members  cannot 
be  obtained,  the  court  may  be  assembled 
and  the  trial  held  without  them,  but  the 
convening  authority  shall  make  a  detailed 
written  statement,  to  be  appended  to  the 
record,  stating  why  they  could  not  be 

"(2)  In  this  article,  the  word 
"unit"  means  any  regularly  organized 
body  as  defined  by  the  Secretary 
concerned,  but  in  no  case  may  it  be  a 

body  larger  than  a  company,  squadron,  • 
ship's  crew,  or  body  corresponding  to 
one  of  them. 

"(d)  (1 )  When  it  can  be  avoided, 
no  member  of  an  armed  force  may  be 
tried  by  a  court-martial  any  member  of 
which  is  junior  to  him  in  rank  or  grade. 

"(2)  When  convening  a  court- 
martial,  the  convening  authority  shall 
detail  as  members  thereof  such  mem- 
bers of  the  armed  forces  as,  in  his 
opinion,  are  best  qualified  for  the  duty 
by  reason  of  age,  education,  training, 
experience,  length  of  service,  and  judicial 
temperament.  No  member  of  an  armed 
force  is  eligible  to  serve  as  a  member  of  a 
general  or  special  court-martial  when  he 
is  the  accuser  or  a  witness  for  the 
prosecution  or  has  acted  as  investigating 
officer  or  as  counsel  in  the  same  case." 

A  unit  of  the  Navy  or  Coast  Guard  in  the 
sense  of  section  25(c)  is  a  ship,  company, 
detached  command,  or  other  organization  for 
which  a  separate  unit  personnel  diary  is 

Whenever  practicable,  the  senior  member  of 
a  general  or  special  court-martial  should  be  an 
officer  whose  rank  is  not  below  that  of 
lieutenant  of  the  Navy  or  Coast  Guard  or 
captain  of  the  Army,  Air  Force,  or  Marine 
Corps.  Unless  it  cannot  be  avoided,  all  members 
are  senior  to  the  accused  in  grade  or  in 

An  accuser  is  a  person  who  (1)  signs  and 
swears  to  charges,  (2)  directs  that  charges 
nominally  be  signed  and  sworn  by  another,  or 
(3)  has  other  than  an  official  interest  in  the 
prosecution  of  the  accused. 

ART.   27. 



"(a)  For  each  general  and  special 
court-martial  the  authority  convening 
the  court  shall  detail  trial  counsel  and 
defense  counsel,  and  such  assistants  as  he 
considers  appropriate.  No  person  who 
has  acted  as  investigating  officer, 


military  judge,  or  court  member  in  any 
case  may  act  later  as  trial  counsel, 
assistant  trial  counsel,  or,  unless 
expressly  requested  by  the  accused,  as 
defense  counsel  or  assistant  defense 
counsel  in  the  same  case.  No  person  who 
has  acted  for  the  prosecution  may  act 
later  in  the  same  case  for  the  defense, 
nor  may  any  person  who  has  acted  for 
the  defense  act  later  in  the  same  case  for 
the  prosecution. 

"(b)  Trial  counsel  or  defense 
counsel  detailed  for  a  general 
court-mar  tial- 

"(1)  must' be  a  judge  advocate 
of  the  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force,  or 
Marine  Corps,  or  a  law  specialist  of 
the  Coast  Guard,  who  is  a  graduate 
of  an  accredited  law  school  or  is  a 
member  of  the  bar  of  a  Federal  court 
or  of  the  highest  court  of  a  State;  or 
must  be  a  member  of  the  bar  of  a 
Federal  court  or  of  the  highest  court 
of  a  State;  and 

"(2)  must  be  certified  as 
competent  to  perform  such  duties  by 
the  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the 
armed  force  of  which  he  is  a 

"(c)  In  case  of  a  special  court- 

"(1)  the  accused  shall  be 
afforded  the  opportunity  to  be 
represented  at  the  trial  by  counsel 
having  the  qualifications  prescribed 
under  article  27(b)  unless  counsel 
having  such  qualifications  cannot  be 
obtained  on  account  of  physical 
conditions  or  military  exigencies.  If 
counsel  having  such  qualifications 
cannot  be  obtained,  the  court  may 
be  convened  and  the  trial  held  but 
the  convening  authority  shall  make  a 
detailed  written  statement,  to  be 
appended  to  the  record,  stating  why 
counsel  with  such  qualifications 
could  not  be  obtained; 

"(2)  if  the  trial  counsel  is 
qualified  to  act  as  counsel  before  a 
general  court-martial,  the  defense 
counsel  detailed  by  the  convening 
authority  must  be  a  person  similarly 
qualified ;  and 

"(3)  if  the  trial  counsel  is  a 
judge  advocate,  or  a  law  specialist,  or 
a  member  of  the  bar  of  a  Federal 
court  or  the  highest  court  in  the 
State,  the  defense  counsel  detailed 
by  the  convening  authority  must  be 
one  of  the  foregoing." 

The  requirements  of  this  article  ensure  that 
the  accused  is  adequately  represented.  His  right 
to  counsel  of  his  own  choosing  is  provided  for 
by  article  38(b).  The  gist  of  section  (2)  is  that 
changing  sides  is  forbidden-if  a  person  has  acted 
for  the  defense  he  may  not  subsequently  act  for 
the  prosecution,  or  vice  versa. 

The  Code  provides,  however,  that  the 
accused  shall  be  afforded  the  opportunity  to  be 
represented  at  the  trial  by  counsel  having  the 
qualifications  prescribed  under  article  27(b). 

ART.  31. 



"(a)  No  person  subject  to  this 
code  may  compel  any  person  to 
incriminate  himself  or  to  answer  any 
question  the  answer  to  which  may  tend 
to  incriminate  him. 

"(b)  No  person  subject  to  this 
code  may  interrogate,  or  request  any 
statement  from,  an  accused  or  a  person 
suspected  of  an  offense  without  first 
informing  him  of  the  nature  of  the 
accusation  and  advising  him  that  he  does 
not  have  to  make  any  statement 
regarding  the  offense  of  which  he  is 
accused  or  suspected  and  that  any 
statement  made  by  him  may  be  used  as 
evidence  against  him  in  a  trial  by 

"(c)  No  person  subject  to  this 
code  may  compel  any  person  to  make  a 
statement  or  produce  evidence  before 



any  military  tribunal  if  the  statement  or 
evidence  is  not  material  to  the  issue  and 
may  tend  to  degrade  him. 

"(d)  No  statement  obtained  from 
any  person  in  violation  of  this  article,  or 
through  the  use  of  coercion,  unlawful 
influence,  or  unlawful  inducement  may 
be  received  in  evidence  against  him  in  a 
trial  by  court-martial." 

Article  31,  in  accordance  with  the  fifth 
amendment  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States,  provides  that  in  a  criminal  case  no  person 
may  be  compelled  to  be  a  witness  against 
himself.  The  article  applies  to  official 
investigations  as  well  as  to  courts-martial. 

Paragraph  (a)  applies  to  any  self- 
incrimination  whether  or  not  material  to  the 
issue,  and  it  may  be  invoked  by  a  witness,  an 
accused,  or  a  suspect.  However,  if  the  person 
invoking  3 1  (a)  could  for  any  reason  successfully 
object  to  being  tried  because  of  revelations 
developed  by  his  answer  (for  example,  the 
statute  of  limitations  for  an  admitted  criminal 
act  may  have  run  out),  he  may  be  compelled  to 

Paragraph  (b)  requires  that  any  person 
charged  with  or  suspected  of  an  offense  must  be 
informed,  before  he  is  interrogated  concerning 
the  offense— 

1 .  Of  the  nature  of  the  offense. 

2.  That  he   does   not   have   to   make   any 
statement  regarding  the  offense. 

3.  That    anything    he    says    may    be   used 
against  him  in  a  trial. 

The  provisions  of  31(b)  also  apply  before, 
for  example,  a  suspect  is  asked  to  identify  his 
property,  provide  examples  of  his  handwriting, 
or  to  speak  for  the  purpose  of  voice 
identification.  Paragraphs  (b)  and  (d)  of  the 
article  have  the  effect  of  requiring  the  exclusion 
from  evidence  of  any  statement,  even  if 
voluntary,  or  of  any  compulsory  act,  if  the  prior 
warning  made  mandatory  by  31(b)  is  not  given. 
Since  the  wording  of  article  31  requires  the 
warning  only  when  a  person  who  is  himself 
subject  to  the  code  is  conducting  an 
interrogation  or  requesting  a  statement, 

provisions  of  the  article  do  not  exclude  from 
evidence  in  a  subsequent  trial  by  court-rnartial 
any  voluntary  statement  given  to  civil 
authorities,  or  to  any  person  not  officially 
inquiring  into  the  person's  conduct. 

The  privilege  against  compulsory 
self-degradation  (31(c))  applies  only  to  matters 
not  material  to  the  issue.  It  is  not  a  violation  of 
the  article,  for  instance,  to  order  an  accused  to 
expose  his  body  for  examination  by  a  court  or  a 
physician  who  will  later  testify  in  court  as  to  the 
results  of  his  examination.  Neither  is  the 
prohibition  violated  by  compelling  a  person  to 
try  on  a  pair  of  shoes,  to  shave  or  grow  a  beard, 
or  to  have  his  fingerprints  taken.  An  accused  may 
not,  however,  be  forced  to  perform  acts  that 
require  the  use  of  mental  or  physical  faculties. 
This  means,  for  example,  that  the  results  of  tests 
of  blood  or  urine  taken  from  an  accused  for 
other  than  clinical  purposes,  against  his  will,  are 
not  admissible  in  evidence. 

ART.  37. 



"(a)  No  authority  convening  a 
general,  special,  or  summary 
court-martial,  nor  any  other 
commanding  officer,  may  censure, 
reprimand,  or  admonish  the  court  or  any 
member,  military  judge,  or  counsel 
thereof,  with  respect  to  the  findings  or 
sentence  adjudged  by  the  court,  or  with 
respect  to  any  other  exercise  of  its  or  his 
functions  in  the  conduct  of  the 
proceedings.  No  person  subject  to  this 
code  may  attempt  to  coerce  or,  by  any 
unauthorized  means,  influence  the 
action  of  a  court-martial  or  any  other 
military  tribunal  or  any  member  thereof, 
in  reaching  the  findings  or  sentence  in 
any  case,  or  the  action  of  any  convening, 
approving,  or  reviewing  authority  with 
respect  to  his  judicial  acts.  The  foregoing 
provision  of  the  subsection  shall  not 
apply  with  respect  to  (1)  general 
instructional  or  informational  courses  in 
military  justice  if  such  courses  are 
designed  solely  for  the  purpose  of 
instructing  members  of  a  command  in 

the  substantive  and  procedural  aspects  of 
courts-martial  or  (2)  to  statements  and 
instructions  given  in  open  court  by  the 
military  judge,  president  of  a  special 
court-martial,  or  counsel 

"(b)  In  the  preparation  of  an 
effectiveness,  fitness,  or  efficiency 
report,  or  any  other  report  or  document 
used  in  whole  or  in  part  for  the  purpose 
of  determining  whether  a  member  of  the 
armed  forces  is  qualified  to  be  advanced, 
in  grade,  or  in  determining  the 
assignment  or  transfer  of  a  member  of 
the  armed  forces  or  in  determining 
whether  a  member  of  the  armed  forces 
should  be  retained  on  active  duty,  no 
person  subject  to  this  chapter  may,  in 
preparing  any  such  report  (1)  consider  or 
evaluate  the  performance  of  duty  of  any 
such  member  as  a  member  of  a 
court-martial,  or  (2)  give  a  less  favorable 
rating  or  evaluation  of  any  member  of 
the  armed  forces  because  of  the  zeal 
with  which  such  member,  as  counsel, 
represented  any  accused  before  a 

Article  37  is  designed  to  ensure  that  every 
court,  its  members  and  officers,  shall  be 
completely  free  to  fulfill  its  functions  without 
fear  of  reprisal. 

ART.  38. 



"(a)  The  trial  counsel  of  a  general 
or  special  court-martial  shall  prosecute  in 
the  name  of  the  United  States,  and  shall, 
under  the  direction  of  the  court,  prepare 
the  record  of  the  proceedings. 

"(b)  The  accused  has  the  right  to 
be  represented  in  his  defense  before  a 
general  or  special  court-martial  by 
civilian  counsel,  if  provided  by  him,  or 
by  military  counsel,  of  his  own  selection 
if  reasonably  available,  or  by  the  defense 
counsel  detailed  under  article  27.  Should 
the  accused  have  counsel  of  his  own 
selection,  the  defense  counsel,  and 

assistance  defense  counsel,  if  any,  who 
were  detailed,  shall,  if  the  accused  so 
desires,  act  as  his  associate  counsel; 
otherwise  they  shall  be  excused  by  the 
military  judge  or  by  the  president  of  a 
court-martial  without  a  military  judge. 

"(c)  In  every  court-martial 
proceeding,  the  defense  counsel  may,  in 
the  event  of  conviction,  forward  for 
attachment  to  the  record  of  proceedings 
a  brief  of  such  matters  as  he  feels  should 
be  considered  in  behalf  of  the  accused  on 
review,  including  any  objection  to  the 
contents  of  the  record  which  he 
considers  appropriate. 

"(d)  An  assistant  trial  counsel  of  a 
general  court-martial  may,  under  the 
direction  of  the  trial  counsel  or  when  he 
is  qualified  to  be  a  trial  counsel  as 
required  by  article  27,  perform  any  duty 
imposed  by  law,  regulation,  or  the 
custom  of  the  service  upon  the  trial 
counsel  of  the  court.  An  assistant  trial 
counsel  of  a  special  court-martial  may 
perform  any  duty  of  the  trial  counsel. 

"(e)  An  assistant  defense  counsel 
of  a  general  or  special  court-martial  may, 
under  the  direction  of  the  defense 
counsel  or  when  he  is  qualified  to  be  the 
defense  counsel  as  required  by  article  27, 
perform  any  duty  imposed  by  law, 
regulation,  or  the  custom  of  the  service 
upon  counsel  for  the  accused." 

Expenses  for  civilian  counsel  are  borne  by 
the  accused.  A  request  for  military  counsel  of 
the  accused's  selection  usually  is  forwarded  by 
the  regularly  appointed  defense  counsel,  through 
trial  counsel,  to  the  convening  authority. 

In  the  event  of  conviction,  defense  counsel, 
immediately  after  trial,  advises  the  accused  of 
his  right  (if  any)  to  be  represented  by  counsel 
before  the  Court  of  Military  Review  and  the 
Court  of  Military  Appeals,  each  of  which  has  the 
legal  power  to  reverse  the  decision  of  the 
court-martial  that  convicted  him.  In  an 
appropriate  case,  defense  counsel  assists  the 
appellant  (one  who  appeals  a  judicial  decision) 
to  secure  such  appellate  representation.  The 
accused  has  10  days  from  the  date  he  is  notified 


Chapter  7-DISCIPLINli  AND    I  tit  UINlJhUKM  CUUb  Uh   MILITARY   JUSTlCb 

of  the  convening  or  supervisory  authority's 
action  on  his  case  to  request  that  he  be 
represented  by  counsel  before  the  Court  of 
Military  Review. 

The  primary  duty  of  trial  counsel  is  to 
prosecute,  but  any  act  (such  as  conscious 
suppression  of  evidence  favorable  to  the 
defense)  inconsistent  with  a  genuine  desire  to 
have  the  whole  truth  revealed  is  prohibited.  It  is 
not  his  duty,  however,  to  assist  or  advise  the 

ART.  55. 



"Punishment  by  flogging,  or  by 
branding,  marking,  or  tattooing  on  the 
body,  or  any  other  cruel  or  unusual 
punishment,  may  not  be  adjudged  by 
any  court-martial  or  inflicted  upon  any 
person  subject  to  this  code.  The  use  of 
irons,  single  or  double,  except  for  the 
purpose  of  safe  custody,  is  prohibited." 

Courts-martial  may  not  impose  any 
punishment  not  sanctioned  by  the  custom  of  the 
service,  such  as  carrying  a  loaded  knapsack, 
shaving  the  head,  placarding,  pillorying,  placing 
in  stocks,  or  tying  up  by  the  thumbs.  Loss  of 
good-conduct  time  will  not  be  adjudged  as 
punishment  by  a  court-martial. 

ART.  77. 

"Any  person  punishable  under  this 
code  who— 

"(1)  commits  an  offense 
punishable  by  this  code,  or  aids,  abets, 
counsels,  commands,  or  procures  its 
commission;  or 

"(2)  causes  an  act  to  be  done 
which  if  directly  performed  by  him 
would  be  punishable  by  this  code; 

is  a  principal." 

Mere  presence  at  the  scene  of  a  crime  does 
not  make  one  a  principal.  There  must  be  an 
intent  to  aid  or  encourage  the  persons  who 
commit  the  crime  and  the  aider  or  abettor  must 
share  the  criminal  intent  or  purpose  of  the 
perpetrator.  If  there  is  a  concert  of  purpose  to 
commit  a  given  criminal  act,  and  the  act  is  done 
by  one  of  the  parties,  all  probable  results  that 
could  be  expected  from  the  act  are  chargeable  to 
all  parties  concerned. 

If  a  witness  to  a  crime  had  a  duty  to 
interfere  and  his  noninterference  was  designed 
by  him  to  operate  and  did  operate  as  an 
encouragement  to  or  protection  of  the 
perpetrator,  he  is  a  principal. 

One  who  counsels,  commands,  or  procures 
another  into  committing  an  offense  is  a  principal 
even  though  he  was  not  present  when  the 
offense  was  committed. 

ART.  78. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  knowing  that  an  offense  punishable 
by  this  code  has  been  committed, 
receives,  comforts,  or  assists  the  offender 
in  order  to  hinder  or  prevent  his 
apprehension,  trial,  or  punishment,  shall 
be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

ART.  79. 



"An  accused  may  be  found  guilty  of 
an  offense  necessarily  included  in  the 
offense  charged  or  of  an  attempt  to 
commit  either  the  offense  charged  or  of 
an  offense  necessarily  included  therein." 

A  military  tribunal  may  only  try  a  person 
who  has  been  charged  with  violating  a  particular 
article  or  articles  of  UCMJ.  Quite  simply,  if  a 
man  committed  what  is  considered  a  crime  but 
the  code  did  not  include  that  crime  in  one  of  its 
punitive  articles,  no  court-martial  could  try  him. 
Articles  77,  78,  80,  81,  and  82  of  the  code  thus 
encompass  persons  who,  although  they  may  not 



have  participated  actively  in,  or  successfully 
accomplished,  the  commission  of  an  offense,  can 
be  convicted  of  having  had  "their  finger  in  the 

Article  79  goes  a  step  further  by  authorizing 
the  finding  of  guilty  of  a  lesser  included  offense 
when  a  finding  of  guilty  cannot  be  sustained  for 
the  offense  charged.  For  this  reason,  there  are 
three  permissible  findings  as  to  a  charge:  guilty; 
not  guilty;  not  guilty,  but  guilty  of  a  violation  of 

The  key  words  in  article  79  are  "offense 
necessarily  included  in  the  offense  charged."  For 
example,  a  violation  of  article  85,  "Desertion 
with  intent  to  remain  away  permanently," 
invariably  is  also  an  uncharged  violation  of  the 
lesser  charge  of  article  86,  "Absence  without 
proper  authority."  Proving  that  an  accused 
deserter  had  no  intention  of  ever  returning 
might  be  impossible.  But  the  facts  are  clear  as  to 
when  he  absented  himself  and  when  he  (was) 
returned  to  military  jurisdiction.  Thus,  many 
"deserters"  are,  for  lack  of  proof  of  intent, 
found  "Not  guilty,  but  guilty  of  a  violation  of 
article  86." 

Other  examples  of  what  are  generally  held  to 
be  "lesser  included  offenses"  contained  in  a 
principal  offense  include  the  following: 






Breach  of 

1 1 8         Murder 
122         Robbery 
1 24         Maiming 




Lesser  included 

Failure  to  obey 
lawful  order 

Breach  of  the 

Breach  of 


Assault  with  a 

ART.  80. 

"(a)  An  act,  done  with  specific 
intent  to  commit  an  offense  under  this 
code,  amounting  to  more  than  mere 
preparation  and  tending,  even  though 
failing,  to  effect  its  commission,  is  an 
attempt  to  commit  that  offense. 

"(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  attempts  to  commit  any 
offense  punishable  by  this  code  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct; 
unless  otherwise  specifically  prescribed. 

"(c)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  may  be  convicted  of  an  attempt  to 
commit  an  offense  although  it  appears 
on  the  trial  that  the  offense  was 

To  constitute  an  attempt  there  must  be  a 
specific  intent  to  commit  the  particular  offense 
accompanied  by  an  overt  act  which  directly 
tends  to  accomplish  the  unlawful  purpose.  The 
overt  act  required  goes  beyond  preparatory  steps 
and  is  a  direct  movement  toward  commission  of 
the  offense. 

It  is  not  an  attempt  when  every  act  intended 
by  the  accused  could  be  completed  without 
committing  an  offense.  But  an  accused  may  be 
guilty  of  an  attempt  even  though  the  crime  turns 
out  to  be  impossible  of  commission  because  of 
an  outside  intervening  circumstance.  A 
pickpocket  who  puts  his  hand  in  the  pocket  of 
another  with  intent  to  steal  his  billfold  is  guilty 
of  an  attempt  to  commit  larceny,  even  though 
the  pocket  is  empty. 

ART.  81. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  conspires  with  any  other  person  to 
commit  an  offense  under  this  code  shall, 
if  one  or  more  of  the  conspirators  does 
an  act  to  effect  the  object  of  the 
conspiracy,  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

The  agreement  in  a  conspiracy  need  not  be 
in  any  particular  form  not  manifested  in  any 
formal  words.  It  is  sufficient  if  the  minds  of  the 
parties  arrive  at  a  common  understanding  to 
accomplish  the  object  of  the  conspiracy. 

The  overt  act  of  a  conspiracy  must  be  an 
independent  act  by  one  or  more  of  the 
conspirators  following  the  agreement  and  done 
to  carry  into  effect  the  object  of  that  agreement. 
The  overt  act  need  not  be  in  itself  criminal,  but 
it  must  be  a  manifestation  that  the  conspiracy  is 
being  executed. 

A  conspiracy  to  commit  an  offense  is  a 
different  and  distinct  offense  from  the  offense 
which  is  the  object  of  the  conspiracy,  and  both 
the  conspiracy  and  the  consummated  offense 
which  was  its  object  may  be  charged  and  tried. 

A  party  to  a  conspiracy  may,  before  the 
performance  of  an  overt  act,  withdraw  from  the 
conspiracy,  but  there  must  be  some  affirmative 
act  of  withdrawal.  Such  withdrawal  neither 
creates  a  new  conspiracy  nor  changes  the  status 
of  the  remaining  members. 

ART.  82. 

"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  solicits  or  advises  another  or 
others  to  desert  in  violation  of  article  85 
or  mutiny  in  violation  of  article  94  shall, 
if  the  offense  solicited  or  advised  is 
attempted  or  committed,  be  punished 
with  the  punishment  provided  for  the 
commission  of  the  offense,  but,  if  the 
offense  solicited  or  advised  is  not 
committed  or  attempted,  he  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct. 

"(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  solicits  or  advises  another  or 
others  to  commit  an  act  of  misbehavior 
before  the  enemy  in  violation  of  article 
99  or  sedition  in  violation  of  article  94 
shall,  if  the  offense  solicited  or  advised  is 
committed,  be  punished  with  the 
punishment  provided  for  the  commission 
of  the  offense,  but,  if  the  offense 
solicited  or  advised  is  not  committed,  he 
shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

Solicitation  may  be  accomplished  by  other 
means  than  by  word  of  mouth  or  by  writing. 
Any  act  or  conduct  that  reasonably  may  be 
construed  as  a  serious  request  or  advice  to 
commit  one  of  the  offenses  named  in  the  article 
may  constitute  solicitation.  The  accused  may  act 
through  other  persons  in  committing  this 

Solicitation  to  commit  offenses  other  than 
violations  of  the  articles  enumerated  in  this 
article  may  be  charged  as  violations  of  article 

ART    83 



"Any  person  who— 

"(1)  Procures  his  own  enlistment 
or  appointment  in  the  armed  forces 
by  knowingly  false  representation  or 
deliberate  concealment  as  to  his 
qualifications  for  that  enlistment  or 
appointment  and  receives  pay  or 
allowances  thereunder;  or 

"(2)  procures  his  own  separation 
from  the  armed  forces  by  means  of 
knowingly  false  representation  or 
deliberate  concealment  as  to  his 
eligibility  for  that  separation;  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

An  essential  element  of  the  offense  of 
fraudulent  enlistment  or  appointment  is  that  the 
accused  shall  have  received  pay  or  allowances 
thereunder.  Acceptance  of  food,  clothing, 
shelter,  or  transportation  from  the  Government 
constitutes  receipt  of  allowances. 

After  apprehension,  an  accused  who  is 
charged  with  having  fraudulently  obtained  his 
separation  from  a  branch  of  the  Armed  Forces  is 
subject  to  the  Code  while  in  the  custody  of  the 
Armed  Forces  and  awaiting  trial  for  the 
fraudulent  separation  (article  3(b)). 

ART.  84. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  effects  an  enlistment  or 



appointment  in  or  a  separation  from  the 
armed  forces  of  any  person  who  is 
known  to  him  to  be  ineligible  for  that 
enlistment,  appointment,  or  separation 
because  it  is  prohibited  by  law, 
regulation,  or  order  shall  be  punished  as 
a  court-martial  may  direct." 

ART.  85. 

"(a)  Any  member  of  the  armed 
forces  who— 

"( 1 )  without  authority  goes  or 
remains  absent  from  his  unit, 
organization,  or  place  of  duty  with 
intent  to  remain  away  therefrom 

"(2)  quits  his  unit,  organiza- 
tion, or  place  of  duty  with  intent 
to  avoid  hazardous  duty  or  to  shirk 
important  service;  or 

"(3)  without  being  regularly 
separated  from  one  of  the  armed 
forces  enlists  or  accepts  an 
appointment  in  the  same  or  another 
one  of  the  armed  forces  without 
fully  disclosing  the  fact  that  he  has 
not  been  regularly  separated,  or 
enters  any  foreign  armed  service 
except  when  authorized  by  the 
United  States; 

"is  guilty  of  desertion. 

"(b)  Any  commissioned  officer  of 
the  armed  forces  who,  after  tender 
of  his  resignation  and  before  notice 
of  its  acceptance,  quits  his  post  or 
proper  duties  without  leave  and  with 
intent  to  remain  away  therefrom  perma- 
nently is  guilty  of  desertion. 

"(c)  Any  person  found  guilty  of 
desertion  or  attempt  to  desert  shall  be 
punished,  if  the  offense  is  committed  in 
time  of  war,  by  death  or  such  other 
punishment  as  a  court-martial  may 
direct,  but  if  the  desertion  or  attempt  to 
desert  occurs  at  any  other  time,  by  such 
punishment,  other  than  death,  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

Both  absence  without  authority  and  the 
intent  to  remain  away  permanently  are  essential 
elements  of  a  charge  of  desertion. 

"Hazardous  duty"  or  "important  service" 
may  include  such  service  as  duty  in  a  combat  or 
other  dangerous  area,  embarkation  for  foreign 
duty  or  for  sea  duty,  movement  to  a  port  of 
embarkation,  etc.  Drill,  target  practice, 
maneuvers,  and  practice  marches  are  not 
ordinarily  regarded  as  included. 

The  fact  that  a  person  intends  to  report  or 
actually  reports  at  another  station  does  not 
prevent  a  conviction  for  desertion,  as  that  fact  in 
connection  with  other  circumstances  may  tend 
to  establish  his  intentions  not  to  return  to  his 
proper  place  of  duty.  However,  a  person  absent 
without  leave  from  his  place  of  service  and 
without  funds  may  report  to  another  station  for 
transportation  back  to  his  original  place  of  duty, 
which  circumstance  would  tend  to  negate  the 
existence  of  an  intent  to  desert.  No  general  rule 
can  be  laid  down  as  the  effect  to  be  given  to  an 
intention  to  report  or  an  actual  reporting  at 
another  station.  Return  to  military  control  may 
be  effected  by  return  to  any  of  the  Armed 
Forces,  whether  or  not  that  of  which  the 
accused  is  a  member. 

A  man  who  is  absent  without  authority  from 
his  command  is  placed  in  the  status  of  an 
absentee  and  may  become  liable  to  severe 
penalties  upon  his  return  to  naval  jurisdiction 
unless  a  satisfactory  explanation  can  be 
furnished.  When  a  man  has  been  in  an  absentee 
status  for  more  than  30  days,  notification  is 
forwarded  to  his  next  of  kin,  to  the  chief  of 
police  in  his  home  town,  and  to  various  other 
law  enforcement  agencies,  as  well  as  to  certain 
activities  of  the  other  Armed  Forces.  The 
foregoing  authorities  are  requested  to  assist  in 
the  apprehension  of  the  absentee  and,  except  in 
the  cases  of  Federal  officers,  are  paid  any 
necessary  expenses  up  to  twenty-five  dollars 
incurred  in  effecting  the  man's  return  to  military 
or  naval  control.  This  amount  is  subsequently 
checked  against  the  returned  absentee's  pay. 

The  status  of  an  absentee  changes  to  that  of 
a  deserter  after  30  days  of  absence,  or  sooner  if 
the  intent  to  desert  is  manifest.  For  example,  if 
an  enlisted  man  were  to  go  ashore  without 
permission,  taking  all  his  personal  belongings 
with  him  and  announcing  to  his  shipmates  that 



he  was  leaving  the  service  for  good,  he  should  be 
immediately  declared  a  deserter. 

After  a  man  is  declared  a  deserter,  the 
Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  enters  into  the 
search  for  the  man.  The  expenses  involved  in 
returning  him  are  chargeable  to  the  deserter. 

When  a  person  is  convicted  of  desertion  in 
time  of  war  and  such  conviction  results  in  a 
dishonorable  discharge,  the  law  provides  that  the 
person  never  again  hold  any  office  of  trust  or 
profit  in  the  United  States  Government. 

ART.  86. 


"Any  member  of  the  armed  forces 
who,  without  authority- 

"(1)  fails  to  go  to  his  appointed 
place  of  duty  at  the  time  prescribed; 

"(2)      goes  from  that  place;  or 

"(3)  absents  himself  or  remains 
absent  from  his  unit,  organization,  or 
place  of  duty  at  which  he  is  required  to 
be  at  the  time  prescribed; 

shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

This  article  is  designed  to  cover  every  case 
not  elsewhere  provided  for  in  which  any 
member  of  the  Armed  Forces  is,  through  his 
own  fault,  not  at  the  place  where  he  is  required 
to  be  at  a  prescribed  time.  Specific  intent  is  not 
an  element  of  this  offense,  that  is,  the  accused 
need  not  form  the  express  intention  of 
remaining  away.  The  intent  is  expressed  by  the 
mere  fact  of  his  absence. 

A  member  of  the  Armed  Forces  turned  over 
to  the  civil  authorities  upon  request  (article  14) 
is  not  absent  without  leave  while  held  by  them 
under  such  delivery.  When  a  member  of  the 
Armed  Forces,  being  absent  with  leave,  or 
absent  without  leave,  is  held,  tried,  and 
acquitted  by  civil  authorities,  his  status  as  absent 
with  leave  or  without  leave  is  not  thereby 
changed,  however  long  he  may  be  held.  If  a 
member  of  the  Armed  Forces  is  convicted  by 
the  civil  authorities,  the  fact  that  he  was 
arrested,  held,  and  tried  does  not  excuse  any 
unauthorized  absence. 

ART.  87. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  through  neglect  or  design  misses  the 
movement  of  a  ship,  aircraft,  or  unit 
with  which  he  is  required  in  the  course 
of  duty  to  move  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

The  word  "movement"  as  used  here  does 
not  include  minor  changes  in  location  of  ships, 
aircraft,  or  units,  as  when  a  ship  is  shifted  from 
one  berth  to  another. 

To  be  guilty  of  article  87,  the  accused  must 
have  known  of  the  prospective  movement  that 
he  missed.  His  knowledge  of  the  approximate 
date  is  sufficient  for  conviction— he  need  not 
have  been  aware  of  the  exact  hour  or  date. 

ART.  88. 


"Any  commissioned  officer  who  uses 
contemptuous  words  against  the 
President,  the  Vice  President,  Congress, 
the  Secretary  of  Defense,  the  Secretary 
of  a  military  department,  the  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury,  or  the  Governor  or 
legislature  of  any  State,  Territory, 
Commonwealth,  or  possession  in  which 
he  is  on  duty  or  present  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

"Congress,"  as  used  here,  does  not  include  a 
member  as  an  individual;  "legislature"  does  not 
include  its  members  individually;  nor  does 
"governor"  include  a  "lieutenant  governor." 

Adverse  criticism  of  one  of  the  officials  or 
groups  named  in  the  article,  in  the  course  of  a 
political  discussion,  even  though  emphatically 
expressed,  if  not  personally  contemptous,  may 
not  be  charged  as  a  violation  of  this  article. 
Similarly,  expressions  of  opinion  made  in  a 
purely  private  conversation  are  not  ordinarily  a 
basis  for  a  court-martial  charge. 

It  is  immaterial  whether  contemptuous 
words  are  used  against  an  official  in  his  official 
or  private  capacity.  Truth  or  falsity  of  the 
statements  may  be  immaterial;  the  gist  of  the 

offense   is  the  contemptuous  character  of  the 
language  and  the  malice  with  which  it  is  used. 

ART.  89. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  behaves  with  disrespect  toward  his 
superior  commissioned  officer  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

A  "superior  commissioned  officer"  may  be 
superior  in  either  grade  or  command,  and  the 
term  includes  an  officer  of  another  service  if  he 
has  been  placed  in  the  chain  of  command. 

One  officer  may  be  inferior  in  grade  to 
another,  yet  be  the  superior  because  of  his 
command  position.  A  line  officer  commanding, 
for  example,  may  be  junior  in  grade  to  a  staff 
officer  in  the  organization;  because  he  is  the 
commanding  officer,  however,  the  line  officer  is 
the  "superior  commissioned  officer." 

Disrespectful  behavior  can  take  many  forms, 
the  most  obvious  perhaps  involving 
contemptuous  language.  Disrespectful  acts  may 
include  failure  to  salute,  disdain,  indifference, 
insolence,  or  undue  familiarity  or  other 

ART.  90. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
'll) strikes  his  superior  commis- 
sioned officer  or  draws  or  lifts  up 
any  weapon  or  offers  any  violence 
against  him  while  he  is  in  the  execution 
of  his  office;  or 

"(2)  willfully  disobeys  a  lawful 
command  of  his  superior  commissioned 

"shall  be  punished,  if  the  offense  is 
committed  in  time  of  war,  by  death  or 
such  other  punishment  as  a  court-martial 
may  direct,  and  if  the  offense  is 

committed  at  any  other  time,  by  such 
punishment,  other  than  death,  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

The  phrase  "his  superior  commissioned 
officer"  has  the  same  meaning  here  as  it  does  in 
article  89.  That  an  accused  did  not  know  that  a 
commissioned  officer  was  his  superior 
commissioned  officer  is  a  defense. 

An  officer  is  in  the  execution  of  his  office 
when  engaged  in  any  act  or  service  required  or 
authorized  to  be  done  by  him  by  statute, 
regulation,  the  order  of  a  superior,  or  military 
usage.  In  general,  any  striking  or  use  of  violence 
against  any  superior  by  a  person  subject  to 
military  law,  over  whom  it  is  the  duty  of  that 
superior  officer  to  maintain  discipline  at  the 
time,  would  be  striking  or  using  violence  against 
him  in  the  execution  of  his  office. 

A  discharged  prisoner  or  other  civilian 
subject  to  military  law  and  under  the  command 
of  an  officer  is  subject  to  the  provisions  of  this 

Willful  disobedience  covered  by  this  article  is 
such  as  shows  an  intentional  defiance  of 
authority.  Neglect  to  comply  with  an  order 
through  heedlessness,  carelessness,  or 
forgetfulness  is  punishable  under  article  92. 

A  person  cannot  be  convicted  under  this 
article  if  the  order  was  illegal;  but  an  order 
requiring  the  performance  of  a  military  duty  or 
act  is  presumed  to  be  lawful  and  is  disobeyed  at 
the  peril  of  the  subordinate.  Acts  involved  in  the 
disobedience  of  an  illegal  order  might  under 
some  circumstances  be  charged  as 
insubordination  under  article  134. 

ART.  91. 


"Any  warrant  officer  or  enlisted 
person  who- 

"(1)  strikes  or  assaults  a  warrant 
officer,  noncommissioned  officer,  or 
petty  officer,  while  that  officer  is  in  the 
execution  of  his  office; 

"(2)  willfully  disobeys  the  lawful 
order  of  a  warrant  officer, 



n  o  n  commissioned 
officer;  or 

officer,     or     petty 

"(3)  treats  with  contempt  or  is 
disrespectful  in  language  or  deportment 
toward  a  warrant  officer, 
noncommissioned  officer,  or  petty 
officer  while  that  officer  is  in  the 
execution  of  his  office;  shall  be  punished 
as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

This  article  has  the  same  general  objects  with 
respect  to  warrant  officers,  noncommissioned 
officers,  and  petty  officers  as  articles  89  and  90 
have  with  respect  to  commissioned  officers; 
namely,  to  insure  obedience  to  their  lawful 
orders,  and  to  protect  them  from  violence, 
insult,  or  disrespect. 

ART.  92. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 

"(1)  violates  or  fails  to  obey  any 
lawful  general  order  or  regulation; 

"(2)  having  knowledge  of  any 
other  lawful  order  issued  by  a  member 
of  the  armed  forces,  which  it  is  his 
duty  to  obey,  fails  to  obey  the  order; 

"(3)  is  derelict  in  the  performance 
of  his  duties; 

"shall   be   punished   as  a  court-martial 
may  direct." 

A  general  order  or  regulation  is  lawful  if  it  is 
not  contrary  to  or  forbidden  by  the 
Constitution,  the  provisions  of  an  act  of 
Congress,  or  the  lawful  order  of  a  superior.  A 
general  order  or  regulation  is  one  which  is  issued 
by  the  President  or  by  the  Secretary  of  Defense, 
the  Secretary  of  Transportation,  or  the  secretary 
of  a  military  department,  and  which  applies 
generally  to  an  armed  force;  or  one  which  is 
promulgated  by  an  officer  having  general 

court-martial  jurisdiction,  a  general  or  flag 
officer  in  command,  or  by  a  commander 
superior  to  one  of  these. 

Disobedience  of  "any  other  lawful  order" 
requires  that  the  person  must  have  had  a  duty  to 
obey  the  order  and  must  have  had  knowledge  of 
the  order.  An  accused  may  be  charged  with 
disobedience  of  the  lawful  order  of  one  not  a 
superior,  provided  the  accused  had  a  duty  to 
obey  such  order.  Examples  are  lawful  orders  of  a 
sentinel  or  of  members  of  the  Armed  Forces 

A  person  is  derelict  in  the  performance  of 
duties  when  he  willfully  or  negligently  fails  to 
perform  them,  or  when  he  performs  them  in  a 
culpably  inefficient  manner.  To  be  culpably 
inefficient  an  accused  must  have  had  the  ability 
and  opportunity  to  perform  his  duties 
efficiently,  but  performed  them  inefficiently 

ART.  93. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  is  guilty  of  cruelty  toward,  or 
oppression  or  maltreatment  of,  any 
person  subject  to  his  orders  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

The  cruelty,  oppression,  or  maltreatment 
must  be  real,  although  not  necessarily  physical. 
To  assault  and  to  subject  to  improper 
punishment  are  examples  of  this  offense.  The 
imposition  of  necessary  or  proper  duties  and  the 
exaction  of  their  performance  will  not 
constitute  this  offense  even  though  such  duties 
are  arduous  or  hazardous  or  both. 

ART.  94. 


"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who— 

"(1)  with  intent  to  usurp  or 
override  lawful  military  authority, 
refuses,  in  concert  with  any  other 
person,  to  obey  orders  or  otherwise 


do  his  duty  or  creates  any  violence 
or  disturbance  is  guilty  of  mutiny; 

"(2)  with  intent  to  cause  the 
overthrow  or  destruction  of  lawful 
civil  authority,  creates,  in  concert 
with  any  other  person,  revolt, 
violence,  or  other  disturbance  against 
that  authority  is  guilty  of  sedition; 

"(3)  fails  to  do  his  utmost  to 
prevent  and  suppress  mutiny  or 
sedition  being  committed  in  his 
presence,  or  fails  to  take  all 
reasonable  means  to  inform  his 
superior  commissioned  officer  or 
commanding  officer  of  a  mutiny  or 
sedition  which  he  knows  or  has 
reason  to  believe  is  taking  place,  is 
guilty  of  a  failure  to  suppress  or 
report  a  mutiny  or  sedition. 

"(b)  A  person  who  is  found  guilty 
of  attempted  mutiny,  mutiny,  sedition, 
or  failure  to  suppress  or  report  a  mutiny 
or  sedition,  shall  be  punished  by  death 
or  such  other  punishment  as  a  court- 
martial  may  direct." 

There  are  two  distinct  types  of  mutiny,  both 
requiring  an  intent  to  usurp  or  override  military 
authority.  One  consists  of  the  creation  of 
violence  or  disturbance  with  that  intent,  and 
may  be  committed  by  one  person  acting  alone 
or  by  more  than  one.  The  other,  consisting  of  a 
refusal  in  concert  with  any  other  person  to  obey 
orders  or  otherwise  do  one's  duty,  imports 
collective  insubordination,  and  necessarily 
includes  some  combination  of  two  or  more 
persons  in  resisting  lawful  military  authority. 

The  act  of  insubordination  need  not  be 
active  or  violent.  It  may  consist  simply  of  a 
consistent  and  concerted  refusal  or  omission  to 
obey  orders,  or  to  do  duty,  with  an  intent  to 
usurp  or  override  lawful  military  authority.  The 
intent  may  be  stated  in  words  or  inferred  from 
acts  or  surrounding  circumstances. 

Sedition  differs  from  mutiny  in  that  it 
implies  a  resistance  to  civil  power,  as 
distinguished  from  military  power. 

Persons  subject  to  the  code  must  take  such 
measures  to  prevent  or  suppress  acts  of  sedition 
or  mutiny  being  committed  in  their  presence  as 
may  properly  be  called  for  by  the  circumstances, 
having  in  mind  the  grade  and  responsibilities  or 
the  employment  of  the  individual  concerned. 
However,  the  use  of  more  force  than  is 
reasonably  necessary  is  an  offense. 

ART.  95. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  resists  apprehension  or  breaks  arrest 
or  who  escapes  from  custody  or 
confinement  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

Resisting  apprehension  consists  of  an  active 
resistance  to  a  legal  restraint  attempted  to  be 
imposed  by  the  person  apprehending.  Active 
resistance  may  be  accomplished  by  flight  or  by 
assaulting  the  apprehending  person.  Mere  words 
of  remonstrance,  argument,  or  abuse,  and 
attempts  to  escape  from  custody  after  the 
apprehension  is  complete,  will  not  constitute  the 
offense  of  resisting  apprehension  though  they 
may  constitute  other  offenses. 

The  distinction  between  arrest  and  custody 
or  confinement  lies  in  the  difference  between 
the  kinds  of  restraint  imposed.  Arrest  is  moral 
restraint  imposed  by  orders  fixing  the  limits  of 
arrest.  Custody  and  confinement  include  some 
physical  restraint. 

Breach  of  arrest  is  committed  when  the 
person  under  legal  arrest  exceeds  the  limits  set 
by  orders.  Escape  from  custody  or  confinement 
is  any  completed  casting  off  of  the  custody  or 
restraint  of  confinement,  before  being  set  at 
liberty  by  proper  authority. 

Offenses  against  correctional  custody 
imposed  as  nonjudicial  punishment  under  article 
15,  i.e.,  escape  from  correctional  custody  (when 
physical  restraint  is  cast  off)  and  breach  of 
correctional  custody  (when  a  nonphysical 
restraint  is  broken),  are  punishable  as  violations 
of  article  134. 



ART.  96. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  without  proper  authority,  releases 
any  prisoner  committed  to  his  charge,  or 
who  through  neglect  or  design  suffers 
any  such  prisoner  to  escape,  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct, 
whether  or  not  the  prisoner  was 
committed  in  strict  compliance  with 

ART.  97. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  except  as  provided  by  law, 
apprehends,  arrests,  or  confines  any 
person  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

Any  unlawful  restraint  of  another's  freedom 
will  result  in  a  violation  of  this  article,  whether 
or  not  such  action  is  taken  under  color  of 
authority.  The  offense  may  be  committed  by 
one  who,  being  duly  authorized  to  apprehend, 
arrest,  or  confine  others,  exercises  such 
authority  unlawfully,  or  by  one  not  so 
authorized  who  effects  the  restraint  of  another 
unlawfully.  The  apprehension,  arrest,  or 
confinement  must  be  against  the  will  of  the 
person  restrained. 

ART.  98. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 

"(1 )  is  responsible  for  unnecessary 
delay  in  the  disposition  of  any  case  of  a 
person  accused  of  an  offense  under  this 
code; or 

"(2)  knowingly  and  intentionally 
fails  to  enforce  or  comply  with  any 
provision  of  this  code  regulating  the 
proceedings  before,  during  or  after  trial 
of  an  accused; 

shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

ART.  99. 


"Any  member  of  the  armed  forces 
who  before  or  in  the  presence  of  the 

"(1)      runs  aw  ay; 

"(2)  shamefully  abandons, 
surrenders,  or  delivers  up  any  command, 
unit,  place,  or  military  property  which  it 
is  his  duty  to  defend; 

"(3)  through  disobedience, 
neglect,  or  intentional  misconduct 
endangers  the  safety  of  any  such 
command,  unit,  place,  or  military 

"(4)      casts 

away     his     arms    or 

"(5)  is  guilty  of  cowardly 

"(6)  quits  his  place  of  duty  to 
plunder  or  pillage; 

"(7)  causes  false  alarms  in  any 
command,  unit,  or  place  under  control 
of  the  armed  forces; 

"(8)  willfully  fails  to  do  his 
utmost  to  encounter,  engage,  capture,  or 
destroy  any  enemy  troops,  combatants, 
vessels,  aircraft,  or  any  other  thing, 
which  it  is  his  duty  so  to  encounter, 
engage,  capture,  or  destroy;  or 

"(9)  does  not  afford  all 
practicable  relief  and  assistance  to  any 
troops,  combatants,  vessels,  or  aircraft  of 
the  armed  forces  belonging  to  the  United 
States  or  their  allies  when  engaged  in 

shall  be  punished  by  death  or  such  other 
punishment  as  a  court-martial  may 


The  "enemy"  includes  any  hostile  body  that 
our  forces  may  be  opposing.  Whether  a  person  is 
"before  the  enemy"  is  not  a  question  of 
distance,  but  of  tactical  relation. 

Abandonment  by  a  subordinate  would 
ordinarily  be  charged  as  "running  away";  the 
running  away  must  be  to  avoid  actual  or 
impending  combat  but  need  not  be  the  result  of 
fear.  Abandoning,  surrendering,  or  delivering  up 
a  command  primarily  concerns  commanders. 

"Cowardly  conduct,"  as  used  in  section  5,  is 
an  act  of  cowardice  such  as  refusal  or 
abandonment  of  a  performance  of  duty  as  the 
result  of  fear  before  or  in  the  presence  of  the 

"All  practicable  relief  and  assistance,"  as 
used  in  section  9,  means  all  relief  and  assistance 
which  should  be  afforded  within  the  limitations 
imposed  upon  one  by  reason  of  his  own  specific 
task  or  mission.  No  offense  is  committed  by 
failing  to  afford  relief  when  one's  own  mission 
would  tolerate  no  delay  or  deviation. 

ART.   100. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  compels  or  attempts  to  compel  the 
commander  of  any  place,  vessel,  aircraft, 
or  other  military  property,  or  of  any 
body  of  members  of  the  armed  forces,  to 
give  it  up  to  an  enemy  or  to  abandon  it, 
or  who  strikes  the  colors  or  flag  to  an 
enemy  without  proper  authority,  shall 
be  punished  by  death  or  such  other 
punishment  as  a  court-martial  may 

The  offenses  here  contemplated  are  similar 
to  mutiny,  but  do  not  require  concert  of  action. 
The  compulsion  to  surrender  must  be  by  acts 
rather  than  by  words.  To  "strike  the  colors  or 
flag"  is  to  surrender.  The  offense  is  committed 
by  anyone  subject  to  the  Code  who  assumes  to 
himself  the  authority  to  surrender  a  military 
force  or  position  when  he  is  not  authorized  to 
do  so  either  by  competent  authority  or  by  the 
necessities  of  battle. 

ART.  101. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  in  time  of  war  discloses  the  parole 
or  countersign  to  any  person  not  entitled 
to  receive  it  or  who  gives  to  another  who 
is  entitled  to  receive  and  use  the  parole 
or  countersign  a  different  parole  or 
countersign  from  that  which,  to  his 
knowledge,  he  was  authorized  and 
required  to  give,  shall  be  punished  by 
death  or  such  other  punishment  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

A  countersign  is  a  word  given  from  the 
principal  headquarters  of  a  command  to  aid 
guards  and  sentinels  in  their  scrutiny  of  persons 
who  apply  to  pass  the  lines.  It  consists  of  a 
secret  challenge  and  a  password.  A  parole  is  a 
word  used  as  a  check  on  the  countersign;  it  is 
imparted  only  to  those  who  are  entitled  to 
inspect  guards  and  to  commanders  of  guards. 

It  is  no  defense  under  the  terms  of  this 
article  that  the  accused  did  not  know  that  the 
person  to  whom  he  communicated  the 
countersign  or  parole  was  not  entitled  to  receive 
it.  Before  imparting  such  a  word  a  person 
subject  to  military  law  must  determine  that  the 
person  to  whom  he  presumes  to  make  known 
the  word  is  a  person  authorized  to  receive  it. 

ART.   102. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  forces  a  safeguard  shall  suffer  death 
or  such  other  punishment  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

A  safeguard  is  a  detachment,  guard,  or  detail 
posted  by  a  commander  for  the  protection  of 
persons,  places,  or  property  of  the  enemy,  or  of 
a  neutral  affected  by  the  relationship  of 
belligerent  forces  in  their  prosecution  of  war  or 
during  circumstances  amounting  to  a  state  of 
belligerency.  The  term  also  includes  a  written 
order  left  by  a  commander  with  an  enemy 
subject  or  posted  upon  enemy  property  for  the 
protection  of  the  individual  or  property 


concerned.  The  effect  of  a  safeguard  is  to  pledge 
the  honor  of  the  Nation  that  the  person  or 
property  shall  be  respected  by  the  national 
armed  force. 

Provided  that  the  accused  was  or  should 
have  been  aware  of  the  existence  of  the 
safeguard,  any  trespass  on  the  protection  of  the 
safeguard  will  constitute  an  offense  under  the 
article,  whether  the  safeguard  was  imposed  in 
time  of  war  or  in  circumstances  amounting  to  a 
state  of  belligerency  short  of  a  formal  state  of 

ART.  103. 

"(a)  All  persons  subject  to  this 
code  shall  secure  all  public  property 
taken  from  the  enemy  for  the  service  of 
the  United  States,  and  shall  give  notice 
and  turn  over  to  the  proper  authority 
without  delay  all  captured  or  abandoned 
property  in  their  possession,  custody,  or 

"(b)      Any   person   subject  to  this 
code  who- 
'll) fails    to    carry    out    the 
duties  prescribed  in  subsection(a); 

"(2)  buys,  sells,  trades,  or  in 
any  way  deals  in  or  disposes  of 
captured  or  abandoned  property, 
whereby  he  receives  or  expects  any 
profit,  benefit,  or  advantage  to 
himself  or  another  directly  or 
indirectly  connected  with  himself;  or 

"(3)  engages  in  looting  or 

shall  be  punished  as  a  court  martial  may 

Immediately  upon  its  capture  from  the 
enemy,  public  property  becomes  the  property  of 
the  United  States.  Every  person  subject  to 
military  law  has  an  immediate  duty  to  take  such 
steps  as  are  within  his  powers  and  functions  to 
secure  such  property  to  the  service  of  the  United 
States  and  to  protect  it  from  destruction  or  loss. 

Reports  of  receipt  of  captured  or  abandoned 
property,  private  as  well  as  public,  are  to  be 
made  through  such  channels  as  are  required  by 
current  regulations  or  orders  or  the  customs  of 
the  service. 

Disposal  as  well  as  receipt  of  captured  or 
abandoned  property  for  personal  profit,  benefit, 
or  advantage  is  prohibited,  as  is  destruction  or 
abandonment  of  such  property. 

"Looting  or  pillaging"  means  unlawfully 
seizing  or  appropriating  property  located  in 
enemy  or  occupied  territory,  which  has  been  left 
behind,  or  was  owned  by,  or  in  the  custody  of, 
the  enemy  or  occupied  state  or  a  person  who  is 
or  was  under  the  protection  of  the  enemy  or 
occupied  state.  The  unauthorized  removal  or 
appropriation  of  any  part  of  the  equipment  of  a 
seized  or  captured  vessel,  or  the  unlawful  seizure 
or  appropriation  of  property  owned  by  or  in  the 
custody  of  the  officers,  crew,  or  passengers  on 
board  a  seized  or  captured  vessel,  constitutes  the 
offense  of  looting  and  pillaging  wherever  the 
vessel  may  be  located. 

ART.   104. 


"Any  person  who- 
'll)      aids,  or  attempts  to  aid,  the 

enemy  with  arms,  ammunition,  supplies, 

money,  or  other  things;  or 

"(2)  without  proper  authority, 
knowingly  harbors  or  protects  or  gives 
intelligence  to,  or  communicates  or 
corresponds  with  or  holds  any 
intercourse  with  the  enemy,  either 
directly  or  indirectly; 

shall  suffer  death  or  such  other 
punishment  as  a  court-martial  or  military 
commission  may  direct." 

Article  104  applies  to  all  persons,  whether  or 
not  they  are  otherwise  subject  to  military  law. 
"Enemy"  denotes  citizens  as  well  as  members  of 
military  organizations,  for  all  the  citizens  of  one 
belligerent  are  enemies  of  the  government  and  of 
all  the  citizens  of  the  other. 

An  enemy  is  harbored  or  protected  when, 
without  proper  authority,  he  is  shielded,  either 
physically  or  by  use  of  any  artifice,  aid,  or 



representation,  from  any  injury  or  misfortune 
which  in  the  chance  of  war  may  befall  him.  It 
must  appear  that  the  offense  is  knowingly 

Giving  intelligence  to  the  enemy  is  a 
particular  case  of  corresponding  with  the  enemy, 
rendered  more  heinous  by  the  fact  that  the 
communication  contains  intelligence  that  may 
be  useful  to  the  enemy.  The  word  "intelligence" 
connotes  that  the  information  conveyed  is  true 
or  implies  the  truth,  at  least  in  part. 

Aiiy  unauthorized  communication  with  the 
enemy,  no  matter  what  may  be  its  tenor  or 
intent,  is  denounced  by  this  article.  The  offense 
is  complete  the  moment  the  communication 
issues  from  the  accused,  whether  it  reaches  its 
destination  or  not.  It  is  essential  to  prove  that 
the  offense  was  knowingly  committed. 

ART.  105. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  while  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy  in 
time  of  war— 

"(1)  for  the  purpose  of  securing 
favorable  treatment  by  his  captors  acts 
without  proper  authority  in  a  manner 
contrary  to  law,  custom,  or  regulation, 
to  the  detriment  of  others  of  whatever 
nationality  held  by  the  enemy  as  civilian 
or  military  prisoners;  or 

"(2)  while  in  a  position  of 
authority  over  such  persons  maltreats 
them  without  justifiable  cause; 

shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

The  offense  under  article  105  (1)  covers 
unauthorized  conduct  by  a  prisoner  of  war  in 
the  hands  of  the  enemy  which  tends  to 
ameliorate  his  condition  to  the  detriment  of 
other  prisoners.  Such  acts  may  be  the  reporting 
of  plans  to  escape  or  the  reporting  of  secret 
caches  of  food,  equipment,  or  arms.  The  acts 
must  be  related  to  the  captors  and  tend  to  have 
the  probable  effect  of  bestowing  upon  the 
accused  some  favor  with,  or  advantage  from,  the 
captors.  The  act  of  the  accused  must  be  contrary 

to  law,  custom,  or  regulation.  For  example,  the 
escape  of  a  prisoner  might  result  in  closer 
confinement  or  other  measures  against  fellow 
prisoners  still  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  Such 
escape,  however,  is  not  an  offense  under  this 
article,  as  escape  from  the  enemy  is  regarded  as 
authorized  by  custom. 

To  constitute  an  offense  under  article  105 
(2),  maltreatment  of  fellow  prisoners  under 
one's  authority  must  be  real,  although  not 
necessarily  physical,  and  it  must  be  without 
justifiable  cause.  Abuse  of  an  inferior  by 
inflammatory  and  derogatory  words  may, 
through  mental  anguish,  constitute  this  offense. 
To  assault,  to  strike,  to  subject  to  improper 
punishment,  or  to  deprive  of  benefits  would 
constitute  maltreatment  if  done  without 
justifiable  cause. 

ART.   106. 

"Any  person  who  in  time  of  war  is 
found  lurking  as  a  spy  or  acting  as  a  spy 
in  or  about  any  place,  vessel,  or  aircraft, 
within  the  control  or  jurisdiction  of  any 
of  the  armed  forces,  or  in  or  about  any 
shipyard,  any  manufacturing  or 
industrial  plant,  or  any  other  place  or 
institution  engaged  in  work  in  aid  of  the 
prosecution  of  the  war  by  the  United 
States,  or  elsewhere,  shall  be  tried  by  a 
general  court-martial  or  by  a  military 
commission  and  on  conviction  shall  be 
punished  by  death." 

The  words  "any  person"  bring  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  courts-martial  and  military 
commissions  all  persons  of  whatever  nationality 
or  status  who  commit  the  offense  of  spying. 

The  principal  characteristic  of  this  offense 
is  a  clandestine  dissimulation  of  the  true 
object  sought,  which  object  is  an  endeavor  to 
obtain  information  with  the  intention  of 
communicating  it  to  the  hostile  party.  Thus, 
members  of  a  military  organization  not  wearing 
disguise,  dispatch  drivers,  whether  members  of  a 
military  organization  or  civilians,  and  persons  in 
ships  and  aircraft,  who  carry  out  their  missions 
openly  and  who  have  penetrated  hostile  lines  are 
not  to  be  considered  spies,  for  while  they  may 



have  resorted   to   concealment  they  have  not 
practiced  dissimulation. 

To  be  guilty  of  this  offense,  it  is  not 
essential  that  the  accused  obtain  the  information 
sought  or  that  he  communicate  it  to  the  enemy. 

ART.  107. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  with  intent  to  deceive,  signs  any 
false  record,  return,  regulation,  order,  or 
other  official  document,  knowing  it  to 
be  false,  or  makes  any  other  false  official 
statement  knowing  it  to  be  false,  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

The  false  representation  must  be  made 
officially  with  the  intent  to  deceive,  and  it  must 
be  one  which  the  accused  does  not  believe  to  be 
true.  The  expectation  of  material  gain  is  not  an 
essential  element  of  the  offense. 

A  statement  made  by  a  suspected  or  accused 
person,  under  interrogation,  is  not  official 
within  the  meaning  of  article  107  unless  the 
person  has  an  independent  official  obligation  to 
speak  in  the  matter  under  investigation  and  he 
elects  to  speak  rather  than  remain  silent  as  he 
has  a  right  to  do  under  article  31. 

ART.   108. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  without  proper  authority— 

"(1)      sells  or  otherwise  disposes  of; 

"(2)  willfully  or  through  neglect 
damages,  destroys,  or  loses;  or 

"(3)  willfully  or  through  neglect 
suffers  to  be  lost,  damaged,  destroyed, 
sold,  or  wrongfully  disposed  of; 

"any  military  property  of  the  United 
States,  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

Whether  the  property  involved  was  issued  at 
all  or  whether  it  was  issued  to  someone  other 
than  the  accused  is  immaterial.  However,  as  far 
as  the  offenses  of  willfully  or  through  neglect 
damaging,  destroying,  or  losing  military 
property  are  concerned,  if  it  is  shown  that  the 
property  was  issued  to  the  accused,  it  may  be 
presumed  that  the  damage,  destruction,  or  loss 
shown,  unless  satisfactorily  explained,  was  due 
to  the  neglect  of  the  accused;  this  rule  applies 
only  to  items  of  individual  issue. 

A  willful  damage,  destruction,  or  loss  is  one 
that  is  intentionally  occasioned.  Loss, 
destruction,  or  damage  is  occasioned  through 
neglect  due  to  lack  of  proper  attention  to  the 
natural  or  foreseeable  consequences  of  an  act 
or  due  to  omission  of  appropriate  action. 

The  loss,  damage,  destruction,  sale,  or 
disposition  may  be  said  to  be  willfully  suffered 
by  one  who,  knowing  the  act  to  be  imminent  or 
actually  occurring,  takes  no  steps  to  prevent  it; 
for  example,  a  member  of  the  boat  crew  who, 
seeing  a  small  boat  tied  alongside,  allows  the 
boat  to  be  damaged  or  lost  by  chafing  or 

ART.   109. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  willfully  or  recklessly  wastes,  spoils, 
or  otherwise  willfully  and  wrongfully 
destroys  or  damages  any  property  other 
than  military  property  of  the  United 
States  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

"'Wastes"  and  "spoils"  refer  to  wrongful  acts 
of  voluntary  destruction,  such  as  burning  down 
buildings,  burning  piers,  tearing  down  fences,  or 
cutting  down  trees.  To  be  destroyed,  property 
need  be  only  sufficiently  injured  to  be  useless  for 
the  purpose  for  which  it  was  intended. 
"Damage"  consists  of  any  physical  injury  to  the 
property.  The  property  must  be  other  than 
military  property  of  the  United  States  and  must 
belong  to  one  other  than  the  accused. 


ART.  110. 



"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  willfully  and  wrongfully 
hazards  or  suffers  to  be  hazarded  any 
vessel  of  the  armed  forces  shall  suffer 
death  or  such  other  punishment  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct. 

"(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  negligently  hazards  or  suffers 
to  be  hazarded  any  vessel  of  the  armed 
forces  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

The  words  "to  suffer"  mean  to  allow  or 
permit,  and  a  ship  is  willfully  suffered  to  be 
hazarded  by  one  who,  although  not  in  direct 
control  of  the  vessel,  knows  a  danger  to  be 
imminent  but  takes  no  steps  to  prevent  it;  for 
example,  a  plotting  officer  of  a  ship  underway 
who  fails  to  report  to  the  officer  of  the  deck  a 
radar  target  that  he  observes  to  be  on  a  collision 
course  with,  and  dangerously  close  to,  his  own 

Stranded  means  run  aground  so  that  the 
vessel  is  fast  for  a  time.  If  a  vessel  "touches  and 
goes,"  she  is  not  stranded;  if  she  "touches  and 
sticks,"  she  is. 

No  person  is  relieved  of  culpability  who  fails 
to  perform  duties  such  as  are  imposed  upon  him 
by  the  general  responsibilities  of  his  grade,  or  by 
the  customs  of  the  service,  for  the  safety  and 
protection  of  vessels  of  the  Armed  Forces, 
simply  because  such  duties  are  not  specifically 
enumerated  in  a  regulation  or  an  order. 
However,  a  mere  error  in  judgment  such  as  a 
reasonably  able  person  might  have  committed 
under  the  same  circumstances,  will  not 
constitute  an  offense  under  this  article. 

ART.  111. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  operates  any  vehicle  while  drunk,  or 
in  a  reckless  or  wanton  manner,  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

Operating  a  vehicle  includes  not  only  driving 
or  guiding  it  while  in  motion,  either  in  person  or 
through  the  agency  of  another,  but  also  the 
setting  of  its  motive  power  in  action  or  the 
manipulation  of  its  controls  so  as  to  cause  the 
vehicle  to  move.  The  term  "vehicle"  applies  to 
all  types  of  land  transportation  whether  or  not 
motor  driven  or  passenger-carrying.  Drunken  or 
reckless  operation  of  water  or  air  transportation 
may  be  charged  as  a  violation  of  article  1 34.  For 
the  meaning  of  drunk,  see  the  remarks  following 
article  112. 

Recklessness  depends  upon  the  ultimate 
question:  whether,  under  all  the  circumstances, 
the  accused's  manner  of  operation  of  the  vehicle 
was  of  that  heedless  nature  which  made  it 
actually  or  imminently  dangerous  to  the 
occupants  or  to  the  rights  or  safety  of  others. 

While  the  same  course  of  conduct  may 
constitute  both  drunken  and  reckless  driving, 
the  article  proscribes  these  as  separate  offenses, 
and  under  certain  circumstances,  both  offenses 
may  be  charged. 

ART.  112. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code, 
other  than  a  sentinel  or  lookout,  who  is 
found  drunk  on  duty,  shall  be  punished 
as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

The  term  "duty"  as  used  in  this  article 
means  military  duty,  but  it  is  important  to  note 
that  every  duty  that  an  officer  or  enlisted  person 
may  legally  be  required  by  superior  authority  to 
execute  is  necessarily  a  military  duty. 

Whether  the  drunkenness  was  caused  by 
liquor  or  drugs  is  immaterial;  and  any 
intoxication  that  is  sufficient  to  impair  the 
rational  and  full  exercise  of  the  mental  and 
physical  facilities  is  drunkenness  within  the 
meaning  of  the. article. 

It  is  necessary  that  the  accused  be  found 
drunk  while  actually  on  the  duty  alleged,  and 
the  fact  that  he  became  drunk  before  going  on 
duty  does  not  affect  the  question  of  his  guilt. 
The  drunkenness  must  coincide  with  the  duty  in 
point  of  time.  If,  however,  he  does  not 
undertake  the  responsibility  or  enter  upon  the 



duty  at  all,  his  conduct  does  not  fall  within  the 
terms  of  this  article,  nor  does  that  of  a  person 
who  absents  himself  from  his  duty  and  is  found 
drunk  while  so  absent.  Included  within  this 
article,  however,  is  drunkenness  while  on  duty 
of  an  anticipatory  nature,  such  as  that  of  an 
aircraft  crew  ordered  to  stand  by  for  flight  duty, 
or  for  an  enlisted  person  ordered  to  stand  by  for 
guard  duty. 

Within  the  meaning  of  this  article,  when  in 
actual  exercise  of  command,  the  commanding 
officer  of  a  post,  a  command,  a  detachment  in 
the  field,  or  a  ship  is  constantly  on  duty. 

In  the  case  of  enlisted  persons,  the  term  "on 
duty"  relates  to  duties  of  routine  or  detail,  in 
garrison,  at  a  station,  or  in  the  field,  and  does 
not  relate  to  those  periods  when,  no  duty  being 
required  of  them  by  orders  or  regulations,  men 
occupy  the  status  of  leisure  known  as  "off 
duty"  or  "liberty." 

In  a  region  of  active  hostilities  the 
circumstances  are  often  such  that  all  members  of 
a  command  may  properly  be  considered  as  being 
continuously  on  duty  within  the  meaning  of  this 

ART.  113. 

"Any  sentinel  or  lookout  who  is 
found  drunk  or  sleeping  upon  his  post, 
or  leaves  it  before  he  is  regularly 
relieved,  shall  be  punished,  if  the  offense 
is  committed  in  time  of  war,  by  death  or 
such  other  punishment  as  a  court-martial 
may  direct,  but  if  the  offense  is 
committed  at  any  other  time,  by  such 
punishment  other  than  death  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

A  post  is  not  limited  by  an  imaginary  line, 
but  includes,  according  to  orders  or 
circumstances,  such  surrounding  area  as  may  be 
necessary  for  the  proper  performance  of  the 
duties  for  which  the  sentinel  or  lookout  was 
posted.  A  sentinel  or  lookout  is  on  post  within 
the  meaning  of  this  article  not  only  when  he  is 
at  a  post  physically  defined,  as  is  ordinarily  the 
case  in  garrison  or  aboard  ship,  but  also,  for 

example,  when  he  may  be  stationed  in 
observation  against  the  approach  of  an  enemy, 
or  detailed  to  use  any  equipment  designed  to 
locate  friend,  foe,  or  possible  danger,  or  at  a 
designated  place  to  maintain  internal  discipline, 
or  to  guard  stores,  or  to  guard  prisoners  while  in 
confinement  or  at  work. 

This  article  does  not  include  an  officer  or 
enlisted  person  of  the  guard,  or  of  a  ship's 
watch,  not  posted  or  performing  the  duties  of  a 
sentinel  or  lookout,  nor  does  it  include  a  person 
whose  duties  as  a  watchman  or  attendant  do  not 
require  that  he  be  constantly  alert.  Misbehavior 
by  such  persons  would  constitute  violation  of 
articles  92(3)  or  134. 

ART.  114. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  fights  or  promotes,  or  is  concerned 
in  or  connives  at  fighting  a  duel,  or  who, 
having  knowledge  of  a  challenge  sent  or 
about  to  be  sent,  fails  to  report  the  fact 
promptly  to  the  proper  authority,  shall 
be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

A  duel  is  a  prearranged  deadly  combat 
between  two  persons  for  private  reasons.  Urging 
or  taunting  another  to  challenge  to  duel,  acting 
as  a  second  or  as  carrier  of  a  challenge  or 
acceptance,  or  otherwise  furthering  or 
contributing  toward  the  fighting  of  a  duel  are 
examples  of  promoting  a  duel.  Knowledge  of 
preparations  for  a  duel  creates  an  obligation  to 
notify  appropriate  authorities  and  to  take  other 
reasonable  preventive  action,  and  failure  to  do 
so  constitutes  an  offense  against  this  article. 

ART.   115. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  for  the  purpose  of  avoiding  work, 
duty,  or  service— 

"(1)  feigns  illness,  physical  dis- 
ablement, mental  lapse  or  derangement; 



"(2)  intentionally  inflicts  self- 

shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

ART.   116. 



"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  causes  or  participates  in  any  riot  or 
breach  of  the  peace  shall  be  punished  as 
a  court-martial  may  direct." 

"Riot"  denotes  a  breach  of  the  peace 
causing  public  terror  committed  by  three  or 
more  persons,  with  a  common  purpose  to 
execute  action  against  any  who  may  oppose 
them.  Without  such  a  common  purpose  to  be 
effected  by  concerted  action,  the  acts  of  an 
assembly  of  three  or  more  persons,  even  though 
all  commit  breaches  of  the  peace  in  the  same 
manner,  do  not  constitute  a  riot.  For  example, 
in  the  case  of  a  group  of  people  discharging 
cannon  crackers  in  violation  of  law,  it  was  held 
that  each  person  was  intent  on  discharging  his 
own  cannon  crackers  and  that  there  was  no 
intent  among  the  persons  so  assembled  mutually 
to  assist  each  other. 

A  "breach  of  the  peace"  is  an  unlawful 
disturbance  of  the  peace  by  an  outward 
demonstration  of  a  violent  and  turbulent  nature. 

Engaging  in  an  affray,  unlawful  discharge  of 
firearms  in  a  public  street,  and  the  use  of  vile  or 
abusive  words  to  another  in  a  public  place  are  a 
few  instances  of  the  type  of  conduct  which  may 
constitute  a  breach  of  the  peace. 

ART.  117. 


"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  uses  provoking  or  reproachful 
words  or  gestures  towards  any  other 
person  subject  to  this  code  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

"Provoking"  and  "reproachful"  describe 
those  words  or  gestures  that  are  used  in  the 

presence  of  the  person  to  whom  they  are 
directed  and  that  tend  to  induce  breaches  of  the 
peace.  They  do  not  include  reprimands, 
censures,  reproofs,  and  the  like,  which  may 
properly  be  administered  in  the  interests  of 
training,  efficiency,  or  discipline  in  the  Armed 

ART.  118. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  without  justification  or  excuse, 
unlawfully  kills  a  human  being,  when 

"(1)  has  a  premeditated  design 
to  kill; 

"(2)  intends  to  kill  or  inflict  great 
bodily  harm; 

"(3)  is  engaged  in  an  act  which  is 
inherently  dangerous  to  others  and 
evinces  a  wanton  disregard  of  human 
life;  or 

"(4)  is  engaged  in  the  perpetration 
or  attempted  perpetration  of  burglary, 
sodomy,  rape,  robbery,  or  aggravated 

is  guilty  of  murder,  and  shall  suffer  such 
punishment  as  a  court-martial  may 
direct,  except  that  if  found  guilty  under 
clause  (1)  or  (4),  he  shall  suffer  death  or 
imprisonment  for  life  as  a  court-martial 
may  direct." 

Whether  an  unlawful  killing  constitutes 
murder  or  a  lesser  offense  depends  upon  the 
circumstances  under  which  it  occurred. 

A  homicide  committed  in  the  proper 
performance  of  a  legal  duty  is  justifiable.  Thus, 
killing  in  suppression  of  a  mutiny  or  riot,  and 
killing  to  prevent  the  commission  of  an  offense 
attempted  by  force  or  surprise,  such  as  burglary, 
are  cases  of  justifiable  homicide. 

The  general  rule  is  that  the  acts  of  a 
subordinate,  done  in  good  faith  in  compliance 
with  his  supposed  duty  or  orders,  are  justifiable. 
This  justification  does  not  exist,  however,  when 
those  acts  are  manifestly  beyond  the  scope  of 



s  authority;  or  when  an  order  is  such  that  a 
an  of  ordinary  sense  and  understanding  would 
low  it  to  be  illegal;  or  when  the  subordinate 
illfully  or  through  negligence  performs  acts 
idangering  the  lives  of  innocent  parties  in  the 
scharge  of  his  duty  to  prevent  escape  or  effect 
i  arrest. 

A  homicide  that  is  the  result  of  an  accident 
•  misadventure  in  doing  a  lawful  act,  or  an  act 
iat  is  done  in  self-defense,  is  excusable.  To 
:cuse  a  person  for  killing  on  the  ground  of 
s  If -defense,  he  must  have  believed  on 
asonable  grounds  that  killing  was  necessary  to 
ve  his  life  or  the  lives  of  those  he  sought  to 
•otect.  One  matter  relating  to  such  necessity  is 
tiether  the  accused  could  have  retreated  with 
fety,  but  there  is  no  categorical  requirement  to 
>  so.  One  is  not  required  to  retreat  if  he 
;lieves  that  there  is  no  way  he  can  retreat 
insistent  with  his  own  safety,  or  if  he  is  in  his 
vn  home  or  other  place  where  he  has  a  right  to 
main.  To  avail  himself  of  the  right  of 
If-defense,  the  person  doing  the  killing  must 
>t  have  been  the  aggressor  or  intentionally 
•evoked  the  dispute. 

Premeditated  murder  is  murder  committed 
ter  the  formation  of  a  specific  intent  to  kill 
meone  and  full  consideration  of  the  intended 

An  unlawful  killing  without  premeditation  is 
urder  when  the  accused  intended  to  kill  or 
flict  great  bodily  harm.  The  intent  need  not  be 
rected  toward  the  person  killed,  nor  must 'it 
ist  for  any  particular  time  before  commission 
'  the  act  or  have  previously  existed  at  all.  It  is 
fficient  that  it  existed  at  the  time  of  the  act  or 
nission  (but  see  article  1 1 9).  Great  bodily 
.rm  refers  to  serious  injuries;  it  does  not 
elude  minor  injuries  such  as  a  black  eye  or  a 
oody  nose. 

Engaging  in  an  act  inherently  dangerous  to 

hers,  without  any  intent  to  cause  the  death  of, 

great  bodily  harm  to,  any  particular  person, 

even  with  a  wish  that  death  may  not  be 

.used,     may     constitute     murder     if     the 

rformance    of    the    act    shows    a    wanton 

sregard  of  human  life.  Examples  of  this  sort  of 

nduct   are:    throwing   a  live  grenade  in  "jest 

toward  others  or  flying  an  aircraft  very  low  over 
a  crowd  to  make  it  scatter. 

A  homicide  committed  during  the 
perpetration  or  attempted  perpetration  of  the 
offenses  specified  in  subparagraph  (4) 
constitutes  murder  even  though  the  slaying  may 
be  unintentional  or  accidental. 

ART.   119. 

"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who,  with  an  intent  to  kill  or  inflict 
great  bodily  harm,  unlawfully  kills  a 
human  being  in  the  heat  of  sudden 
passion  caused  by  adequate  provocation 
is  guilty  of  voluntary  manslaughter  and 
shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

"(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who,  without  an  intent  to  kill  or 
inflict  great  bodily  harm,  unlawfully  kills 
a  human  being— 

'(1)  by    culpable    negligence; 


"(2)  while  perpetrating  or 
attempting  to  perpetrate  an  offense, 
other  than  those  named  in  clause  (4) 
of  article  118,  directly  affecting  the 

is  guilty  of  involuntary  manslaughter  and 
shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

The  provocation  here  referred  to  must  be 
adequate  to  excite  uncontrollable  passion  in  the 
mind  of  a  reasonable  man,  and  the  killing  must 
be  committed  because  of  the  passion.  If,  judged 
by  the  standard  of  a  reasonable  man,  sufficient 
cooling  time  elapses  between  the  provocation 
and  the  killing,  it  is  murder,  even  if  the 
passion  of  the  particular  accused  persists.  The 
provocation  must  not  be  sought  or  induced 
as  an  excuse  for  killing.  Instances  of  adequate 
provocation  to  constitute  voluntary  man- 
slaughter are  assault  and  battery  inflicting 
great  or  grievous  bodily  harm,  or  an  unlawful 



Culpable  negligence,  as  used  in  1 1 9(b),  is  a 
negligent  act  or  omission  accompanied  by  a 
culpable  disregard  for  its  foreseeable 
consequences  to  others.  Instances  are: 
negligently  conducting  target  practice  so  that 
bullets  go  in  the  direction  of  an  inhabited  house 
within  range,  or  carelessly  leaving  poisons  or 
dangerous  drugs  where  they  may  endanger  life. 

By  an  offense  "directly  affecting  the 
person"  is  meant  one  affecting  some  particular 
person  as  distinguished  from  one  affecting 
society  in  general.  Among  offenses  directly 
affecting  the  person  are  the  various  types  of 
assault,  battery,  false  imprisonment,  voluntary 
engagement  in  an  affray,  the  use  of  more  force 
than  is  reasonably  necessary  in  the  suppression 
of  a  mutiny  or  riot,  and  maiming. 

ART.  120. 



"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  commits  an  act  of  sexual 
intercourse  with  a  female  not  his  wife,  by 
force  and  without  her  consent,  is  guilty 
of  rape  and  shall  be  punished  by  death 
or  such  other  punishment  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct. 

"(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who,  under  circumstances  not 
amounting  to  rape,  commits  an  act  of 
sexual  intercourse  with  a  female  not  his 
wife  who  has  not  attained  the  age  of 
sixteen  years,  is  guilty  of  carnal 
knowledge  and  shall  by  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct. 

"(c)  Penetration,  however  slight, 
is  sufficient  to  complete  these  offenses." 

The  victim  of  rape  may  be  of  any  age.  Force 
and  lack  of  consent  are  indispensable  to  the 
offense.  Mere  verbal  protestations  and  a  pretense 
of  resistance  are  not  sufficient  to  show  lack  of 
consent,  and  if  a  woman  fails  to  take  such 
measures  to  frustrate  the  execution  of  a  man's 
design  as  she  is  able  to  make  and  as  are  called  for 
by  the  circumstances,  the  inference  may  be 
drawn  that  she  did  in  fact  consent.  All  the 
surrounding  circumstances  are  to  be  considered 

in  determining  whether  a  woman  gave  her 

If  there  is  actual  consent,  although  obtained 
by  fraud,  the  act  is  not  rape;  but  if,  to  the 
accused's  knowledge,  the  woman  is  of  unsound 
mind  or  unconscious  to  an  extent  rendering  her 
incapable  of  giving  consent,  the  act  is  rape. 
Likewise,  the  acquiescence  of  a  female  of  such 
tender  years  that  she  is  incapable  of 
understanding  the  nature  of  the  act  is  not 

It  is  no  defense  to  a  charge  of  carnal 
knowledge  that  the  accused  is  ignorant  or 
misinformed  as  to  the  true  age  of  the  female,  or 
that  she  was  of  prior  unchaste  character;  it  is  the 
fact  of  the  girl's  age  and  not  his  knowledge  or 
belief  which  fixes  his  criminal  responsibility.  An 
accused  does  not  violate  this  article  by 
committing  an  act  of  sexual  intercourse  (with 
consent)  with  a  female  of  16  years  or  over. 
However,  if  the  statute  of  a  jurisdiction 
denounces  sexual  intercourse  with  a  female 
under  a  certain  age  greater  than  16  years,  the 
violation  of  such  a  statute  within  the  territorial 
limits  of  the  jurisdiction  may  constitute  conduct 
bringing  discredit  upon  the  Armed  Forces  in 
violation  of  article  134. 

ART.   121. 



"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  wrongfully  takes,  obtains  or 
withholds  by  any  means,  from  the 
possession  of  the  owner  or  of  any  other 
person  any  money,  personal  property,  or 
article  of  value  of  any  kind— 

"(1)  with  intent  permanently 
to  deprive  or  defraud  another  person 
of  the  use  and  benefit  of  property  or 
to  appropriate  it  to  his  own  use  or 
the  use  of  any  person  other  than  the 
owner,  steals  that  property  and  is 
guilty  of  larceny;  or 

"(2)  with  intent  temporarily 
to  deprive  or  defraud  another  person 
of  the  use  and  benefit  of  property  or 
to  appropriate  it  to  his  own  use  or 
the  use  of  any  person  other  than  the 


owner,     is     guilty     of     wrongful 

"(b)  Any  person  found  guilty  of 
larceny  or  wrongful  appropriation  shall 
be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

"Any  other  person"  means  any  person  (even 
i  person  who  himself  had  stolen  the  property) 
vho  is  an  owner  of  the  property  by  virtue  of  his 
)ossession  or  right  to  possession  thereof.  As  a 
;eneral  rule,  a  taking  or  withholding  is  wrongful 
f  done  without  the  consent  of  the  other,  and  an 
)btaining  of  property  from  the  possession  of 
mother  is  wrongful  if  the  obtaining  is  by  false 

The  existence  of  an  intent  to  steal  must,  in 
nost  cases,  be  inferred  from  the  circumstances, 
fhus,  if  a  person  secretly  takes  property,  hides 
t,  and  denies  that  he  knows  anything  about  it, 
in  intent  to  steal  may  well  be  inferred;  but  if  he 
akes  it  openly  and  returns  it,  this  would  tend 
o  negate  such  an  intent. 

Although  ordinarily  the  taking,  obtaining,  or 
vithholding  need  not  be  for  the  benefit  of  the 
hief  himself,  a  person  who  divests  another  of 
>roperty  intending  only  to  restore  it  to  the 
)ossession  of  the  true  owner,  as  when  he  takes 
tolen  property  from  a  thief  with  that  intent, 
loes  not  commit  larceny  or  wrongful 

A  taking  or  withholding  of  lost  property  by 
he  finder  is  larceny  if  accompanied  by  an  intent 
o  steal  and  if  a  clue  to  the  identity  of  the 
>wner,  or  through  which  such  identity  may  be 
raced,  is  furnished  by  the  character,  location,  or 
narking  of  the  property,  or  by  other 

The  distinction  between  larceny  and 
vrongful  appropriation  lies  in  the  words 
'permanently,"  used  in  defining  larceny,  and 
'temporarily,"  used  in  defining  wrongful 

Instances  of  wrongful  appropriation  are: 
aking  the  automobile  of  another  without 
)ermission,  with  intent  to  drive  it  a  short 
listance  and  then  return  it  or  cause  it  to  be 
eturned  to  the  owner;  obtaining  a  service 
veapon  by  falsely  pretending  to  be  about  to  go 
>n  guard  duty,  the  weapon  being  thus  obtained 

with  intent  to  use  it  on  a  hunting  trip  and 
thereafter  effect  its  return. 

ART.  122. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  with  intent  to  steal,  takes  anything 
of  value  from  the  person  or  in  the 
presence  of  another,  against  his  will,  by 
means  of  force  or  violence  or  fear  of 
immediate  or  future  injury  to  his  person 
or  property  or  the  person  or  property  of 
a  relative  or  member  of  his  family  or  of 
anyone  in  his  company  at  the  time  of  the 
robbery,  is  guilty  of  robbery  and  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

When  a  robbery  is  committed  by  force  or 
violence,  there  must  be  actual  force  or  violence 
to  the  person,  preceding  or  accompanying  the 
taking  against  his  will,  and  it  is  immaterial  that 
there  is  no  fear  engendered  in  the  victim. 

When  a  robbery  is  committed  by  putting  the 
victim  in  fear,  there  need  be  no  actual  force  or 
violence,  but  there  must  be  demonstrations  of 
force  or  menaces  by  which  the  victim  is  placed 
in  such  fear  that  he  is  warranted  in  making  no 

ART.   123. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  with  intent  to  defraud— 

"(1)  falsely  makes  or  alters  any 
signature  to,  or  any  part  of,  any  writing 
which  would,  if  genuine,  apparently 
impose  a  legal  liability  on  another  or 
change  his  legal  right  or  liability  to  his 
prejudice ;  or 

"(2)  utters,  offers,  issues,  or 
transfers  such  a  writing,  known  by  him 
to  be  so  made  or  altered; 

is  guilty  of  forgery  and  shall  be  punished 
as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

There  are  certain  aspects  common  to  both 
aspects  of  forgery.  These  are  (a)  a  writing  falsely 



made  or  altered;  (b)  an  apparent  capability  of 
the  writing  so  falsely  made  or  altered  to  impose 
a  legal  liability  to  his  prejudice;  and  (c)  an  intent 
to  defraud. 

Forgery  is  not  committed  by  the  genuine 
making  of  a  false  instrument  for  the  purpose  of 
defrauding  another.  For  example,  a  check 
bearing  the  signature  of  the  maker  has  no  money 
or  credit,  and  even  with  intent  to  defraud  the 
payee  or  the  bank,  is  not  a  forgery,  for  the 
check,  though  false,  is  not  falsely  made.  (Such 
act  would  constitute  a  violation  of  article  123a.) 
However,  signing  the  name  of  another  to  a  check 
without  authority  and  with  intent  to  defraud  is 
forgery,  as  the  signature  is  falsely  made. 

A  forgery  may  be  committed  by  a  person 
signing  his  own  name  to  an  instrument  For 
example,  if  a  check  payable  to  the  order  of  a 
certain  person  comes  into  the  hands  of  another 
person  of  the  same  name,  the  receiver  commits 
forgery  if,  knowing  the  check  to  be  another's,  he 
indorses  it  with  his  own  name,  intending  to 

Some  of  the  instruments  most  frequently 
subject  to  forgery  are  checks,  orders  for  delivery 
of  money  or  goods,  military  orders  directing 
travel,  and  receipts.  A  writing  may  be  falsely 
''made'1  by  materially  altering  an  existing 
writing,  by  filling  in  a  paper  signed  in  blank,  or 
by  signing  an  instrument  already  written. 

ART.   123a. 


"Any   person   subject   to   this  code 

'll )      for  the  procurement  of  any 

article  or  thing  of  value,  with  intent  to 

defraud;  or 

"(2)  for  the  payment  of  any  past 
due  obligation,  or  for  any  other  purpose, 
with  intent  to  deceive; 

makes,  draws,  utters,  or  delivers  any 
check,  draft,  or  order  for  the  payment  of 
money  upon  any  bank  or  other 
depository,  knowing  at  the  time  that  the 

maker  or  drawer  has  not  or  will  not  have 
sufficient  funds  in,  or  credit  with,  the 
bank  or  other  depository  for  the 
payment  of  that  check,  draft,  or  order  in 
full  upon  its  presentment,  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct. 
The  making,  drawing,  uttering,  or 
delivering  by  a  maker  or  drawer  of  a 
check,  draft,  or  order,  payment  of  which 
is  refused  by  the  drawee  because  of 
insufficient  funds  of  the  maker  or 
drawer  in  the  drawee's  possession  or 
control,  is  prima  facie  evidence  of  his 
intent  to  defraud  or  deceive  and  of  his 
knowledge  of  insufficient  funds  in,  or 
credit  with,  that  bank  or  other  deposi- 
tory, unless  the  maker  or  drawer  pays  the 
holder  the  amount  due  within  five  days 
after  receiving  notice,  orally  or  in  writ- 
ing, that  the  check,  draft,  or  order  was 
not  paid  on  presentment.  In  this  section, 
the  word  'credit'  means  an  arrangement 
or  understanding,  express  or  implied, 
with  the  bank  or  other  depository  for  the 
payment  of  that  check,  draft,  or  order." 

This  article  provides  specific  statutory 
authority  for  the  prosecution  of  bad  check 
offenses.  In  the  absence  of  evidence  indicating 
otherwise,  bad  faith  might  be  shown  by  the 
maker's  or  drawer's  failure  to  effect  redemption 
within  the  5-day  period  provided  for  in  the 
article.  The  offense  of  wrongfully  and 
dishonorably  failing  to  maintain  sufficient  funds 
for  payment  of  checks  upon  presentment,  in 
violation  of  article  134,  is  a  lesser  included 
offense  under  this  article,  not  requiring  proof  of 
fraudulent  intent. 

ART.   124. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  with  intent  to  injure,  disfigure,  or 
disable,  inflicts  upon  the  person  of 
another  an  injury  which— 

"(1 )  seriously  disfigures  his  person 
by  any  mutilation  thereof; 

"(2)  destroys  or  disables  any 
member  or  organ  of  his  body;  or 


/  .L/J.LJV^JL.1.   J-.JU 

"(3)  seriously  diminishes  his 
physical  vigor  by  the  injury  of  any 
member  or  organ;  is  guilty  of  maiming 
and  shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial 
may  direct." 

It  is  maiming  to  put  out  a  man's  eye,  to  cut 
off  his  hand,  foot,  or  finger,  or  to  knock  out  his 
front  teeth,  as  these  injuries  destroy  or  disable 
those  members  or  organs.  It  is  maiming  to  cut 
off  an  ear  or  to  scar  a  face  with  acid,  as  these 
injuries  seriously  disfigure  the  person.  It  is  also 
maiming  to  injure  an  internal  organ  so  as  to 
seriously  diminish  the  physical  vigor  of  a  person. 

The  disfigurement,  diminishment  of  vigor,  or 
destruction  or  disablement  of  any  member  or 
organ  must  be  a  serious  injury,  one  of  a 
substantially  permanent  nature.  The  offense  is 
complete  if  such  an  injury  is  inflicted,  however, 
even  though  there  is  a  possibility  that  the  victim 
may  eventually  recover  the  use  of  the  member 
or  organ,  or  that  the  disfigurement  may  be  cured 
by  surgery. 

Infliction  of  the  type  of  injuries  listed  above 
is  presumptive  evidence  of  an  intent  to  injure, 
disfigure,  or  disable  another.  Even  one  who 
intends  only  a  slight  injury  commits  maiming  if 
the  injury  inflicted  in  fact  is  within  the  terms  of 
the  article;  a  specific  intent  to  maim  is  not 
required.  If  the  injury  be  done  under 
circumstances  that  would  justify  or  excuse 
homicide,  the  offense  of  maiming  is  not 

ART.  125. 

"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  engages  in  unnatural  carnal 
copulation  with  another  person  of  the 
same  or  opposite  sex  or  with  an  animal  is 
guilty  of  sodomy.  Penetration,  however 
slight,  is  sufficient  to  complete  the 

"(b)  Any  person  found  guilty  of 
sodomy  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

Any  unnatural  method  of  carnal  copulation 
is  prohibited  by  this  article.  Any  penetration, 

however  slight,  is  sufficient  to  complete   the 
offense  and  emission  is  not  necessary. 

ART.   126. 

"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  willfully  and  maliciously  burns 
or  sets  on  fire  an  inhabited  dwelling,  or 
any  other  structure,  movable  or 
immovable,  wherein  to  the  knowledge  of 
the  offender  there  is  at  the  time  a  human 
being,  is  guilty  of  aggravated  arson  and 
shall  be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

"(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  willfully  and  maliciously  burns 
or  sets  fire  to  the  property  of  another, 
except  as  provided  in  subsection  (a),  is 
guilty  of  simple  arson  and  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

In  aggravated  arson  danger  to  human  life  is 
the  essential  element;  in  simple  arson  it  is  injury 
to  the  property  of  another.  In  either  case  it  is 
immaterial  that  no  one  is,  in  fact,  injured. 

ART.   127. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  communicates  threats  to  another 
person  with  the  intention  thereby  to 
obtain  anything  of  value  or  any 
acquittance,  advantage,  or  immunity  is 
guilty  of  extortion  and  shall  be  punished 
as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

A  threat  may  be  communicated  by  word  of 
mouth  or  in  a  writing,  the  essential  element  of 
the  offense  being  the  knowledge  of  the  victim. 
An  acquittance  is,  in  general  terms,  a  release  or 
discharge  from  an  obligation.  An  intent  to  obtain 
any  advantage  or  immunity  of  any  description 
may  include  an  intent  to  make  a  person  do  an 
act  against  his  will. 

The  threat  sufficient  to  constitute  extortion 
may  be  a  threat  against  the  person  or  property 
of  the  individual  threatened  or  of  any  member 
of  his  family  or  any  other  person  held  dear  to 
him,  to  do  an  unlawful  injury,  to  accuse  of 



crime,  to  expose  or  impute  any  deformity  or 
disgrace,  or  to  expose  any  secret  or  to  do  any 
other  harm. 

ART.  128. 

"(a)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who  attempts  or  offers  with 
unlawful  force  or  violence  to  do  bodily 
harm  to  another  person,  whether  or  not 
the  attempt  or  offer  is  consummated,  is 
guilty  of  assault  and  shall  be  punished  as 
a  court-martial  may  direct. 

"(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this 
code  who- 

"(1 )  commits  an  assault  with  a 
dangerous  weapon  or  other  means  or 
force  likely  to  produce  death  or 
grievous  bodily  harm;  or 

"(2)  commits  an  assault  and 
intentionally  inflicts  grievous  bodily 
harm  with  or  without  a  weapon ; 

is  guilty  of  aggravated  assault  and  shall 
be  punished  as  a  court-martial  may 

An  offer  to  do  bodily  harm  to  another,  as 
distinguished  from  an  attempt  to  do  such 
harm,  is  a  placing  of  the  other  in  reasonable 
apprehension  that  force  will  at  once  be  applied 
to  his  person.  Pointing  an  unloaded  pistol  which 
the  assailant  knows  to  be  unloaded  at  another  is 
not  an  attempt  to  do  bodily  harm,  for  the 
assailant  knows  that  he  cannot  shoot  the  victim ; 
yet  such  an  act  may  be  an  assault  if  the  victim  is 
put  in  reasonable  fear  of  bodily  injury.  For 
example,  if  A  points  a  pistol  at  B  and  says  to  B, 
"If  you  don't  hand  over  your  watch,  you're 
dead,"  A  has  committed  an  assault  upon  B. 

An  assault  in  which  the  attempt  or  offer  to 
do  bodily  harm  is  consummated  by  the  inflic- 
tion of  harm  is  called  a  battery.  A  battery  is  an 
unlawful,  and  intentional  or  culpably  negligent, 
application  of  force  to  the  person  of  another 
by  a  material  agency  used  directly  or  in- 
directly. It  may  be  a  battery  to  set  a  dog 
to  biting  a  person,  to  shoot  a  person,  to  cause 
him  to  take  poison,  or  to  run  an  automobile 
into  him. 

In  order  to  constitute  an  assault,  the  act  of 
violence  must  be  unlawful.  It  must  be  done 
without  legal  justification  or  excuse  and  without 
the  consent  of  the  person  affected. 

Article  128  (b)  defines  two  kinds  of 
aggravated  assault.  One  is  an  assault  with  a 
dangerous  weapon  or  other  means  or  force  likely 
to  produce  death  or  grievous  bodily  harm.  The 
other  is  an  assault,  with  or  without  a  weapon,  in 
which  the  assailant  intentionally  inflicts  grievous 
bodily  harm. 

A  weapon  is  dangerous  when  used  in  such  a 
manner  that  it  is  likely  to  produce  death  or 
grievous  bodily  harm.  "Grievous  bodily  harm" 
does  not  include  minor  injuries,  such  as  a  black 
eye  or  a  bloody  nose,  but  does  include  fractured 
or  dislocated  bones,  deep  cuts,  torn  members  of 
the  body,  serious  damage  to  internal  organs,  and 
other  serious  injuries.  When  the  natural  and 
probable  consequence  of  a  particular  use  of  any 
means  or  force  would  be  death  or  bodily  harm, 
it  may  be  said  that  the  means  or  force  is  "likely" 
to  produce  that  result. 

With  respect  to  the  offense  of  aggravated 
assault  with  a  dangerous  weapon  or  other  means 
or  force  likely  to  produce  death  or  grievous 
bodily  harm,  it  is  not  necessary  that  death  or 
grievous  bodily  harm  actually  be  inflicted. 

ART.  129. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who,  with  intent  to  commit  an  offense 
punishable  under  articles  118  through 
128,  breaks  and  enters,  in  the  nighttime, 
the  dwelling  house  of  another,  is  guilty 
of  burglary  and  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

The  house  must  be  occupied  at  the  time  of 
the  breaking  and  entry,  but  it  is  not  necessary 
that  anyone  actually  be  in  it.  Opening  a  closed 
door  or  window  or  other  similar  fixture,  or 
cutting  out  the  glass  of  a  window  or  the  netting 
of  a  screen  is  a  sufficient  breaking,  as  is  entry 
gained  through  a  trick,  false  pretense, 
impersonation,  intimidation,  or  collusion.  Entry 
of  any  part  of  the  body,  even  a  finger,  is 
sufficient  to  constitute  "entry."  It  is  not 
essential  that  the  intruder  succeed  in  carrying 



out    the    intent    with    which    the    house    was 
broken  into. 

ART.   130. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  unlawfully  enters  the  building  or 
structure  of  another  with  intent  to 
commit  a  criminal  offense  therein  is 
guilty  of  housebreaking  and  shall  be 
punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct." 

The  initial  entering  must  amount  to  trespass; 
this  article  is  not  violated  if  the  accused  entered 
the  building  or  structure  lawfully,  even  though 
he  had  the  intent  to  commit  an  offense  therein. 
This  offense  is  broader  than  burglary  in  that  the 
place  entered  need  not  be  a  dwelling  house;  it  is 
not  necessary  that  the  place  be  occupied;  it  is 
not  essential  that  there  be  a  breaking;  the  entry 
may  be  either  in  the  night  or  in  the  daytime;  and 
the  criminal  intent  is  not  limited  to  those 
offenses  punishable  under  articles  1 1 8  through 

ART.   131. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code 
who  in  a  judicial  proceeding  or  course  of 
justice  willfully  and  corruptly  gives, 
upon  a  lawful  oath  or  in  any  form 
allowed  by  law  to  be  substituted  for  an 
oath,  any  false  testimony  material  to  the 
issue  or  matter  of  inquiry  is  guilty  of 
perjury  and  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

"Judicial  proceeding"  includes  a  trial  by 
court-martial,  and  "course  of  justice"  includes 
an  investigation  conducted  under  article  32. 

For  false  testimony  to  be  "willfully  and 
corruptly"  given,  it  must  appear  that  the 
accused  did  not  believe  his  testimony  to  be  true. 

The  false  testimony  must  be  with  respect  to 
a  material  matter,  but  that  matter  need  not  be 
the  main  issue  in  the  case.  Thus  perjury  may  be 
committed  by  giving  false  testimony  with 
respect  to  the  credibility  of  a  material  witness, 

as  well  as  by  giving  false  testimony  concerning 
either  direct  or  circumstantial  evidence. 

ART.   132. 

"Any  person  subject  to  this  code— 

"(1)  who,  knowing  it  to  be  false 
or  fraudulent— 

"(A)  makes  any  claim  against 
the  United  States  or  any  officer 
thereof;  or 

"(B)  presents  to  any  person  in 
the  civil  or  military  service  thereof, 
for  approval  or  payment,  any  claim 
against  the  United  States  or  any 
officer  thereof; 

"(2)  who,  for  the  purpose  of 
obtaining  the  approval,  allowance,  or 
payment  of  any  claim  against  the  United 
States  or  any  officer  thereof— 

"(A)  makes  or  uses  any  writing 
or  other  paper  knowing  it  to  contain 
any  false  or  fraudulent  statements; 

"(B)  makes  any  oath  to  any 
fact  or  to  any  writing  or  other  paper 
knowing  the  oath  to  be  false;  or 

"(C)  forges  or  counterfeits  any 
signature  upon  any  writing  or  other 
paper,  or  uses  any  such  signature 
knowing  it  to  be  forged  or 

"(3)  who,  having  charge, 
possession,  custody,  or  control  of  any 
money  or  other  property  of  the  United 
States,  furnished  or  intended  for  the 
armed  forces  thereof,  knowingly  delivers 
to  any  person  having  authority  to  receive 
it,  any  amount  thereof  less  than  that  for 
which  he  receives  a  certificate  or  receipt; 

"(4)  who,  being  authorized  to 
make  or  deliver  any  paper  certifying  the 
receipt  of  any  property  of  the  United 


States  furnished  or  intended  for  the 
armed  forces  thereof,  makes  or  delivers 
to  any  person  such  writing  without 
having  full  knowledge  of  the  truth  of  the 
statements  therein  contained  and  with 
intent  to  defraud  the  United  States, 

shall,  upon  conviction,  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

To  constitute  the  offense  of  making  a  false 
or  fraudulent  claim,  it  is  not  necessary  that  the 
claim  be  allowed  or  paid  or  that  it  be  made  by 
the  person  to  be  benefited.  The  claim  must  be 
made  with  knowledge  of  its  fictitious  or 
dishonest  character.  As  an  example,  a  false  claim 
is  made  when  one  having  a  claim  respecting 
property  lost  in  the  military  service  knowingly 
includes  articles  that  were  not  in  fact  lost  and 
submits  the  claim. 

False  and  fraudulent  claims  include  not  only 
those  containing  some  material,  false  statement, 
but  also  claims  which  the  claimant  knows  he  is 
not  authorized  to  present  or  has  no  right  to 
collect.  A  false  claim  may  be  tacitly  presented, 
as  when  a  person  who  knows  he  is  not  entitled 
to  certain  pay  accepts  it  nevertheless,  without 
disclosing  his  disqualification. 

The  offense  of  making  a  writing  or  other 
paper  known  to  contain  a  false  or  fraudulent 
statement  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  the 
approval,  allowance,  or  payment  of  a  claim  is 
complete  when  the  writing  or  paper  is  made  for 
that  purpose,  whether  or  not  any  use  of  the 
paper  has  been  attempted  and  whether  or  not 
the  claim  has  been  presented. 

To  constitute  an  offense  under  article 
132(2)  (B)  the  accused  must  know  that  the  oath 
was  false  and  have  made  it  for  the  purpose  of 
obtaining  the  approval,  allowance,  or  payment 
of  a  claim  against  the  United  States. 

With  respect  to  delivering  less  than  the 
amount  called  for  by  a  receipt,  it  is  immaterial 
by  what  means,  whether  deceit,  collusion,  or 
otherwise,  the  accused  effected  the  transaction, 
or  what  his  purpose  was  in  so  doing. 

Article  1 3  2  (4)  makes  it  an  offense  to  make 
or  deliver  a  receipt  without  having  full 
knowledge  that  it  is  true  and  with  intent  to 
defraud  the  United  States.  For  instance,  if  an 
officer  has  been  authorized  to  certify  the  receipt 

of  any  property  of  the  United  States  furnished 
or  intended  for  the  Armed  Forces,  and  a  receipt 
is  presented  for  his  signature,  stating  that  a 
certain  amount  of  supplies  has  been  furnished 
by  a  certain  contractor,  it  is  the  officer's  duty 
before  signing  the  paper  to  know  that  the  full 
amount  of  supplies  stated  in  the  receipt  has  in 
fact  been  furnished,  and  that  the  statements 
contained  in  the  paper  are  true.  If,  with  intent 
to  defraud  the  United  States,  he  signs  the  paper 
without  that  knowledge,  he  is  guilty  of  a 
violation  of  this  article. 

ART.  133. 



"Any  commissioned  officer,  cadet, 
or  midshipman  who  is  convicted  of 
conduct  unbecoming  an  officer  and  a 
gentleman  shall  be  punished  as  a 
court-martial  may  direct." 

Conduct  that  violates  this  article  is  action  or 
behavior  in  an  official  capacity  which,  in 
dishonoring  or  disgracing  the  individual  as  an 
officer,  seriously  compromises  his  character  as  a 
gentleman;  or  action  or  behavior  in  an  unofficial 
or  private  capacity,  which,  in  dishonoring  or 
disgracing  the  individual  personally,  seriously 
compromises  his  standing  as  an  officer. 

Instances  of  violation  of  this  article  are 
dishonorable  failure  to  pay  debts;  opening  and 
reading  the  letters  of  another  without  authority; 
being  grossly  drunk  and  conspicuously 
disorderly  in  a  public  place,  committing  or 
attempting  to  commit  a  crime  involving  moral 

This  article  includes  acts  made  punishable  by 
any  other  article,  provided  such  acts  amount  to 
conduct  unbecoming  an  officer  and  a  gentleman. 

ART.  134. 

"Though  not  specifically  mentioned 
in  this  code,  all  disorders  and  neglects  to 
the  prejudice  of  good  order  and 
discipline  in  the  armed  forces,  all 
conduct  of  a  nature  to  bring  discredit 
upon  the  armed  forces,  and  crimes  and 


£.  offenses  not  capital,  of  which  persons 
'"  subject  to  this  code  may  be  guilty,  shall 
be  taken  cognizance  of  by  a  general, 
special,  or  summary  court-martial, 
according  to  the  nature  and  degree  of 
the  offense,  and  shall  be  punished  at  the 
discretion  of  that  court." 

Article  134  makes  punishable  acts  or 
omissions  not  specifically  mentioned  in  other 
articles,  such  as  wearing  an  improper  uniform, 
abusive  use  of  a  mifitary  vehicle,  the  careless 
discharge  of  a  firearm,  impersonating  an  officer, 
offenses  involving  official  passes,  permits,  and 
certificates,  and  the  wrongful  possession  of  a 
habit-forming  narcotic  drug. 

"Discredit"  means  "to  injure  the  reputation 
of,"  that  is,  to  bring  the  service  into  disrepute. 
Examples  include  acts  in  violation  of  state  or 
foreign  law,  failure  to  pay  one's  debts,  adultery, 
bigamy,  and  indecent  acts. 

Crimes  and  offenses  not  capital  include 
those  acts  or  omissions,  not  made  punishable 
by  another  article,  which  are  denounced  as 
crimes  or  offenses  by  enactments  of  Congress,  or 
under  authority  of  Congress  and  made  triable  in 
the  Federal  civil  courts.  Certain  of  such  offenses 
are  made  punishable  wherever  committed; 
others  are  punishable  only  if  committed  within 
the  geographical  boundaries  of  the  areas  in 
which  they  are  applicable. 

ART.  138. 


"Any  member  of  the  armed  forces 
who  believes  himself  wronged  by  his 
commanding  officer,  and  who,  upon  due 
application  to  that  commanding  officer, 
is  refused  redress,  may  complain  to  any 
superior  commissioned  officer,  who  shall 
forward  the  complaint  to  the  officer 
exercising  general  court-martial 
jurisdiction  over  the  officer  against 
whom  it  is  made.  The  officer  exercising 
general  court-martial  jurisdiction  shall 
examine  into  the  complaint  and  take 
proper  measures  for  redressing  the  wrong 
complained  of;  and  he  shall,  as  soon  as 
possible,  send  to  the  Secretary 
concerned  a  true  statement  of  that 

complaint,    with    the   proceedings   had 

This  article  provides  for  redress  of  wrongs 
inflicted  by  a  commanding  officer  ori  his 
subordinates,  and  it  prescribes  the  procedure  to 
be  followed  by  subordinates  to  apply  for  such 

ART.   139. 



"(a)  Whenever  complaint  is  made 
to  any  commanding  officer  that  willful 
damage  has  been  done  to  the  property  of 
any  person  or  that  his  property  has  been 
wrongfully  taken  by  members  of  the 
armed  forces,  he  may,  under  such 
regulations  as  the  Secretary  concerned 
may  prescribe,  convene  a  board  to 
investigate  the  complaint.  The  board 
shall  consist  of  from  one  to  three 
commissioned  officers  and,  for  the 
purpose  of  that  investigation,  it  has 
power  to  summon  witnesses  and 
examine  them  upon  oath,  to  receive 
depositions  or  other  documentary 
evidence,  and  to  assess  the  damages 
sustained  against  the  responsible  parties. 
The  assessment  of  damages  made  by  the 
board  is  subject  to  the  approval  of  the 
commanding  officer,  and  in  the  amount 
approved  by  him  shall  be  charged  against 
the  pay  of  the  offenders.  The  order  of 
the  commanding  officer  directing 
charges  herein  authorized  is  conclusive 
on  any  disbursing  officer  for  the 
payment  by  him  to  the  injured  parties  of 
the  damages  so  assessed  and  approved. 

"(b)  If  the  offenders  cannot  be 
ascertained,  but  the  organization  or 
detachment  to  which  they  belong  is 
known,  charges  totaling  the  amount  of 
damages  assessed  and  approved  may  be 
made  in  such  proportion  as  may  be 
considered  just  upon  the  individual 
members  thereof  who  are  shown  to  have 
been  present  at  the  scene  at  the  time  the 
damages  complained  of  were  inflicted,  as 
determined  by  the  approved  findings  of 
the  board." 



Civilian  executives  lead  by  virtue  of  superior 
knowledge  (through  education  and/or 
experience),  and  strong  character  or  personality. 
There  is  no  law  that  sanctions  their  position,  and 
they  may  not  be  legally  responsible  for  those 
they  lead.  Their  responsibility,  if  any,  for  the 
well-being  of  their  followers  is  primarily  a  moral 
one.  On  the  other  hand,  military  officers,  by 
virtue  of  their  commissions,  have  a  legal  as  well 
as  a  moral  obligation.  They  represent  the 
Government's  responsibility  to  enforce  the  law 
of  the  land,  and  they  are  charged  with  the 
well-being  of  their  men  and  women. 

A  leader's  position  is,  to  an  extent, 
analogous  to  that  of  a  skilled  artisan  with  a  fine 
set  of  tools.  The  artisan  keeps  his  tools  in 
first-class  condition,  for  on  them  depends  his 
ability  to  turn  out  fine  work.  The  leader's  tools 
are  the  personnel  on  whom  he  depends  to 
accomplish  the  assigned  mission.  They,  like  the 
artisan's  tools,  must  be  in  good  physical 
condition.  But  here  the  analogy  ends;  personnel 
are  not  objects  to  be  polished  by  supplying  their 
physical  needs,  to  be  laid  aside  when  finished 
with  a  job,  and  to  be  picked  up  again  when 

Even  though  the  Navy  does  everything 
feasible  to  provide  for  the  physical  well-being  of 
its  personnel,  the  young  officer  must  not  assume 
they  are,  therefore,  well  cared  for.  The  officer 
must  be  personally  concerned  with  their  welfare; 
must  know  each  individual-their  background, 
capabilities,  and  limitations.  The  officer  should 
be  aware  constantly  that  debts,  personal  health, 
or  any  one  of  many  problems  may  destroy  a 
person's  peace  of  mind  and,  hence,  efficiency. 

A  good  officer  gains  the  confidence  of  the 
personnel  so  that  they  feel  free  to  talk  about 
their  problems,  knowing  they  will  get  all 

possible  assistance.  The  occasional  person  who 
cannot  discuss  their  problems  with  a  superior 
sometimes  can  be  skillfully  drawn  out  and 
helped,  but  an  officer  should  use  care  and  tact 
when  attempting  this. 

In  every  group  there  are  a  few  people  whose 
sole  interest  in  life  is  to  complete  their  time  and 
leave  the  Navy.  Most  of  them  merely  are 
disinterested,  but  from  their  ranks  many 
troublemakers  arise.  Any  single  division  may 
have  only  one  or  two  of  them;  in  the  aggregate, 
however,  they  present  a  tremendous  problem. 
Properly  motivated  and  instilled  with  a  little 
moral  responsibility  they  can  be  a  great  asset. 
All  are  important,  and  we  must  not  lose  their 
services  through  failure  to  redirect  their  interests 
and  energies. 

The  rebellious  ones  must  be  made  to 
understand  that  it  is  not  only  in  the  Navy  but 
everywhere  they  go  that  they  will  be  required  to 
abide  by  rules  and  regulations.  It  must  be 
pointed  out  to  them  that  rules  and  regulations 
serve  as  guides  by  which  we  live  and,  if  followed 
by  all,  make  life  more  pleasant  and  easy  for  all 
of  us.  They  must  be  taught  that  the  more  they 
discipline  themselves,  the  less  they  will  be 
disciplined  by  others.  They  must  be  shown  their 
importance  to  the  team  and  that  their  shipmates 
must  be  able  to  depend  on  them  day  by  day,  as 
well  as  in  battle.  They,  along  with  those  that  are 
disinterested,  must  be  made  to  realize  that 
increasing  their  knowledge,  advancing  in  rating, 
and  assuming  more  responsibilities  are  no  longer 
matters  of  personal  preference  but  duties. 

It  is  no  secret  that  the  Navy  of  today  is 
besieged  by  many  difficult  leadership  challenges: 
recruiting  in  the  all-volunteer  force  environment, 
ensuring  equality  for  all,  eliminating  drug  and 
alcohol  abuse  and  retaining  valuable  personnel. 

1  QA 

Chapter  8-LEADERSHIP 

It  is  becoming  increasingly  apparent  that  we 
must  ensure  that  our  leaders  know  how  to 
maximize  their  capabilities  to  ensure  that  each 
problem  is  objectively  analyzed,  that  creative 
and  innovative  alternatives  are  developed,  and 
that  action  plans  \are  pursued  with  vigorous 
enthusiasm.  With  these  goals  in  mind,  leadership 
schools  have  been  established  for  officers  and 
petty  officers. 


No  two  leaders  are  exactly  alike.  They  do 
not  possess  the  same  qualities  in  equal 
proportions,  nor  do  they  accomplish  their  ends 
in  the  same  manner.  One  thing  is  certain, 
however,  all  great  leaders  are  imbued  with 
certain  characteristics  and  abilities  which  they 
utilize  to  the  greatest  advantage.  Some  have 
turned  weaknesses  into  strengths  and,  by 
exercise  of  willpower  and  dint  of  hard  work, 
risen  far  above  what  normally  might  have  been 
expected  of  them. 

Every  leader  will  not  possess  every  quality 
discussed  here,  but  every  good  leader  will  have  a 
substantial  number  of  them.  Moreover,  the  less 
natural  ability  a  leader  has,  the  more  important 
it  is  to  cultivate  the  leadership  qualities  needed 
to  be  effective.  All  truly  great  leaders  share  one 
common  characteristic.  They  are  bound  by 
personal  codes  of  conduct  — moral 
responsibility— which  do  not  permit  them  to 
exploit  their  abilities  and  positions  to  .the 
detriment  of  their  followers. 

Most  of  us  understand  about  written  and 
unwritten  laws  that  guide  our  actions  and  define 
our  duties-"thou  shalts"  and  "thou  shalt  nots" 
by  which  we  are  required  to  abide.  Those  are 
rules  established  by  governments  and  by 
common  usage.  If  we  break  the  laws  or  neglect 
the  duties,  authorities  may  bestow  suitable 
punishments  on  us. 

There  are,  however,  other  laws  and  other 
duties  that  have  no  legal  standing  as  far  as  any 
lawmaking  or  law  enforcing  branch  of 
government  is  concerned.  These  are  moral  laws 
and  duties.  Each  person  establishes  these  for 
himself,  based  on  his  own  principles.  Depending 
on  the  character  of  the  person,  they  can  be 

extensive  and  more  binding  than  any  statutory 
laws,  or  they  can  be  completely  nonexistent 
There  is  no  legal  punishment  for  ignoring  these 
laws  and  duties,  and  the  only  enforcer  is  each 
person's  own  conscience. 

In  various  places  throughout  this  text  we 
quote  rules  and  regulations,  at  times  explaining 
them  in  more  or  less  detail.  Therefore,  we  feel 
we  may  assume  the  reader  is,  by  now,  familiar 
with  legal  responsibilities.  But  what  about  those 
moral  responsibilities?  The  Navy  expects  its 
personnel  to  demonstrate  more  than  minimum 
standards  of  moral  responsibility.  Commanding 
officers  and  others  in  authority,  for  example,  are 
required  to  set  good  examples  of  virtue,  honor, 
patriotism,  and  subordination;  to  be  vigilant  in 
inspecting  the  conduct  of  persons  under  their 
command;  to  suppress  all  dissolute  and  immoral 
practices;  and  to  take  necessary  and  proper 
procedures  to  promote  and  safeguard  the 
morale,  physical  well-being,  and  general  welfare 
of  persons  under  their  command. 

The  history  of  effective  naval  leadership  has 
isolated  additional  moral  principles  that  have 
characterized  successful  leaders  from  the  very 
beginning,  down  to  our  present  time. 


Loyalty  means  a  true,  faithful,  strong  (even 
enthusiastic)  devotion  to  one's  country. 
Ordinarily,  this  type  of  loyalty  will  be  assumed 
and  never  questioned,  but  loyalty  must  also  be 
broadened  to  include  one's  superiors  and  one's 

Human  nature  is  such  that  the  ordinary 
person  wants  to  and  will  extend  loyalty  to  others 
in  his  organization.  In  the  long  run,  however, 
everyone  must  earn  the  right  to  that  loyalty,  and 
part  of  the  price  paid  for  this  loyalty  is  loyalty 
to  others.  Enlisted  personnel  are  particularly 
sensitive  about  loyalty  extended  to  them  and  are 
quick  to  discern  and  resent  its  absence.  The 
degree  of  loyalty  a  division  officer  shows  toward 
the  division  has  a  direct  bearing  on  the  morale  of 
division  personnel.  Most  persons  have  a  high 
sense  of  duty,  and  self-respect  will  not  allow 
them  to  neglect  that  duty  merely  to  spite  a 
superior.  But  the  officer  who  has  not  earned  the 



loyalty  of  the  personnel  cannot  expect  to 
receive  that  extra  effort  above  the  call  of  duty 
which  is  so  often  necessary  to  accomplish  a 
mission.  This  brings  us  to  another  important 
quality,  devotion  to  duty. 


Devotion  to  duty  is  closely  allied  to  loyalty. 
In  fact,  it  might  be  defined  as  loyalty  to  the  post 
or  position  one  holds.  Occasionally  immature 
young  persons  endowed  with  talents  which  they 
feel  are  superior  to  those  required  to  fill  the 
minor  positions  in  which  they  find  themselves 
may  become  resentful  because  their  abilities  are 
not  utilized  to  better  advantage.  Consequently, 
their  performance  falls  off. 

A  more  enlightened  individual  might  assume 
that,  because  the  post  exists,  it  must  be 
important  even  though  the  importance  is  not 
readily  apparent.  Assuming  this,  such  an  in- 
dividual gives  a  little  more  to  the  position  than  it 
seems  to  require.  He  spends  his  extra  energy  and 
talents  learning  a  new  and  more  important  job. 
Thus  he  fulfills  his  obligation  to  his  organi- 
zation, inspires  other  personnel  to  greater 
efforts,  and  earns  the  respect  of  all  concerned. 
There  is  little  doubt  as  to  the  choice  between 
these  two  individuals  to  fill  the  first  important 

The  ambitious  individual  described  above 
would  be  considered  a  satisfying  asset  in  any 
civilian  firm;  employers  would  keep  their  eyes 
on  him  and  perhaps  expect  great  things  of  him. 
However,  mere  ambition  is  not  enough  in  the 
military  service.  An  officer  or  enlisted  person  in 
any  service  is  expected  to  place  duty  above  self. 
Everyone  at  all  times  must  do  their  duty  to  the 
best  of  their  ability— not  because  of  the  personal 
gain  involved  but  because  that  is  the  most 
expeditious  and  perhaps  only  way  of 
accomplishing  the  mission. 

Each  person  who  refuses  to  shoulder  their 
share  of  the  load  makes  it  that  much  heavier  for 
the  rest  of  the  unit.  Hardships  may  be  increased, 
lives  may  be  sacrificed  needlessly,  and  the  unit 
may  fail  in  its  mission.  The  well-known  parable 
of  the  loss  of  a  kingdom  through  want  of  a  horse 
describes  the  situation  perfectly. 

The  ability  to  take  orders  is  a  quality  that 
should  be  discussed  along  with  devotion  to  duty. 
One  so  closely  follows  the  other  that  it  is 
difficult  to  distinguish  between  them.  Any 
position  is  usually  covered  by  standing  orders 
designed  to  assist  the  person  holding  the 
position  in  doing  the  job  effectively;  an  order 
received  immediately  becomes  a  duty  of  the 
recipient.  Therefore,  the  most  trivial  order,  even 
one  given  in  the  nature  of  a  reminder-necessary 
or  not-must  not  be  resented.  It  must  be  quickly 
and  cheerfully  obeyed  and  its  accomplishment 
reported  to  the  superior  who  gave  it. 

Devotion  to  duty  and  the  ability  to  take 
orders  are  so  important  that  the  Navy  has  no 
place  for  the  immature  people  who  refuse  to 
grow  up,  the  self-seekers  who  do  their  best  only 
when  it  is  advantageous  to  them  to  do  so,  or  the 
resentful,  hard-headed,  self-important 
individuals  who  cannot  take  orders. 


Of  greatest  importance,  a  person  who 
thoroughly  knows  his  job  is  far  better  qualified 
to  lead  than  one  who  does  not,  but 
unfortunately,  professional  experience  does  not 
burst  into  full  bloom  merely  because  one  wishes 
it  so.  Although  he  has  the  knowledge,  the  young 
officer  usually  steps  aboard  ship  for  the  first 
time  lacking  in  professional  experience.  Yet,  he 
is  placed  in  the  position  of  a  leader,  given  a  job 
to  do,  and  then  seemingly  left  to  his  own 
devices.  The  job  probably  appears  monumental 
to  him,  and  the  probability  of  his  making  a 
serious  error  which  will  expose  his  inexperience 
must  be  uppermost  in  his  mind. 

There  are  people  on  all  sides,  however,  ready 
to  assist  him.  The  officer  he  relieves  usually  will 
use  all  possible  available  time  to  instruct  him  in 
his  duties;  outline  the  present  program,  pointing 
out  what  has  and  has  not  been  done;  discuss  the 
inherent  difficulties  of  the  job;  and  briefly 
describe  the  abilities  and  personalities  of  his 
men.  His  senior  officers  always  stand  ready  to 
give  him  a  hand.  While  tolerant  of  his 
inexperience,  they  will  insist  that  he  do  his  duty 
and  master  his  job  as  quickly  as  possible.  His 
petty  officers,  too,  will  teach  him  if  he  shows 

the  inclination  to  benefit  from  their  experience. 
If  necessary,  they  will  "carry  him"  (as  the 
expression  goes)  as  long  as  he  tries  to  learn.  The 
instructions  may  be  subtle  or  frank,  depending 
on  the  teacher.  A  few  old  hands  may  persist  in 
their  offers  of  aid  even  when  rebuffed,  but  the 
majority  will  promptly  lose  the  desire  to  help  as 
soon  as  the  officer  loses  the  desire  to  learn. 
Therefore,  it  pays  to  be  willing  to  listen  to 
advice  and  suggestions.  Even  the  newest  seaman 
apprentice  might  be  able  to  make  a  worthwhile 


As  an  officer's  knowledge  grows, 
self-confidence,  a  most  important  quality  of 
leadership,  should  grow  apace,  for  even  a  vast 
store  of  knowledge  is  meaningless  without  the 
confidence  and  ability  to  use  it.  Never,  however, 
should  a  leader  become  so  swelled  with  the 
importance  of  "superior"  education,  "vast" 
professional  knowledge,  or  "noteworthy" 
accomplishments  that  he  displays  arrogance.  It 
must  be  remembered  that  the  ordinary  enlisted 
person  is  not  overly  impressed  with  the  number 
of  academic  degrees  an  officer  holds;  the  main 
point  is  the  officer's  ability.  Enlisted  personnel 
can  understand  self-confidence  in  an  officer  who 
has  proven  himself,  but  arrogance  in  a  new, 
untried  ensign  will  be  regarded  as  sheer 
buffoonery,  and  will  be  met  with  indifference 
and  resentment.  The  officer's  accompanying  loss 
of  respect  will  greatly  diminish  control  over  the 


When  confronted  with  the  multitude  of 
Navy  rules,  regulations,  operating  instructions, 
procedures,  and  the  policies  of  the  senior 
officers,  a  young  ensign  may  assume  that  there  is 
little  room  for  personal  initiative  and  ingenuity 
in  the  Navy  today.  Actually,  the  reverse  is  true. 
With  new  ships,  new  equipment,  new  weapons 
systems,  and  new  concepts  in  naval  warfare, 
there  is  a  demand  for  officers  with  the 
imagination  to  realize  their  potentialities  and  the 

skill  and  daring  to  develop  their  uses  to  their  full 

While  an  officer  must  observe  the  limitations 
placed  on  actions  by  rules  and  regulations,  there 
is  scarcely  a  day  which  in  passing  does  not 
present  an  opportunity  to  exercise  initiative  and 
ingenuity.  At  first,  these  opportunities  may 
entail  only  small  problems  requiring  but  little  of 
either  ingenuity  or  initiative,  but  if  one  doesn't 
take  advantage  of  the  small  chances  offered,  one 
will  never  gain  enough  self-confidence  to  tackle 
the  bigger  problems. 


Courage,  one  of  the  more  necessary 
characteristics  of  a  leader,  is  that  quality  of  the 
mind  which  enables  one  to  meet  danger  and 
difficulties  with  firmness.  It  is  that  quality 
which  enables  us  to  overcome  the  fear  of  failure, 
injury,  or  death,  which  normally  precedes  any 
difficult  or  dangerous  act  we  may  attempt  to 
perform.  Further,  courage  is  that  quality  which 
enables  us  to  acknowledge  our  responsibilities 
and  to  carry  them  out  regardless  of 

When  speaking  of  courage,  there  is  a 
tendency  to  divide  it  into  two  forms,  moral  and 
physical.  Courage  is  a  quality  of  the  mind  and, 
as  such,  may  be  developed.  Like  a  muscle,  it 
may  be  strengthened  with  use,  and  the  more  it  is 
exercised  the  stronger  it  grows.  Each  time  a 
person  meets  and  tackles  an  obstacle,  whether  it 
be  a  particularly  tough  assignment  or 
examination  in  school  or  a  hard  charging 
fullback  on  the  football  field,  he  strengthens  his 
courage  a  bit  more.  While  bringing  an  attempt  to 
a  successful  conclusion  might  provide  a  great 
deal  of  satisfaction  to  the  person,  success  itself  is 
not  completely  essential  to  the  development  of 
the  person's  courage.  In  fact,  a  person  who 
frequently  is  frustrated  in  his  attempts  and  goes 
back  to  try  again  and  again  wOl  probably 
develop  his  courage  faster  than  one  whose  every 
endeavor  is  attended  by  success. 

It  may  be  difficult  to  convince  a  young 
person  contemplating  going  into  battle  for  the 
first  time  that  anything  in  his  background  has 



prepared  him  to  overcome  the  fear  he  will  be 
certain  to  experience.  It  is  normal  for  him  to 
doubt  his  ability  to  conduct  himself  with  honor. 
However,  military  services  from  time 
immemorial  have  recognized  this  fact  and  have 
conditioned  and  trained  their  warriors  under  the 
most  realistic  conditions  possible. 

Our  Navy  is  no  exception.  Before  going  into 
battle,  each  person  is  well  acquainted  with  the 
smell  of  gunpowder,  and  has  been  trained  and 
drilled  at  the  battle  station  until  his  actions  are 
almost  automatic  and  second  nature.  Because  of 
this  training,  the  fast  action  involved,  his  sense 
of  duty,  the  inspiration  of  his  cause  and  his 
leaders,  and  the  close  proximity  of  others,  even 
a  timid  person  can  muster  enough  courage  to 
endure  without  faltering  during  the 
comparatively  short,  though  terrible,  periods  of 

A  courageous  person  is  not  necessarily 
fearless,  but  has  learned  to  conquer  his  fear  and 
concentrate  on  the  mechanics  of  fighting. 


Essentially  a  junior  officer's  primary  job  is 
to  coordinate  the  efforts  of  the  personnel  to 
achieve  a  common  purpose.  The  normal 
day-to-day  activity  of  the  maintenance  program 
of  the  peacetime  Navy  may  not  readily  reflect 
this.  The  objective  is  more  difficult  to  achieve 
when  the  goal  is  less  easy  to  define.  However,  an 
overall  view  of  the  maintenance  and  training 
programs  together  shows  how  each  minor 
accomplishment  fits  into  the  whole.  An  officer 
must  be  able  to  organize  the  personnel  so  that 
their  labors  and  training  will  be  utilized  to  the 
best  possible  advantage. 

To  organize  effectively,  the  officer  must 
have  intimate  knowledge  of  the  skills  and 
physical  capabilities  of  the  personnel.  Without 
that  knowledge  he  must  rely  on  a  senior  petty 
officer  to  do  the  job.  We  must  emphasize  here 
that  it  is  entirely  proper  and  desirable  for  the 
officer  to  rely  on  the  petty  officers  to  the  extent 
of  their  abilities.  However,  officers  should  never 
allow  themselves  to  be  reduced  to  the  position 

of  an  old-time  midshipman-a  messenger  running 
between  the  wardroom  and  the  forecastle. 

While  a  young  ensign  cannot  help  but  profit 
from  careful  observation  of  the  methods  of 
skilled  organizers,  he  eventually  must  attempt 
some  organization  of  his  own.  To  do  so,  the 
officer  must  learn  to  make  decisions;  without 
the  power  of  decision,  he  is  useless  as  a  leader. 
When  personnel  present  a  problem  to  an  officer, 
they  expect  a  clear-cut  decision.  Complicated 
questions  or  those  clearly  beyond  the  officer's 
authority  to  decide,  he  will  wish  to  discuss  with 
the  immediate  superior,  but  the  lesser  ones  he 
should  dispose  of  himself.  The  officer  should 
never  allow  dread  of  making  a  mistake  which 
might  cause  him  to  appear  ridiculous  to  deter 
him  from  attempting  to  solve  a  problem.  To  be 
sure,  he  will  make  mistakes  occasionally,  but  an 
honest  mistake  seldom  invokes  scorn  or  censure 
if  all  the  factors  involved  in  the  problem  were 
duly  considered.  From  mistakes  comes 
experience,  and  from  experience  comes  wisdom. 


Every  young  person  has  a  strong  personal 
need  for  examples  to  live  by,  at  least  until  they 
have  formulated  their  own  principles.  This  need 
is  expressed  by  following  the  example  of 
someone  ad  mired -father,  brother,  teacher, 
officer,  a  great  leader  in  history,  or  even 
someone  with  antisocial  tendencies  or  habits. 
The  young  person  will,  in  some  way,  attempt  to 
attach  to  and  be  like  the  person  admired.  As 
long  as  a  person  is  not  disillusioned  and  as  long 
as  the  need  is  felt,  he  will  continue  to  emulate 
the  hero. 

A  naval  officer  should  have  such  total 
dignity  and  competence  in  all  respects  that 
he/she  inspires  the  enlisted  personnel  to  emulate 
and  deeply  respect  the  officer.  There  is  no 
denying  the  value  of  setting  a  good  personal 
example  in  daily  life. 

An  officer  cannot  live  by  the  rule  of  "don't 
do  as  I  do-do  as  I  say,"  without  the  risk  of  the 
personnel  regarding  him  with  suspicion  or 
distaste.  And,  once  that  suspicion  or  distaste  is 
established,  the  officer's  use  as  a  leader  is  greatly 


Chapter  8-LEADERSHIP 

diminished.  On  the  other  hand,  if  conduct  is 
outstanding,  it  could  very  well  inspire  those 
about  to  follow  the  same  pattern  to  the  good  of 
the  entire  Navy. 

When  we  speak  of  conduct,  we  mean 
conduct  ashore  as  well  as  aboard  ship.  A  person 
in  uniform  is  consciously  or  unconsciously 
watched  by  everyone  around.  In  the  minds  of 
the  observers,  that  person's  actions  are 
interpreted  as  typical  of  everyone  who  wears  a 
similar  uniform.  It  is  imperative,  therefore,  that 
the  officer  do  nothing  to  dishonor  the  uniform 
lest,  in  so  doing,  it  dishonors  the  entire  Navy. 

An  officer  cannot  expect  personnel  to 
follow  the  regulations  laid  down  if  the  officer 
ignores  them.  Depending  on  the  extent  of  the 
digressions,  the  officer  may,  for  all  practical 
purposes,  completely  lose  control  of  the 
personnel.  This  may  not  be  readily  apparent  to 
the  officer  at  first,  for  a  petty  officer  may  keep 
the  personnel  in  line.  However,  sooner  or  later 
the  officer  will  realize  that  control  is  gone,  but 
by  that  time  it  may  be  too  late.  In  any  event,  to 
regain  the  respect  of  the  personnel  and  to 
reestablish  control  over  them  will  require 
extraordinary  effort.  "Rank  has  its  privileges," 
but  those  privileges  are  not  extended  to  cover 
deviations  from  accepted  conduct.  Rather,  when 
it  comes  to  conduct,  it  is  "rank  has  its 
responsibilities"  that  must  be  stressed. 

It  might  be  helpful  at  this  point  to 
enumerate  a  number  of  facets  considered  by 
former  Chief  of  Naval  Operations  George  W. 
Anderson,  Jr.  to  be  involved  in  the  makeup  of  a 
truly  outstanding  officer.  Many  have  a  direct 
relationship  to  effective  leadership  and  thus  are 
considered  when  officers  are  evaluated  for 
reports  of  fitness: 

Achievements.  An  outstanding  officer 
produces  results;  many  are  industrious.  The 
measure  is  the  effectiveness  of  the  work. 

Ability  to  make  decisions.  This  is  closely 
allied  to  achievement.  An  officer  must  learn  to 
evaluate  his  information,  analyze  the  problem, 
and  then  integrate  the  two  into  a  sound  and 
incisive  decision. 

Breadth  of  vision.  An  effective  officer 
brings  to  the  profession  a  knowledge  of  all  the 

political,     social,     scientific,     economic,     and 
military  factors  that  impinge  upon  the  Navy. 

Personal  appearance.  It  is  unbelievable  how 
often  this  completely  self-evident  requirement  is 
ignored  in  essential  detail  by  otherwise 
promising  officers. 

Military  bearing.  A  mature  officer  is  a 
military  person  afloat  or  ashore,  24  hours  a  day, 
every  day. 

Mental  alertness.  Continual  attention  to 
detail  coupled  with  an  awareness  of  the  big 

Ability  to  express  himself.  The  greatest 
thinker  or  the  smartest  man  finds  himself 
bypassed  if  he  is  unable  to  communicate  his 
ideas  and  decisions  orally  or  in  writing. 

Contacts  with  people  outside  the  service.  An 
officer  who  allows  himself  and  his  interests  to 
become  completely  ingrown  into  his  profession 
will  find  that  he  has  exhausted  his  potential 

Being  a  good  shipmate.  An  officer  must  not 
lose  sight  of  his  relationships  with  others  in  the 
Navy.  No  one  can  go  it  alone;  he  can  be  effective 
only  through  others. 

Imagination.  A  fitness  report  that  states 
"This  officer  performs  all  ASSIGNED  duties  in 
an  excellent  manner"  could  easily  describe  an 
officer  who  has  stopped  growing.  Imagination 
and  its  companion  virtue,  initiative,  are  vital. 

Knowledge  of  the  job.  This  is  easily 
described  but  difficult  to  achieve.  It  implies 
complete  mastery  of  the  job  plus  a  detailed 
knowledge  of  all  its  responsibilities,  including 
those  of  subordinates. 

Manner  of  performance.  There  are  four 
general  approaches  to  getting  a  job  done.  An 
officer  can  do  it  himself,  drive  others  to  do  it, 
inspire  others  to  do  it,  or  combine  the  three  in 
the  best  manner.  The  outstanding  leader  knows 
oneself,  job,  enlisted  personnel,  and  the 
immediate  situation;  and  knows  how  to  combine 
these  approaches  to  solve  best  the  problem  at 

Social  grace.  Knowing  which  fork  to  use  is 
necessary,  but  the  basic  requirement  is  to  be 
sincerely  interested  in  the  people  one  meets. 



Sense  of  humor.  This  is  really  a  matter  of 
keeping  everything  in  the  proper  perspective,  ot 
being  able  to  distinguish  between  the  important 
and  the  trivial. 

Personal  behavior.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  no 
Navy  officer  should  be  in  a  position  ot 
responsibility  if  the  entire  behavior  pattern  does 
not  reflect  absolute  integrity  and  honor. 


The  "Code  of  Conduct  for  Members  of  the 
Armed  Forces  of  the  United  States,"  usually 
referred  to  simply  as  the  "Code  of  Conduct," 
was  promulgated  by  President  Eisenhower  as 
Executive  Order  10631  on  17  August  1955.  It 
was  distributed  throughout  the  Navy  by  means 
of  General  Order  No.  4. 

In  its  written  form  the  code  grew  out  of  the 
Korean  War  in  which  the  conduct  of  a  few 
American  men  cast  a  shadow  over  the  great 
majority  of  their  comrades  who  had  acquitted 
themselves  honorably  and  with  distinction. 
Although  young  in  years,  the  code  is  timeless  in 
the  sense  that,  with  few  exceptions,  American 
men-at-arms  have  honored  its  provisions  in  all 
the  wars  this  country  has  fought. 

In  Korea,  the  Chinese  Communists  added  a 
new  dimension  to  warfare  by  extending  it  to 
prisoner-of-war  camps.  In  addition  to  the  usual 
hardships  imposed  on  prisoners,  the  moment  an 
American  POW  fell  into  Communist  hands,  his 
captors  launched  an  assault  to  progressively 
weaken  his  physical  and  moral  strength. 
Originally  called  "brainwashing,"  persistent 
interrogation  was  aimed  at  (1)  undermining  the 
Americans'  loyalty  to  their  country  and  faith  in 
the  democratic  way  of  life,  and  (2)  conditioning 
them  to  Communism.  These  were  attempted  in 
any  number  of  ways-threats,  torture,  pretended 
kindness,  bribes,  harassment,  fear. 

The  Communists'  goal  was  achieved  if  they 
could  induce  a  prisoner  to  sign  a  spurious 
statement  designed  to  destroy  the  image  of  the 
United  States  in  the  eyes  of  the  world;  if  they 
could  obtain  his  cooperation  to  the  extent  of 
broadcasting  propaganda  messages  to  the  "folks 

back  home;"  or  perhaps  only  get  him  to  act  as 
an  informer  on  other  prisoners.  The  Americans 
expected  only  hardship  and  brutality.  They 
didn't  know  how  to  cope  with  this  sort  of 
treatment-this  new  type  of  warfare  that 
revolved  around  personal  descriptions  such  as 
"progressive"  (one  who  cooperated  with  his 
captors)  and  "reactionary"  (one  who  did  not) 
and,  perhaps  inevitably,  a  few  of  those  captured 
did,  willingly  or  unknowingly,  cooperate  with 
the  enemy. 

The  Code  of  Conduct  was  developed  with 
the  idea  that  henceforth  our  fighting  forces 
would  have  available  to  them  specific  guidelines 
for  behavior  in  the  event  of  any  future  conflict. 
Prior  to  its  issuance,  the  Armed  Forces  had 
never  had  a  clearly  defined  wartime  code  of 

Following  are  the  articles  comprising  the 
United  States  fighting  man's  code: 

Article  I 

I  am  an  American  fighting  man.  I 
serve  in  the  forces  which  guard  my 
country  and  our  way  of  life.  I  am 
prepared  to  give  my  life  in  their  defense. 

Article  II 

I  will  never  surrender  of  my  own  free 
will.  If  in  command  I  will  never 
surrender  my  men  while  they  still  have 
the  means  to  resist. 

Article  HI 

If  I  am  captured  I  will  continue  to 
resist  by  all  means  available.  I  will  make 
every  effort  to  escape  and  aid  others  to 
escape.  I  will  accept  neither  parole  nor 
special  favors  from  the  enemy. 

Article  IV 

If  I  become  a  prisoner  of  war,  I  will 
keep  faith  with  my  fellow  prisoners.  I 
will  give  no  information  nor  take  part  in 
any  action  which  might  be  harmful  to 
my  comrades.  If  I  am  senior,  I  will  take 

Chapter  8-LEADERSHIP 

command.  If  not,  I  will  obey  the  lawful 
orders  of  those  appointed  over  me  and 
will  back  them  up  in  every  way. 

Article  V 

When  questioned,  should  I  become  a 
prisoner  of  war,  I  am  bound  to  give  only 
name,  rank,  service  number  and  date  of 
birth.  I  will  evade  answering  further 
questions  to  the  utmost  of  my  ability.  I 
will  make  no  oral  or  written  statements 
disloyal  to  my  country  and  its  allies  or 
harmful  to  their  cause. 

Article  VI 

I  will  never  forget  that  I  am  an 
American  fighting  man,  responsible  for 
my  actions,  and  dedicated  to  the 
principles  which  made  my  country  free. 
I  will  trust  in  the  United  States  of 

Articles  I  and  VI  comprise  a  sort  of  creed, 
affirming  dedication  to  American  national 
security  and  devotion  to  American  principles. 
The  keynote  of  Article  II,  resistance,  prescribes 
behavior  in  battle.  Remembering  the  lessons 
learned  in  Korea,  the  remaining  articles  (bulk  of 
the  code)  explain  what  is  expected  of  an 
American  fighting  man  who  has  the  misfortune 
to  be  captured  by  an  enemy.  Although  relatively 
few  men  become  prisoners  of  war,  all  those  who 
go  into  combat  must  do  so  fully  prepared  for 
the  possibility  of  capture.  For  men  who  are 
taken  prisoner,  Articles  III,  IV,  and  V  are  of 
vital  importance;  they  comprise  one  weapon 
(knowledge)  a  man  takes  into  captivity  that  the 
enemy  cannot  strip  from  him. 

Articles  III,  IV,  and  V  are  directly  related  to 
the  Geneva  Convention  of  1949  pertaining 'to 
the  treatment  of  prisoners  of  war.  The  Geneva 
Conventions  formulate  internationally 
recognized  agreements  governing  participants  in 
war.  Their  history  goes  back  to  the  Civil  War, 
when  it  became  generally  apparent  that  even 
prisoners  of  war  were  people  and  thus  deserved  a 
better  fate  than  being  tortured,  executed,  or 

There  have  been  a  number  of  international 
convention  conferences,  the  latest  of  which 
resulted  in  the  "Geneva  Conventions  for  the 
Protection  of  War  Victims,"  referred  to  as  the 
"Four  Geneva  Conventions  of  1949." 
Conventions  I  and  II  concern  themselves  with 
the  care  and  treatment  of  wounded  and  sick 
armed  forces  personnel  in  the  field  and  at  sea, 
respectively.  Convention  III  relates  to  prisoners 
of  war;  and  the  last  covers  the  protection  of 
civilians  in  time  of  war.  The  1 949  conventions 
are  based  on  experiences  gathered  in  World  War 
II  and  a  realization  that  more  stringent 
provisions  for  the  protection  of  war  victims  were 
necessary  than  existed  under  previously  written 

The  conventions  are  extremely  complex,  and 
for  those  interested,  full  texts  are  contained  in 
NWIP  10-2,  Law  of  Naval  Warfare,  appendixes 
C,  D,  E,  and  F.  Very  briefly,  Convention  HI, 
which  is  our  area  of  concern,  outlines  POW 
duties  and  rights.  The  former  covers  legal  status 
as  a  prisoner,  laws  by  which  bound,  rules  of 
military  courtesy  while  a  prisoner,  and  work 
rules.  The  POWs'  rights  encompass  rules  of 
interrogation;  selection  of  a  POW  representative 
to  speak  for  the  body  of  POWs  before  military 
authorities,  the  International  Committee  of  the 
Red  Cross,  and  others;  escapes  and  attempted 
escapes;  food  and  quarters;  mail;  medical 
treatment;  and  religious  worship. 

The  Geneva  Conventions  of  1949, 
embodying  as  they  do  major  rules  of  warfare, 
are  prime  sources  of  codified  international  law 
ratified  or  adhered  to  by  all  major  nations  of  the 
world.  As  with  many  laws  and  all  treaties, 
however,  compliance  often  is  difficult  to  secure. 
North  Vietnam,  for  example,  acceded  to  the 
conventions  in  1957,  but  had  no  scruples  about 
violating  Convention  III.  To  put  a  legal  face  on 
the  matter,  Hanoi  simply  refused  to  admit,  for 
instance,  that  they  held  any  pilots  as  prisoners 
of  war-aviators  are  "air  pirates"  and  therefore 

In  a  POW  compound,  strong  leadership  is 
essential  to  discipline  because  without  it  survival 
may  be  impossible.  Even  in  the  face  of 
defeatism,  the  seemingly  unimportant  military 


•equirements     of    personal     hygiene,     camp  This  responsibility  for  camp  leadership  cannot 

lanitation,  and  care  of  the  sick  are  imperative.  be  evaded. 

Officers,  noncommissioned  officers,  and  petty 

>fficers     continue     to     carry     out     their  SUGGESTED  READING: 

•esponsibilities  and  exercise  their  authority  after 

capture;  those  who  are  senior  assume  command  The  Armed  Forces  Officer,  NAVEDTRA  46905 

iccording  to  grade  or  rate  without  regard  to 

ervice.  The  U.S.  Navy  Manual  for  Leadership  Support, 

As  a  prisoner,  bear  in  mind  at  all  times  that  NAVPERS  15934  series 
miry  and  discipline  are  vitally  needed  in  a  POW 

:amp.  If  you  are  the  senior  officer  or  man  but  The    U.S.    Fighting   Man's    Code,    NAVPERS 

;annot  assume  command  openly,  do  it  covertly.  92638 A 



At  the  end  of  World  War  II  there  were  two 
nilitary  (executive)  departments  in  the  United 
States:  Department  of  the  Navy,  including  naval 
iviation  and  the  U.S.  Marine  Corps;  and  the 
Department  of  War,  which  included  Army  Air 
7orces.  Each  of  the  departments  was  headed  by 
L  secretary  who  was  a  member  of  the  President's 

In  1947,  Congress  passed  the  National 
Security  Act  which  created  the  National  Military 
establishment  (NME)  to  be  headed  by  a 
Secretary  of  Defense;  established  a  Department 
>f  the  Air  Force  as  a  third  military  (executive) 
lepartment;  changed  the  title  of  the  Department 
)f  War  to  Department  of  the  Army;  and 
>rovided  for  transfer  of  air  force  functions  from 
he  Department  of  the  Army  to  the  Department 
)f  the  Air  Force.  It  further  provided  for 
;stablishment  of  unified  commands  in  strategic 
.reas.  In  1949,  amendments  to  the  Act 
;sta Wished  the  Department  of  Defense  as  an 
executive  department,  with  the  Departments  of 
he  Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force  as  military 
[epartments  therein,  to  replace  the  NME. 
Secretaries  of  the  military  departments  were 
eplaced  as  cabinet  members  by  the  Secretary  of 
)efense.  These  amendments  also  created  the 
>osition  of  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of 
itaff.  (See  figure  9-1.) 

The  Department  of  Defense  was  created  as 
>art  of  a  comprehensive  program  for  the  future 
ecurity  of  the  United  States  through  the 
stablishment  of  integrated  policies  and 
•rocedures  for  the  departments,  agencies,  and 
unctions  of  the  Government  relating  to  the 
lational  security.  In  enacting  such  legislation,  it 
/as  the  intent  of  Congress  to- 

1 .  Provide  a  Department  of  Defense  which 
rould  include  the  departments  of  the  Army, 

Navy  (including  naval  aviation  and  the  United 
States  Marine  Corps),  and  Air  Force  under  the 
direction,  authority,  and  control  of  the 
Secretary  of  Defense; 

2.  Provide  that  each  military  department 
would   be  separately  organized  under  its  own 
Secretary    and    function   under    the    direction, 
authority,    and    control    of   the    Secretary    of 

3.  Provide  for  their  unified  direction  under 
civilian  control  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense  but 
not  to  merge  the  departments  or  services; 

4.  Provide  for  the  establishment  of  unified 
or  specified  combatant  commands,  and  a  clear 
and  direct  line  of  command  to  such  commands; 

5.  Eliminate  unnecessary  duplication  in  the 
Department  of  Defense,  and  particularly  in  the 
field  of  research  and  engineering  by  vesting  its 
overall  direction  and  control  in  the  Secretary  of 
Defense ; 

6.  Provide    more    effective,    efficient,   and 
economical  administration  in  the  Department  of 
Defense;  and 

7.  Provide     for     the     unified     strategic 
direction   of   the  combatant  forces,  for   their 
operation  under  unified  command,  and  for  their 
integration  into  an  efficient  team  of  land,  naval, 
and  air  forces. 


The  Department  of  Defense  maintains  and 
employs  armed  forces  to— 

1.  Support  and  defend  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States  against  all  enemies,  foreign 
and  domestic; 












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2.  Ensure,  by  timely  and  effective  military 
action,   the  security   of  the  United  States,  its 
possessions,  and  areas  vital  to  its  interest; 

3.  Uphold  and  advance  the  national  policies 
and  interests  of  the  United  States;  and 

4.  Safeguard   the   internal   security  of  the 
United  States. 

The  Department  of  Defense  includes: 

1.  The  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense; 

2.  The  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff  and  the  Joint 

3.  The  three  military  departments  and  the 
military  services  within  those  departments; 

4.  Unified  and  specified  commands;  and 

5.  Other  agencies  the  Secretary  of  Defense 
may  establish  to  meet  specific  requirements. 


The  Secretary  of  Defense  is  the  principal 
assistant  to  the  President  in  all  matters  relating 
to  the  Department  of  Defense.  All  functions  in 
the  Department  are  performed  under  his 
direction,  authority,  and  control. 

The  Deputy  Secretary  of  Defense  performs 
such  duties  and  exercises  such ,  powers  as  the 
Secretary  of  Defense  prescribes.  He  acts  for,  and 
exercises  the  powers  of,  the  Secretary  when  the 
latter  is  absent  or  disabled. 

The  Secretary  and  Deputy  Secretary  are 
appointed  from  civilian  life  by  the  President 
with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate.  They 
may  not  have  been  Regular  commissioned 
officers  of  the  Armed  Forces  within  10  years 
preceding  their  appointments. 

The  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense 
(OSD),  which  provides  immediate  staff 
assistance  and  advice  to  the  Secretary,  includes 
the  offices  of  the  Director  of  Defense  Research 
and  Engineering,  a  number  of  Assistant 
Secretaries  of  Defense,  the  General  Counsel  of 
the  Department  of  Defense  (DOD),  and  other 
staff  offices  the  Secretary  may  establish  to  assist 
him  in  carrying  out  his  duties  and 

Duties  of  the  Director  of  Defense  Research 
and  Engineering  include: 

1.  Acting  as  principal  advisor  to  Secretary 
of  Defense  (SECDEF)  on  scientific  and  technical 

2.  Supervising     all     DOD     research     and 
engineering  activities,  and 

3.  Directing  and   controlling  research  and 
engineering  activities  that  the  Secretary  deems 
to  require  centralized  management. 


The  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff  (JCS)  consist  of  a 
chairman  who  may  be  of  any  service,  and  who  is 
appointed  by  the  President  with  the  advice  and 
consent  of  the  Senate;  Chief  of  Staff,  U.S. 
Army;  Chief  of  Naval  Operations;  and  Chief  of 
Staff,  U.S.  Air  Force.  The  Commandant  of  the 
Marine  Corps  attends  meetings  regularly  and  has 
coequal  status  with  other  members  of  the  JCS 
on  matters  that  directly  concern  the  Marine 
Corps.  The  JCS,  supported  by  the  Joint  Staff, 
constitute  the  immediate  military  staff  of  the 
Secretary  of  Defense.  In  addition,  the  Joint 
Chiefs  of  Staff  are  the  principal  military  advisors 
to  the  President  and  the  National  Security 

Subject  to  the  authority  and  direction  of  the 
President  and  the  Secretary  of  Defense,  the 
Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff,  in  addition  to  such  other 
duties  as  the  President  and  SECDEF  may 

1.  Prepare  strategic  plans  and  provide  for 
the   strategic   direction   of  the  Armed  Forces, 
including  the  direction  of  operations  conducted 
by     commanders     of     unified     and     specified 

2.  Prepare    integrated    plans    for    military 
mobilization  and  integrated  logistic  plans. 

3.  Recommend  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense 
the  establishment  and  force  structure  of  unified 
and  specified  commands. 

4.  Review    the    plans    and    programs    of 
commanders  of  unified  and  specified  commands. 


5.  Review  major  personnel,  material,  and 
logistic   requirements  of  the  Armed  Forces  in 
relation  to  strategic  and  logistic  plans. 

6.  Establish     doctrines     for     unified 
operations  and  training  and  for  coordination  of 
the  military  education  of  members  of  the  Armed 

7.  Provide  the  Secretary  of  Defense  with 
statements     of     military     requirements     and 
strategic  guidance  for  use  in  the  development  of 
budgets,  foreign  military  aid  programs,  industrial 
mobilization  plans,  and  programs  of  scientific 
research  and  development. 

8.  Recommend  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense 
the  assignment  of  primary  responsibility  for  any 
function  of  the  Armed  Forces  requiring  such 
determination,  and  the  transfer,  reassignment, 
abolition,  or  consolidation  of  such  functions. 

9.  Provide  United  States  representation  on 
the    Military    Staff  Committee  of  the  United 
Nations;  and  when  authorized  on  other  military 
staffs,  boards,  councils,  and  missions. 


Unified  and  specified  commands  (figure  9-1) 
are  established  under  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff  to 
exercise  command  over  all  forces  in  a  specific 
area  of  the  world  or  to  otherwise  carry  out  a 
broad,  continuing  mission.  The  chain  of 
command  leads  from  the  President  to  the 
Secretary  of  Defense  and  through  the  Joint 
Chiefs  of  Staff  to  the  commanders  of  unified  or 
specified  commands. 

The  main  distinction  between  a  unified  and 
specified  command  is  that  the  former  is 
composed  of  two  or  more  services  while  the 
latter  normally  consists  of  forces  of  only  one 

Periodically  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff  must 
decide  which  service  will  exercise  command 
responsibility  in  a  given  area  of  the  world.  They 
then  select  a  man  from  the  chosen  service  to 
represent  them  as  unified  commander,  the 
ippointment  being  confirmed  by  the  Secretary 
Df  Defense  and  the  President.  The  unified 
:ommander  has  operational  control  over  all 
forces  in  his  area;  service  commanders  are 

referred  to  as  his  component  commanders.  In 
the  Pacific,  for  example,  the  JCS  unified 
commander  has  the  title  of  Commander  in 
Chief,  Pacific  (CINCPAC).  His  component 
commanders  are  the  Commander  in  Chief,  U.S. 
Pacific  Fleet  (CINCPACFLT)  and  the  area  Army 
(USARPAC),  Air  Force  (PACAF),  and  Marine 
Corps  (FMFPAC)  commanders.  Component 
commanders  retain  direct  control  over  their  own 
forces,  but  are  responsible  to  CINCPAC  for  the 
readiness  of  those  forces. 

A  specified  command  is  responsible  for  the 
performance  of  a  specific  mission.  The  Strategic 
Air'  Command,  currently  (1976)  the  only 
specified  command,  is  responsible  for  preparing 
strategic  air  forces  for  combat  and  conducting 
strategic  air  operations. 


The  directors  of  the  Defense  Nuclear 
Agency,  Defense  Communications  Agency, 
Defense  Intelligence  Agency,  and  the  Defense 
Mapping  Agency  are  responsible  to  the  Joint 
Chiefs  of  Staff  for  the  operations  and  efficiency 
of  their  agencies.  The  Directors  of  the  Defense 
Supply  Agency,  Defense  Contract  Audit 
Agency,  Defense  Civil  Preparedness  Agency, 
Defense  Security  Assistance  Agency,  and  the 
Defense  Advanced  Research  Projects  Agency  are 
responsible  directly  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense. 


The  chain  of  command  for  purposes  other 
than  the  operational  direction  of  unified  and 
specified  command  runs  from  the  President  to 
the  Secretary  of  Defense  to  the  secretaries  of  the 
military  departments. 

The  duties  of  the  military  departments 
under  their  respective  secretaries  are  to  prepare 
forces  and  establish  reserves  of  equipment  and 
personnel  equipped  and  trained  for  employment 
to  meet  the  needs  of  war  or  an  emergency;  to 
organize,  train  and  equip  forces  for  assignment 
to  unified  or  specified  commands;  to  prepare 
and  submit  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense  budgets 
for  their  respective  departments;  conduct 
research;  develop  tactics,  techniques,  and 


weapons;  and  to  assist  each  other  in  the 
accomplishment  of  their  respective  functions, 
including  the  provisions  of  personnel, 
intelligence,  training,  facilities,  equipment, 
supplies,  and  services. 

The  Army  is  responsible  primarily  for  the 
conduct  of  prompt  and  sustained  combat 
operations  on  land. 

The  Air  Force  is  responsible  mainly  for 
prompt  and  sustained  offensive  and  defensive 
aerospace  operations. 

The  purpose  of  the  remainder  of  this  chapter 
is  to  provide  a  clear  picture  of  the  function  of 
the  Navy  within  the  Department  of  Defense. 


The  Department  of  the  Navy  (DON) 
includes  the  entire  naval  component  of  the 
Department  of  Defense.  It  is  composed  of  the 
Navy  Department  (the  executive  part  of  the 
DON,  located  at  the  seat  of  Government); 
Headquarters,  United  States  Marine  Corps;  all 
operating  forces,  including  naval  aviation,  of  the 
Navy  and  Marine  Corps,  and  the  Reserve 
components  of  the  operating  forces;  and  all 
shore  (field)  activities,  headquarters,  forces, 
bases,  installations,  and  functions  under  the 
control  or  supervision  of  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy  (SECNAV).  The  Department  (figure  9-2) 
includes  the  U.S.  Coast  Guard  when  it  is 
operating  as  a  service  in  the  Navy  (in  time  of  war 
or  when  the  President  so  directs). 

The  fundamental  objectives  of  the 
Department  of  the  Navy  are  to  (1)  organize, 
train,  equip,  prepare,  and  maintain  the  readiness 
of  the  Navy  and  Marine  Corps  forces  for 
the  performance  of  military  missions  as  directed 
by  the  President  or  the  Secretary  of  Defense, 
and  (2)  support  Navy  and  Marine  Corps  forces, 
as  well  as  the  forces  of  other  military 
departments,  as  directed  by  the  Secretary  of 
Defense,'  that  are  assigned  to  unified  or  specified 
commands.  As  here  used,  support  includes 
administrative,  personnel,  material,  and  fiscal 
support,  and  technological  support  through 
research  and  development. 



Members  of  the  executive  administration  of 
the  DON  include  the- 

1 .  Secretary  of  the  Navy, 

2.  His  Civilian  Executive  Assistants,  and 

3.  Staff  assistants  to  the  Secretary. 

4.  Chief  of  Naval  Operations. 

5.  Chief  of  Naval  Material.  ^* 

6.  Chief  of  the   Bureau   of  Medicine  and 
Surgery.  -!•/  * 

7.  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel.  -i/  * 

8.  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps. 

9.  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the  Navy. 
1 0.  Chief  of  Naval  Research. 

Secretary  of 

the  Navy 

The  Secretary  of  the  Navy  is  the  head  of  the 
Department  of  the  Navy.  Under  the  direction, 
authority,  and  control  of  the  Secretary  of 
Defense,  he  is  responsible  for  the  policies  and 
control  of  the  DON,  including  its  organization, 
administration,  operation,  and  efficiency. 

Civilian  Executive 
Assistants  to  SECNAV 

The  Civilian  Executive  Assistants  to  the 
Secretary  are  his  principal  policy  advisors  and 
assistants  on  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of 
the  Department  as  a  whole.  Within  his  assigned 
area,  each  Civilian  Executive  Assistant  is 
authorized  to  act  for  SECNAV. 


The  Under  Secretary  of  the  Navy  is  the  deputy 
and  principal  assistant  to  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy.  He  acts  with  full  authority  of  the 
Secretary  in  the  general  management  of  the 
Department  of  the  Navy.  He  is  responsible  for 
transportation  matters  and  for  supervision  of  the 
following  boards  and  offices: 

1.  Office  of  Program  Appraisal; 

2.  Office  of  General  Counsel; 

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3.  Office  of  Information; 

4.  Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General; 

5.  Office  of  Legislative  Affairs. 

Secretary  of  the  Navy  (Financial  Management)  is 
Comptroller  of  the  Navy.  He  is  responsible  for 
all  matters  related  to  financial  management  of 
the  DON,  including  budgeting,  accounting, 
disbursing,  financing,  progress  and  statistical 
reporting,  and  auditing.  He  supervises  the  Office 
of  the  Comptroller  of  the  Navy,  the  Office  of 
Special  Asssitant  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy, 
and  the  Office  of  Management  Information. 


Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Navy  (Installations 
and  Logistics)  is  responsible  for  all  matters 
related  to  the  procurement,  production,  supply, 
distribution,  alteration,  maintenance,  and 
disposal  of  material;  the  acquisition, 
construction,  utilization,  improvement, 
alteration,  maintenance,  and  disposal  of  real 
estate  and  facilities,  including  capital  equipment, 
utilities,  housing,  and  public  quarters;  printing 
and  publications;  labor  relations  with  respect  to 
Navy  contractors;  industrial  security;  and  the 
Mutual  Defense  Assistance  Program  as  related  to 
the  supplying  of  material.  He  supervises  the 
Office  of  Naval  Petroleum  and  Oil  Shale 
Reserves,  with  full  and  final  authority  to  take 
action  as  Acting  SECNAV  under  all  statutes  and 
regulations  relating  to  petroleum  and  oil  shale 


The  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Navy  (Manpower 
and  Reserve  Affairs)  is  responsible  for  all 
matters  related  to  manpower  and  Reserve 
component  affairs  of  the  Department,  in- 
cluding policy  and  administration  applicable 
to  both  military  (active  and  Reserve)  and 
civilian  personnel.  He  supervises  the  Office 
of  Civilian  Manpower  Management  and  the 
Naval  Personnel  Boards  (Naval  Examining 
Board,  Physical  Disability  Review  Board,  Naval 

Clemency    and    Parole    Board,    and    the    Navy 
Discharge  Review  Board). 

Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Navy  (Research  and 
Development)  is  responsible  for  matters  related 
to  research,  development,  engineering,  test,  and 
evaluation  efforts  within  the  Department  of  the 
Navy;  and  for  oceanography,  ocean  engineering 
and  closely  related  matters.  He  is  Chairman  of 
the  Navy  Research  and  Development  Committee 
and  is  responsible  for  supervision  of  the  Office 
of  Naval  Research. 

Staff  Assistants 
to  the  Secretary 

Staff  assistants  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy 
which  include,  as  a  few  examples,  the 
Administrative  Officer,  Navy  Department; Chief 
of  Legislative  Affairs;  Director,  Office  of 
Management  Information;  and  Director,  Office 
of  Civilian  Manpower  Management;  assist  the 
Secretary,  or  one  or  more  of  his  Civilian 
Executive  Assistants,  in  the  administration  of 
the  department. 

Each  staff  assistant  commands/supervises  all 
functions  and  activities  internal  to  his  office  and 
assigned  shore  activities,  if  any.  Specific  duties 
of  individual  assistants  are  as  provided  by  law  or 
as  assigned  by  the  Secretary. 

Chief  of 

Naval  Operations 

The  Chief  of  Naval  Operations  (CNO)  is  the 
senior  military  officer  of  the  Department  of  the 
Navy.  He  takes  precedence  above  all  other 
officers  of  the  naval  service  except  one  who  may 
be  serving  as  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of 
Staff.  He  is  the  principal  naval  adviser  to  the 
President  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  on  the 
conduct  of  war,  and  the  principal  naval  adviser 
and  naval  executive  to  the  Secretary  on  the 
conduct  of  the  activities  of  the  Department  of 
the  Navy.  The  CNO  is  the  Navy  member  of  the 
Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff;  he  is  responsible  for 
keeping  SECNAV  fully  informed  on  matters 



considered  or  acted  upon  by  the  JCS.  In  this 
capacity,  he  is  responsible  under  the  President 
and  SECDEF  for  duties  external  to  the 
Department  of  the  Navy  as  prescribed  by  law. 

Internal  to  the  administration  of  the 
Department  of  the  Navy,  CNO  commands  (1) 
the  Operating  Forces  of  the  Navy,  and  (2)  at  the 
Navy  Department  level,  the  Naval  Material 
Command,  the  Bureau  of  Naval  Personnel,  the 
Bureau  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  and  assigned 
shore  activities.  Except  for  those  areas  in  which 
responsibility  rests  with  the  Commandant  of  the 
Marine  Corps,  CNO  exercises  overall  authority 
throughout  the  Department  of  the  Navy  in 
matters  essential  to  naval  military 
administration,  such  as  security,  intelligence, 
discipline,  communications,  and  matters  related 
to  the  customs  and  traditions  of  the  naval 

With  respect  to  the  Operating  Forces  of  the 
Navy,  the  Chief  of  Naval  Operations  has  the 
following  specific  responsibilities: 

1.  To  organize,  train,  prepare,  and  maintain 
the  readiness  of  Navy  forces,  including  those  to 
be  assigned  to  unified  or  specified  combatant 
commands,    for   the   performance    of  military 
missions    as     directed    by    the    President    or 
SECDEF.   This   includes  the  responsibility  to 
make  or  initiate  any  special  provisions  that  may 
be  required  within  the  Department  of  the  Navy 
for  the  administration  of  naval  forces  that  are 
assigned     to     such     combatant     commands. 
Inherently,     this     responsibility     includes 
determination     of    the    training    required    to 
prepare     Navy     personnel,    including    Reserve 
personnel,    for    combat.    Naval    forces,    when 
assigned,     are     under     the     full     operational 
command  of  the  commander  of  the  unified  or 
specified  combatant  command  to  which  they  are 

2.  To  plan  for  and  determine  the  material 
support  needs  of  the  Operating  Forces  of  the 
Navy    (less    Fleet    Marine    Forces    and    other 
assigned     Marine     Corps     forces)     including 
equipment,     weapons     or    weapons    systems, 
materials,  supplies,  facilities,  maintenance,  and 
supporting  services. 

3.  To  plan  for  and  determine  the  present 
and     future     needs,     both     quantitative    and 

qualitative,  for  personnel  (including  Reserve 
personnel)  of  the  Navy.  This  includes 
responsibility  for  leadership  in  maintaining  (1)  a 
high  degree  of  competence  among  officers  and 
enlisted  personnel  through  education,  training, 
and  equal  opportunities  for  advancement,  and 
(2)  the  morale  and  motivation  of  Navy 
personnel  and  the  prestige  of  a  Navy  career. 

4.  To  plan  for  and  determine  the  needs  for 
the  care  of  the  health  of  the  personnel  of  the 
Navy  and  their  dependents. 

5.  To      direct      the      organization, 
administration,  training,  and  supply  of  the  Naval 

Chief  of  Naval  Material,  under  CNO,  commands 
all  activities  of  the  Naval  Material  Command 
(NMC).  He  is  responsible  to  the  CNO  for 
providing  the  material  support  of  the  Operating 
Forces,  and  to  the  Commandant  of  the  Marine 
Corps  for  providing  certain  material  support  for 
the  Marine  Corps. 

The  NMC  includes  the  Headquarters,  Naval 
Material  Command  and  five  principal 
subordinate  commands,  each  of  which  comprises 
a  headquarters  and  shore  activities  as  assigned: 

1 .  Naval  Air  Systems  Command, 

2.  Naval  Electronic  Systems  Command, 

3.  Naval  Facilities  Engineering  Command, 

4.  Naval  Sea  Systems  Command,  and 

5.  Naval  Supply  Systems  Command. 

The  Naval  Air  Systems  Command 
(NAVAIR)  is  responsible  for  Navy /Marine  Corps 
aircraft  and  airborne  weapon  systems  and  other 
aviation-related  equipment;  and  the  systems 
integration  of  aircraft  weapon  systems. 

General  areas  of  responsibility  for  the  Naval 
Electronic  Systems  Command  (NAVELEX) 
include  shore-based  electronic  systems  and 
certain  common-use  airborne  and  shipboard 
electronic  equipment,  such  as  navigation, 
communications,  and  general  test  equipment. 
NAVELEX  serves  as  a  central  technical 
authority  on  electronic  standards,  technology, 
and  compatibility. 



The  Naval  Facilities  Engineering  Command 
(NAVFAC)  is  responsible  for  administration  of 
the  Navy  military  construction  program, 
facilities  planning,  facility  maintenance  and 
utility  operations,  real  property  inventory 
management,  and  natural  resources  and 
pollution  control  programs.  It  performs  material 
support  functions  related  to  public  works, 
floating  cranes,  pontoons  and  moorings,  ocean 
structures,  and  to  transportation,  construction, 
and  weight-handling  equipment.  The  Command 
also  provides  engineering  and  technical  services 
in  nuclear  shore  power  and  radioisotope  power 

The  Naval  Sea  Systems  Command 
(NAVSEA)  is  responsible  for  whole  ships  and 
craft  including  shipboard  weapons  systems,  their 
components,  and  expendable  ordnance.  In 
addition,  NAVSEASYSCOM's  responsibility 
extends  to  the  coordination  of  system 
integration  of  all  shipboard  subsystems, 
procurement,  technical  guidance,  and 
supervision  of  operations  related  to  salvage  of 
stranded  and  sunken  ships  and  craft. 
NAVSEASYSCOM  is  the  central  technical 
authority  for  ship  and  ordnance  safety  including 
nuclear  power  and  explosives. 

The  Naval  Supply  Systems  Command 
(NAVSUP)  is  responsible  for  supply 
management  policies  and  methods; 
administration  of  the  Navy  Supply  System, 
publications  and  printing,  the  resale  program,  the 
Navy  Stock  Fund,  the  field  purchasing  service, 
and  transportation  of  Navy  property;  and 
material  functions  related  to  materials  handling 
equipment,  food  service,  and  special  clothing. 

AND  SURGERY.-Under  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Operations,  the  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Medicine 
and  Surgery  commands  that  bureau  and  its 
assigned  shore  activities.  He  is  responsible  for 
safeguarding  the  health  of  those  in  the  Navy; 
providing  care  and  treatment  for  sick  and 
injured  members  of  the  naval  service  (including 
the  Marine  Corps)  and  their  dependents; 
operating  training  programs  for  all  categories  of 
Medical  Department  personnel;  maintaining  a 
continuing  program  of  medical  and  dental 
research;  and  maintaining  programs  for  the 
prevention  and  control  of  diseases,  injuries,  and 

occupational  illnesses  of  civilian  employees  of 
the  Navy. 

CNO,  the  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel  commands 
the  Bureau  of  Naval  Personnel  and  assigned 
shore  activities.  He  is  responsible  for  the 
procurement,  promotion,  distribution, 
discipline,  retirement,  religious  guidance,  and 
the  welfare  and  morale  of  officer  and  enlisted 
personnel  of  the  Navy,  including  the  Naval 
Reserve  and  the  Naval  Reserve  Officer  Training 
Corps;  and  for  regulations  concerning  uniforms, 
naval  ceremonies,  and  naval  etiquette  as 
delegated  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy. 

Chief  of  Naval 
Education  and  Training 

Under  CNO,  the  Chief  of  Naval  Education 
and  Training  (CNET)  commands  the  Naval 
Education  and  Training  Command.  He  is  the 
manager  of  the  funds,  the  facilities,  the 
curricula,  and  the  support  of  all  training,  except 
certain  aspects  of  fleet  training  and  training 
assigned  to  the  Bureau  of  Medicine  and  Surgery. 
He  is  responsible  for  all  surface,  subsurface  and 
aviation  technical  training.  Under  him  are  the 
Chief  of  Naval  Technical  Training,  the  Chief  of 
Naval  Air  Training,  and  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Education  and  Training  Support. 

Commandant  of  the 
Marine  Corps 

Functions  and  responsibilities  of  the 
Commandant  of  the  U.S.  Marine  Corps  are 
discussed  in  chapter  1 1 . 

Staff  Offices 

Under  the  Comptroller,  who  is  Assistant 
Secretary  of  the  Navy  (Financial  Management), 
the  Deputy  Comptroller  of  the  Navy  commands 
the  Office  of  the  Comptroller.  This  Office 
formulates  principles  and  policies  for  financial 
management  in  the  Navy  and  prescribes 



procedures  in  the  areas  of  budget,  accounting, 
audit,  and  progress  and  statistical  reporting 
throughout  the  DON  to  the  end  that  their  use 
will  result  in  meeting  the  operating  and  planning 
requirements  of  management  with  efficiency 
and  economy. 

GENERAL.-The  Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate 
General  (JAG)  has  cognizance  of  all  phases  of 
law,  other  than  business  and  commercial  law, 
incident  to  operation  of  the  Department  of  the 
Navy.  The  major  areas  of  legal  acitivity  are 
military  law,  international  law,  admiralty  law, 
tort  claims,  administrative  law,  and  civil  law. 
The  Judge  Advocate  General  is  principal  advisor 
to  CNO  and  the  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel  for  the 
legal  aspects  of  military  personnel  matters. 

Office  of  Naval  Research  (ONR)  is  charged  with 
encouraging,  promoting,  planning,  initiating,  and 
coordinating  naval  research,  and  conducting 
naval  research  in  augmentation  of  and  in 
conjunction  with  the  research  and  development 
conducted  by  bureaus,  offices,  and  other 
agencies  of  the  DON.  The  Chief  of  Naval 
Research  reports  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  of 
the  Navy  (Research  and  Development).  He  is 
Assistant  Oceanographer  of  the  Navy  for  Ocean 
Science  matters. 

of  the  Office  of  Information  is  to  initiate, 
develop,  collect,  and  disseminate  to  the  public 
and  the  naval  service  information  concerning, 
among  other  things,  the  Navy  as  an  instrument 
of  national  policy  and  security,  and  activities  of 
the  Navy  as  compatible  with  national  security. 
The  Office  ensures  that  appropriate  information 
concerning  policies  and  programs  of  the  Navy 
Department  is  available  to  naval  personnel. 

OTHER  STAFF  OFFICES.-In  addition  to 
those  described  above,  staff  offices  of  SECNAV 
include  the  Office  of  General  Counsel,  Office  of 
Civilian  Manpower  Management,  Office  of 
Legislative  Affairs,  Office  of  Naval  Petroleum 
and  Oil  Shale  Reserves,  and  Office  of  Program 



The  Chief  of  Naval  Operations  is  responsible 
to  SECNAV  for  the  command,  use,  and 
administration  of  the  Operating  Forces  of  the 
Navy.  With  respect  to  Navy  and  Marine  Corps 
forces  assigned  to  unified  and  specified 
commands,  this  responsibility  is  discharged  in  a 
manner  consistent  with  the  full  operational 
command  vested  in  those  commanders. 

The  Operating  Forces  are  comprised  of  the 
several  fleets,  seagoing  forces,  the  Military 
Sealift  Command,  district  forces,  the  Coast 
Guard  (when  operating  as  a  service  in  the  Navy), 
Fleet  Marine  Forces  (discussed  in  chapter  1 1) 
and  other  assigned  Marine  Corps  forces,  and 
such  other  forces  and  Navy  shore  activities  and 
commands  as  are  assigned  by  SECNAV. 

Major  Commands 

Major  commands  afloat,  operating  directly 
under  the  command  of  CNO,  are  shown  in  figure 

The  composition  of  both  Pacific  and 
Atlantic  Fleets  includes  ships  and  craft  classified 
and  organized  into  commands  by  types,  the 
titles  of  which  are  self-explanatory: 

Training  commands, 
Surface  forces, 
Fleet  Marine  forces, 
Naval  Air  forces, 
Submarine  Forces. 

Type  commanders  report  to  the  Commander 
in  Chief  U.S.  Pacific  Fleet  (CINCPACFLT)  or 
Commander  in  Chief,  U.S.  Atlantic  Fleet 
(CINCLANTFLT),  as  appropriate. 

The  Commander  in  Chief,  Pacific  Fleet  has 
under  his  command  the  3rd  and  7th  Fleets;  the 
Commander  in  Chief,  Atlantic  Fleet  has  the  2nd 
Fleet;  and  the  Commander  in  Chief,  U.S.  Naval 
Forces,  Europe  has  the  6th  Fleet.  Ships  that 
make  up  the  operational  (numbered)  fleets  are 
provided  by  type  commanders.  Thus,  an  aircraft 
carrier  might  be  under  the  operational  control  of 
Commander,  3rd  Fleet  but  under  the 
administrative  command  of  Commander  Naval 
Air  Force  Pacific.  Fleet  Marine  forces,  which  are 



















(When  operating  as  a          \ 
service  in  the  Navy)          \ 









Figure  9-3.— Operating  forces  of  the  Navy. 

type  commands  under  the  administrative  control 
of  the  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps,  bear 
the  same  relation  to  the  respective  commanders 
in  chief  as  do  other  type  commands. 

The  Commander  in  Chief,  U.S.  Naval  Forces, 
Europe  (CINCUSNAVEUR)  is  the  naval 
component  commander  of  the  unified  command 
under  U.S.  Commander  in  Chief,  Europe. 

The  Military  Sealift  Command,  operated  by 
the  Navy  for  the  use  of  all  the  armed  services, 
consists  of  civil  service-manned  ships  and 
commercial  ships  employed  on  a  contract  basis. 
The  ships  are  no  longer  utilized  to  transport 
servicemen  and  their  dependents. 

The  primary  mission  of  MSC  is  to  provide 
immediate  sealift  capability  in  an  emergency. 
MSC  also  operates  fleet  support  ships  and  ships 
in  support  of  scientific  projects  and  other 
programs  for  agencies  and  departments  of  the 
United  States. 

Shore  Activities  Assigned 
to  Operating  Forces 

A  shore  activity  (discussed  in  the  next 
section)  may  be  placed  under  the  command  of 
the  Operating  Forces  if  it  is  outside  the 
boundaries  of  a  naval  district  or  if  it  provides 
support  only  to  units  of  the  Operating  Forces. 
There  are  numerous  activities  so  assigned, 
including  naval  air  facilities,  communication 
facilities,  naval  and  submarine  bases,  ship  repair 
facilities,  and  supply  depots. 


Although  a  number  of  shore  activities  exist 
at  the  Navy  Department  level  (e.g.,  systems 
commands  under  CNM:  Naval  Weather  Service 
Command  under  CNO),  this  discussion  concerns 
itself  mainly  with  those  shore  activities  which 
have  the  primary  function  of  supplying, 


maintaining,  and  supporting  the  Operating 
Forces  through  the  delivery  or  furnishing  of 
material,  services,  and  personnel. 

A  representative  list  of  such  activities 
includes  naval  district  headquarters,  air  facilities 
and  stations,  Reserve  training  units,  ammunition 
depots,  communication  stations,  fleet 
intelligence  centers,  fuel  depots,  naval  hospitals, 
laboratories,  medical  centers,  recruiting  stations, 
shipyards,  supply  centers,  and  schools. 
Generally,  these  activities  form  a  complex  of 
installations  engaged  in  a  wide  variety  of 
functions  including  military  operations  such  as 
flight  training,  service  functions  such  as 
movement  and  storage  of  supplies,  and  industrial 
production  such  as  ship  construction  and  repair. 

Many  shore  activities  are  distributed  at 
strategic  points  along  our  coastal  regions  and 
overseas  where  they  can  most  directly  serve  the 
needs  of  the  Operating  Forces.  Activities  for 
which  nearness  to  the  forces  afloat  is  not 
essential  or  practical,  however,  are  distributed  at 
vantage  points  within  the  United  States.  Among 
the  latter  are  finance  offices,  recruiting  stations, 
research  and  development  activities,  training 
centers,  and  others. 

Command  of  a 
Shore  Activity 

Authority  to  approve  the  establishment  or 
disestablishment  of  all  shore  activities  rests  with 
SECNAV.  He  approves  proposed  missions  and 
assigns  responsibility  for  command  to  the  Chief 
of  Naval  Operations,  Commandant  of  the  Marine 
Corps,  Chief  of  Naval  Research,  Judge  Advocate 
General,  or  one  of  SECNAV's  Staff  Assistants. 
Those  officials  may  delegate  such  command  (or 
supervision,  as  appropriate)  to  other  officials  in 
their  chain  of  command  or  supervision. 

The  exercise  of  command  over  a  shore 
activity  encompasses  overall  authority, 
direction,  control,  and  coordination  necessary  to 
carry  out  the  assigned  mission  and  responsibility 
for  the  operating  efficiency  of  the  activity.  It 
includes  administrative,  personnel,  and  material 
support;  guidance  and  assistance  in  such  matters 
as  organization,  procedures,  budgeting, 

accounting,    and    staffing;    and    utilization   of 
personnel,  funds,  material,  and  facilities. 

The  assignment  of  command  is  determined 
by  the  degree  to  which  the  mission  of  a  shore 
activity  is  related  to  provision  of  operational  or 
training  support  to  combatant  forces  as 
distinguished  from  other  types  of  support.  Thus, 
CNO  has  ultimate  command  of  such  activities  as 
systems  commands,  bureaus,  type  commands, 
naval  stations,  naval  air  stations,  naval  bases,  and 
naval  districts.  On  the  other  hand,  as  a  very 
limited  example,  the  Chief  of  Naval  Material  and 
other  chiefs  are  delegated  command 
responsibilities  as  follows: 


Ordnance  laboratory 
Missile  facility 
Medical  center 
Recruiting  station 

Service  school  command 



Chief,  BUMED 
Chief,  BUMED 
Chief  of  Naval 

Chief  of  Naval 
and  Training 

The  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps  has 
command  responsibility  for  most  Marine  shore 
activities  such  as  recruiting  stations  and  recruit 
depots,  Marine  supply  installations,  and  USMC 
Reserve  training  centers. 

Area  Coordination 

To  ensure  that  the  total  efforts  of  shore 
activities  afford  adequate  support  to  the 
combatant  forces  and  are  adequately 
coordinated  among  themselves,  the  Chief  of 
Naval  Operations  is  responsible  for  worldwide 
coordination  of  all  shore  activities.  This  overall 
direction  is  exercised  by  designated  area 
coordinators,  commanders  subordinate  to  CNO, 
who  direct  the  efforts  of  shore  activities  in  their 
areas  to  the  extent  necessary  to  assure  that  the 
support  rendered  is  effective  and  continuous. 

An  area  coordinator  has  no  authoritative 
direction  over  specific  field  activities  because 
responsibility  for  internal  affairs  is  assigned  to 









command  authorities.  The  task  of  the  area 
coordinator  is  to  ensure  that  within  his 
geographic  area  there  is  a  coordinated  effort  to 
provide  for  support  of  the  fleet,  effective 
administration,  readiness,  and  a  balance  of  effort 
among  the  shore  activities. 

With  comparatively  few  exceptions,  the 
assignment  of  area  coordination  responsibilities 
is  based  on  the  following:  (1)  activities  located 
in  a  naval  district  are  assigned  to  the  district 
commandant,  and  (2)  overseas  (non-naval 
district)  activities  are  assigned  to  the  appropriate 
fleet  commander  in  chief. 

Area  coordinators  may  subdelegate  area 
coordination  to  appropriate  commands  and 
activities  within  their  jurisdictions.  Thus, 
although  the  Commandant  of  the  First  Naval 
District  is  area  coordinator  for  all  shore  activities 
within  his  district,  the  commanders  of  the  naval 
bases  in  Boston  and  Newport  are  delegated 
immediate  area  coordinators  for  those  activities 
in  their  geographic  areas. 

(Charleston)  currently  are  additional  duties  of 
the  Naval  base  commanders  at  those  locations; 
COMEIGHT  (New  Orleans)  responsibilities  were 
transferred  to  the  Chief  of  Naval  Reserve; 
Commander,  Naval  Base,  San  Diego  assumed 
COMELEVEN  (San  Diego)  and  COMTWELVE 
(San  Francisco)  responsibilities,  and 
COMFOURTEEN  (Pearl  Harbor)  responsibilities 
were  transferred  to  a  subordinate  commander  of 

In  general,  district  commandants  have 
substantial  responsibility  in  the  following  areas: 
Naval  Reserve  training;  coordination  of  the 
efforts  of  shore  field  activities;  continuous 
evaluation  of  the  capabilities  and  readiness  of  all 
shore  activities  for  furnishing  support  to  fleet 
units-  consistent  with  requirements;  defense  of 
the  districts  and  control  of  local  disasters  or 
emergencies;  initiation  of  integrated 
relationships  among  shore  activities  to  ensure 
military  effectiveness;  and  the  coordination  of 
public  affair  matters  throughout  their  districts. 


Commandants  of  the  1 1  continental  and  1 
extra-continental  naval  districts  (figure  9-4)  are 
regional  representatives  of  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Operations  for  matters  that  fall  within  his 
responsibility,  and  for  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy 
on  matters  of  direct  secretarial  interest. 

The  1 2  naval  districts  have  been  reorganized 
and  the  number  of  primary  duty  commandants 
reduced  to  four.  Under  the  restructuring,  there 
still  are  12  districts,  but  only  four  primary  duty 
commandants:  COMFOUR,  Philadelphia; 
COM  NOW,  Washington;  COMNINE,  Great 
Lakes,  IL;  and  COMTHIRTEEN,  Seattle. 

COMONE  (Boston)  and  COMTHREE  (New 
York)  each  became  an  additional  duty  of 
COMFOUR;  COMF1  VE  (Norfolk)  and  COMSIX 


A  naval  base  includes  all  naval  shore 
activities  in  a  given  locality.  The  primary 
purpose  of  a  naval  base  is  to  coordinate  services 
provided  to  the  fleet  by  naval  activities  in  close 
geographical  proximity.  Each  naval  base 
commander  has  under  his  jurisdiction  such 
activities,  including  in  some  cases  air  stations,  as 
may  be  directed  by  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Operations.  These  activities  may  include  a 
shipyard  and  other  activities  providing  direct 
logistic  support  to  the  fleet.  A  naval  base 
commander  exercises  military  command  over 
the  component  activities,  unless  command 
relationships  are  otherwise  prescribed.  The  naval 
base  commander  is  under  the  military  command 
of  the  district  commandant. 




Essential  to  the  Navy  in  the  performance  of 
its  mission  are  various  components.  Some  of 
these  are  discussed  in  this  chapter,  as  are  such 
supporting  elements  as  the  U.S.  Coast  Guard, 
which  becomes  part  of  the  Navy  in  time  of  war, 
and  the  U.S.  merchant  marine.  Other 
:omponents,  such  as  U.S.  Marine  Corps  and  the 
Naval  Reserve,  are  discussed  "\  in  •^ubsequent 
:hapters.  ° 


Officers  of  the  Civil  Engineer  Corps  (CEC), 
who  administer  the  work  of  the  Naval  Facilities 
Engineering  Command  (NAVFACENGCOM), 
ire  commissioned  naval  officers  having  special 
technical  qualifications.  They  are  engineers, 
planners,  estimators,  analysts  of  the  Navy's 
shore  facilities,  and  overseers  of  the  construction 
ind  maintenance  of  the  shore  establishment. 
Additionally,  they  command  the  field  forces 
that  construct  advance  bases  for  support  of 
Marine  and  Navy  contingency  operations. 

The  Commander,  Naval  Facilities 
Engineering  Command  also  is  the  Chief  of  Civil 
Engineers  (that  is,  the  head  of  the  Corps).  He 
exercises  technical  direction  over  the  Naval 
Construction  Forces,  generally  known  as  the 
Seabees.  NAVFACENGCOM  also  has  support 
responsibility  of  commands  and  organizations 
[such  as  construction  battalion  centers) 
established  as  separate  activities  of  the 
Department  of  the  Navy  whose  primary 
function  is  the  organizing  and  equipping  of  the 
Naval  Construction  Forces. 

The  World  War  II  job  of  NAVFACENGCOM 
'then  the  Bureau  of  Yards  and  Docks)  as  an 
idministrative  component  and  of  the  CEC  as  an 

operational  force  was  tremendous.  Fueling  and 
docking  facilities  had  to  be  established;  food  and 
equipment  depots  were  needed  to  handle 
supplies  for  the  combat  areas;  hospitals  were 
necessary  to  receive  the  wounded  and  sick;  and 
repair  facilities  for  ships  had  to  be  equipped  and 
re$dy  for  instant  action.  Most  pressing  of  all  was 
the  need  for  airstrips. 

Many  CEC  officers  supervised  the  specialized 
work  of  Seabee  maintenance  units  which  took 
over  maintenance  of  advanced  bases,  thereby 
releasing  construction  battalions  for 
participation  in  new  landings;  some  were  in 
charge  of  pontoon  detachments,  smoke 
generation  units,  malaria-control  units,  and 
underwater  demolition  teams. 

An  outstanding  example  of  World  War  II 
NAVFACENGCOM  accomplishments  was  the 
floating  drydock  program.  The  few  floating 
drydocks  constructed  before  the  outbreak  of 
war  were  designed  for  use  in  quiet  harbors  where 
outside  facilities  existed  for  power  and  crew 
accommodations.  This  war,  however,  involved 
naval  warfare  on  a  scale  previously  unknown, 
and  it  became  imperative  that  a  way  be  found  to 
repair  ships  thousands  of  miles  from  home  ports. 
To  this  end,  the  Civil  Engineers  prepared 
radically  new  designs  for  a  fleet  of  floating 
drydocks  that  could  repair  ships  close  to  the 
scene  of  battle,  making  it  possible  for  damaged 
ships  to  return  quickly  to  the  fight. 

The  designs  included  docks  that  carried  their 
own  power  machinery  and  crew  quarters,  docks 
with  ship-like  hulls  for  fast  towing,  and,  most 
important,  docks  of  a  size  that  could  handle  the 
largest  ships  afloat.  Originally,  it  was  planned  to 
build  a  single-unit  dock  capable  of  cradling  a 
battleship.  Because  such  a  structure  could  have 
been  sunk  by  a  single  torpedo,  the  plan  was 



Figure  10-1.— CEC-conceived  sectional  drydocks  made  it 
possible  to  repair  the  largest  ships  close  to  the  scene 
of  battle. 

abandoned  in  favor  of  a  dock  built  in  sections 
that  could  be  towed  to  an  advance  base  and 
there  welded  together  into  a  single  dock,  as  in 
figure  10- 1. 

Called  the  advanced  base  sectional  dock 
(ABSD),  the  structure  consisted  of  ten  sections 
that  were  interchangeable,  so  that,  if  hit,  a 
damaged  section  could  be  cradled  in  the  other 
sections  and  repaired. 

During  the  last  year  of  World  War  II.  the  1  50 
war-built  floating  drydocks  serviced  7000  ships 
in  combat  areas. 

Equally  or  even  more  spectacular  was  the 
development  of  the  Navy  pontoon,  the  famed 
"magic  boxes"1  of  World  War  II.  The  concept 
came  from  a  cigarbox  model  made  by  a  CEC 
captain.  Pontoon  causeways,  beached  from 
shipside  while  underway,  enabled  Allied  forces 
to  bridge  the  shallow  waters  along  the  southern 
coast  of  Sicily-to  the  surprise  of  the  Germans, 
who  had  considered  those  waters  a  natural 
barrier.  Some  1 0,000  Army  vehicles  rolled  from 
ship  to  shore  over  the  steel  pontoon  bridges,  as 

in  figure    10-2,  setting   the   pattern   for  every 
ensuing  invasion  in  the  war. 

The  pontoon  was  put  to  many  uses.  Various 
assemblies  were  made,  including  net  tenders, 
causeways,  floating  cranes,  drydocks,  finger 
piers,  seaplane  service  piers  and  ramps,  and  even 
an  experimental  aircraft  landing  field. 

Post-World  War  II  years  have  seen  rapid 
technological  and  management  system 
expansion  throughout  the  engineering  world  and 
the  Department  of  Defense.  NAVFACENGCOM 
has  been  a  leader  in  developing  advanced 
management  systems  and  adapting  these. to  the 
latest  computer  hardware;  examples  are  the 
Shore  Facilities  Planning  and  Programming 
System  and  the  Seabee  management  tool, 
Seabee  Tactically  Installed  Navy  Generated 
Engineer  Resources  System  (STINGER). 

In  the  areas  of  engineering  development, 
NAVFACENGCOM  strives  to  turn  the  most 
up-to-date  technological  advances  into  the  basis 
for  efficient,  economical  shore  facilities  for  the 
Navy.  NAVFACENGCOM  research  also  is 
deeply  involved  in  the  future,  with  such 
concepts  as  underwater  construction  being 
studied  in  detail. 

A  major  engineering  accomplishment  of  the 
CEC  was  its  direction  of  the  massive  Vietnam 
construction  program.  Over  100  CEC  officers 
directed  the  efforts  of  a  25,000-man  civilian 
work  force  under  the  control  of  United  States 
contractors  in  accomplishing  a  S2  billion 
program  that  considerably  upgraded  the  entire 
face  of  the  nation. 

Many  new  engineering  concepts  have 
developed  from  the  Vietnam  experiences 
including  a  new  lightweight,  high-strength 
replacement  for  the  old  pontoons  discussed 

Throughout  the  years  1942-1968,  however, 
the  proudest  CEC  accomplishment  has  been  the 
meteoric  growth  and  fame  of  the  Seabees. 


The  forerunners  of  the  Naval  Construction 
Forces  date  back  to  World  War  I  when  a 




Figure  10-2.— LSTs  can  launch  pontoon  causeways  while  underway  or  upon  beaching,  momentum  carrying  the 
causeways  to  the  beach.  When  the  marriage  between  LST  and  causeway  is  made,  vehicles  leave  the  ship  under  their 
own  power. 

construction  regiment  was  formed  to 
supplement  the  public  works  department  in  the 
construction  of  recruit  training  facilities  at  Great 
Lakes.  A  small  detachment  of  the  regiment  also 
went  overseas  to  build  communication  facilities 
in  France.  After  the  war,  the  regiment  was 

With  the  advent  of  World  War  II,  the  services 
of  contractors  and  their  civilian  employees 
engaged  in  building  naval  projects  overseas  could 
not  be  utilized  for  construction  work  in  combat 
zones.  Under  military  law  their  status  as  civilians 
prevented  them  from  offering  resistance  to  an 
enemy  without  becoming  liable  to  summary 
execution  as  guerrillas  in  the  event  of  capture. 

Further,    civilian    workers    lacked    the   training 
necessary  to  defend  themselves. 

The  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Yards  and 
Docks,  Admiral  Ben  Moreell  (now  referred  to  as 
the  King  Bee),  therefore  proposed  the  creation 
of  a  construction  force  within  the  Navy  to  meet 
the  needs  for  uniformed  men  to  perform 
construction  work  in  combat  areas.  Three  naval 
construction  battalions  (NCBs)  were  authorized 
in  January  1942;  they  served  under  officers  of 
the  Civil  Engineer  Corps.  The  name  "Seabees" 
derives  from  the  initials  of  the  term 
"construction  battalion."  (See  figure  10-3.) 

A  battalion,  still  the  fundamental  unit  of  the 
Seabee  organization,  was  composed  of  four 


construction  companies,  which  included 
necessary  skills  for  any  job,  plus  a  headquarters 
company  consisting  of  yeomen,  storekeepers, 
cooks,  and  so  on.  As  a  complete  operating  unit  a 
battalion  could  be  sent  into  the  field  on  its  own. 
The  complement  was  set  at  32  officers  and  1073 

In  the  early  stages  of  the  war,  the  NCB 
operated  overseas  as  an  independent  unit,  with 
the  officer  in  charge  responsible  for  making  all 
decisions  of  an  engineering  and  military 
character.  As  the  number  of  battalions  in  a  given 
area  increased,  and  as  large  construction  projects 
were  undertaken,  a  higher  command  echelon 
became  necessary  to  coordinate  the  work. 
Consequently,  naval  construction  regiments 
were  established.  In  large  areas,  where  many 
battalions  operated,  brigades  were  formed. 
Finally,  at  Okinawa,  a  task  force  unit  was 
created,  embracing  more  than  100,000  Seabee 
and  United  States  Army  and  British  engineers. 
Altogether,  12  brigades,  54  regiments,  and  more 


Figure  10-3.— The  CB  insigne,  appropriately  enough,  is  a 
bee.  Fighting  mad,  it  is  going  into  action  carrying 
some  of  the  tools  of  its  trade— wrench,  hammer,  and 
spitting  machinegun. 

than  150  battalions  were  formed.  Peak  strength 
was  a  quarter  of  a  million  men. 

Construction  of  an  advance  base -the 
Seabees'  primary  function— was  a  complex  task. 
A  typical  project  was  the  construction  of  an 
airbase.  The  first  job  was  to  get  equipment 
ashore  despite  enemy  resistance.  After  the 
beachhead  was  established,  roads  had  to  be  cut 
inland  to  the  site  of  camp  and  airstrip.  Supplies 
and  equipment  had  to  be  moved  off  the  exposed 
beach.  Following  this,  many  activities  got 
underway  simultaneously:  a  campsite  was 
cleared  and  a  source  of  water  found  and 
developed;  hospital  and  messing  facilities  were 
set  up;  gun  emplacements  were  built  and  radar 
protection  installed;  access  roads  were  pushed 
through;  and  construction  of  the  airstrip  started. 
The  menace  of  enemy  aircraft  was  always 
present,  with  snipers  sometimes  operating  from 
the  jungle's  edge.  It  took  about  2  weeks  to 
develop  a  fighter  strip  to  the  point  where  planes 
could  land  and  take  off.  ^ 

Meanwhile,  construction  of  other  facilities 
had  kept  pace.  A  pier  and  dock  had  been  built, 
and  fuel  tanks  for  aviation  gas  erected  and 
camouflaged;  powerplants,  warehouses,  and 
shops  had  been  put  up  and  permanent  structures 
for  personnel  replaced  makeshift  quarters;  an 
administration  building,  dispensary,  post  office, 
and  utility  structures  were  made  ready  for  use. 

Such  a  base  was  built  by  a  single  battalion  of 
Seabees,  serving  as  part  of  an  all-service  airbase 
unit.  For  more  extensive  bases,  such  as  an 
all-purpose  base  to  fuel  and  repair  ships,  supply 
the  fleet,  and  serve  the  fleet's  air  arm,  three  or 
more  battalions  were  required. 

The  Seabees  were  assigned  the  construction 
of  shipbuilding  and  ship  repair  plants;  port  and 
harbor  workc;  aviation  training  and  operating 
stations;  ammunition  depots  and  ordnance 
production  facilities;  supply  depots,  hospitals, 
fleet  operating  bases,  and  fuel  depots;  housing 
for  officers,  enlisted  men,  and  civilians;  and 
floating  and  graving  docks  of  all  sizes  and 
characters.  They  constructed  bases  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  Iceland,  Newfoundland,  Bermuda,  the 
Caribbean  area,  Panama,  South  America,  Africa, 
Alaska,  and  wherever  the  fighting  forces  went  in 
the  Pacific.  Worldwide,  Seabees  constructed 

more  than  400  advance  bases— some 
accommodating  50,000  men-and  housing 
facilities  for  1.5  million  men. 

In  1946  the  Seabees,  originally  established 
only  as  a  wartime  force,  were  made  a  permanent 
part  of  the  Navy.  In  1948,  "Group  VIII" 
(construction)  ratings  were  established  for 
enlisted  Seabee  personnel.  Prior  to  that  time, 
there  were  no  construction  ratings  as  such. 

The  main  assignment  of  early  postwar 
Seabees  was  to  perform  maintenance  work  at 
Navy  overseas  bases.  Occasionally,  they  received 
assignments  to  perform  special  missions  such  as 
constructing  housing  at  an  advance  base,  or 
participating  in  special  operations  such  as  the 
atomic  bomb  tests  and  expeditions  to  the 

The  most  ambitious  postwar  project 
involved  construction  of  Cubi  Point  Naval  Air 
Station  at  Subic  Bay  in  the  Philippines.  Seven 
years  in  the  doing,  construction  of  the  field 
turned  out  to  be  an  earth-moving  chore 
comparable  to  digging  the  Panama  Canal.  The 
Seabees  literally  tore  down  a  mountain  to  get 
the  17  million  cubic  yards  of  earth  and  rock 
needed  to  complete  the  job. 

Cubi  Point  construction  was  accomplished  in 
part  for  support  of  Korean  operations. 
Amphibious  construction  battalions  (described 
later,  but  mainly  concerned  with  pontoonery 
and  across-the-beach  operations)  played  a  key 
role  in  supporting  the  Inchon  landing.  Other 
Seabee  units  built  airfields  and  maintained 
Marine  facilities.  Several  battalions  were 
deployed  to  the  Philippines  (such  as  those 
involved  in  the  Cubi  job),  Okinawa,  and  other 
Pacific  island  bases  to  build  support  facilities 
vital  to  the  Korean  logistics  chain. 

From  1953  onward  Seabee  battalions  (now 
called  naval  mobile  construction  battalions 
(NMCBs)-the  term  truly  fits;  every  piece  of 
today's  specially  designed  Seabee  equipment  can 
be  airlifted)  worked  in  such  places  as  Cuba, 
Spain,  Newfoundland,  Guam,  Okinawa,  and  the 
Philippines,  to  mention  a  few. 

In  May  of  1965  the  then  10,000-man  Seabee 
force  was  called  on  again  and  MCBs  went  across 
the  beach  in  Chu  Lai,  Republic  of  Vietnam. 
During  the  peak  of  the  conflict  Seabee  strength 

more  than  doubled  to  25,000  men  in  21 
battalions.  Nearly  $100  million  of  construction 
had  been  placed  during  more  than  3  million 
man-days  of  grueling  effort  by  the  Seabees.  Jobs 
were  diverse,  ranging  from  construction  of  huge 
logistics  complexes  in  Da  Nang  and  Chu  Lai  in 
the  early  phases  of  the  conflict,  to  building 
camps  in  remote  locations  for  the  Army  Special 
Forces  (Green  Beret)  troops. 

The    breakdown     of    Naval    Construction 
Forces  includes  the  following  basic  elements: 

Naval  construction  brigade  (NCB) 
Naval  construction  regiment  (NCR) 
Amphibious     construction     battalion 


Naval  mobile  construction  battalion  (NMCB) 
Construction    battalion    maintenance    unit 


Construction  battalion  unit  (CBU) 
Naval  support  unit  (NSU) 

Seabee  Team 

A  brigade  consists  of  two  or  more  regiments; 
a  regiment  is  composed  of  two  or  more  mobile 
construction  battalions;  and  the  battalion  still 
consists  of  five  companies,  although  manning  is 
now  at  550  to  750  as  opposed  to  the  World  War 
II  1000-man  battalion.  The  basic  operational 
component  is  the  battalion,  as  it  has  been  since 
the  construction  forces  were  created  in  1942. 
The  brigade  commander  directs  and  coordinates 
activities  of  Seabee  regiments.  Regimental 
commanders  coordinate  the  efforts  of  attached 
battalions,  provide  "home  base"  facilities,  issue 
needed  material  and  equipment,  and  provide 
administrative  support  training. 

The  function  of  an  ACB  (or  PHIBCB)  is  to 
provide  engineering  support  required  by  a  naval 
beach  group  during  an  amphibious  operation. 
The  task  of  a  beach  group  is  to  support  a 
division  of  troops  during,  as  a  minimum,  the 
assault  phase  of  the  operation.  The  role  of  a 
PHIBCB  is,  as  an  example,  to  provide  pontoon 
causeways,  beach  salvage  teams,  beach 
improvement  teams,  and  ship-shore  fuel  systems, 
each  function  being  performed  by  a  platoon 
specially  trained  for  the  job.  A  PHIBCB  is 



self-sufficient  but  normally  is  not  intended  for 
lengthy  deployment  in  the  field;  when  the  beach 
group's  operation  is  completed,  the  PHIBCB's 
mission  also  has  been  accomplished. 

An  NMCB  is  an  independent,  self-sustaining 
unit  organizationally  designed  to  operate  alone. 
It  can  accomplish  a  large  variety  of  construction 
missions-roads,  bridges,  airstrips,  fuel  storage 
tanks,  water  supply  system,  and  electric 
installations,  to  name  just  a  few— in  addition  to 
erecting  probably  any  type  of  building.  The 
composition  of  an  NMCB  necessarily  represents 
a  large  cross  section  of  the  building 
trades— carpenters,  plumbers,  electricians, 
engineers,  surveyors,  heavy  equipment 
operators,  and  so  on. 

The  primary  job  of  the  Seabees  is  to  build, 
but  based  on  the  theory  that  they  can't  build 
unless  they  control  the  jobsite,  all  Seabees 
receive  training  in  defensive  combat  tactics. 
Controlling  the  jobsite  involves  the  second  part 
of  being  a  Seabee,  the  fighting  part,  as 
exemplified  by  the  Seabee  motto  "Construmus 
batuimus"  meaning  "We  build— we  fight." 

Each  company  in  a  battalion  organization  is 
divided  into  combat  platoons,  squads,  and  teams 
(fire,  machinegun,  and  rocket).  A  Marine 
gunnery  sergeant  is  assigned  on  an  augmented 
basis  as  a  military  advisor  and  training  specialist 
to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  battalion. 

As  a  self-sustaining  unit,  the  NMCB  in 
particular  must  be  capable  of  self-defense  for  a 
limited  time.  Each  battalion  subdivision  has  a 
construction/military  support  assignment  and 
every  officer  and  man  fills  a  construction/ 
military  support  billet.  The  construction  aspect, 
of  course,  predominates;  the  mission  is  to  build. 
Platoons  are  organized  into  work  crews  that 
correspond  to  the  weapon  squad  organization. 
The  basic  construction/military  support  units, 
then,  are  the  work  crew/rifle  fire  team,  work 
crew/automatic  weapons  team,  and  the  work 
crew/rocket  launcher  team. 

The  function  of  a  CBMU  is  upkeep  and 
maintenance  of  completed  bases.  It  is  also 
equipped,  however,  to  accomplish  relatively 
light  construction  projects. 

Seabees  have  constructed  numerous 
Antarctic  bases  since  1955.  CBU  did  the  base 
construction  during  the  "summer"  season  while 
a  maintenance  unit  wintered  over  for  the 

purpose  of  upkeep.  Presently  CBUs  are 
constructing  and  working  on  bases  around  the 

The  Naval  Support  Unit  (NSU),  State 
Department,  provides  construction  support  to 
the  U.S.  Department  of  State.  The  duty  involves 
the  inspection  of  foreign  contract  construction 
and  the  accomplishment  of  minor  construction 
and  repairs  within  secure  areas  of  foreign  service 
buildings  overseas.  The  activity  has  a  personnel 
strength  of  volunteers  and  is  commanded  by  a 
CEC  lieutenant  commander  or  lieutenant.  The 
enlisted  personnel  are  second-class  petty  officers 
or  higher.  Married  personnel  are  assigned  to 
unaccompanied  tours  initially  and  then  to  a 
two-year  accompanied  tour.  Unmarried 
personnel  customarily  remain  in  a  "transit" 
status  during  most  of  their  tour.  The  Navy  is 
reimbursed  by  the  Department  of  State  for  all 
costs  associated  with  this  unit. 

Seabee  teams  consist  of  1  CEC  officer  and 
1 2  enlisted  men.  Every  man  is  cross-trained  in  at 
least  one  rate  other  than  his  own,  so  that  in 
essence  the  capability  of  each  highly  diversified 
team  actually  is  more  than  double  that  of  the 
indicated  manpower.  The  teams  comprise  a 
breed  of  civic  action/counterinsurgency 
builder-fighters  that  can  be  flown,  with  their 
equipment,  anywhere  in  the  world  on  short 
notice.  They  are  self-sufficient  in  the  field  and 
can  do  a  variety  of  construction  tasks.  In 
general,  teams  serve  as  goodwill  ambassadors, 
building  or  advising  on  the  construction  of 
public  works  projects  in  small  nations  unable  to 
accomplish  the  tasks  themselves.  They  have  been 
assigned  to  a  number  of  countries  and  trust 
territories  in  the  Pacific  to  build  roads,  drill 
water  wells,  and  erect  schools,  for  example. 

In  Vietnam,  teams  went  out  among  the 
people  for  months  at  a  time  as  part  of  the 
people-to-people  civic  action  program,  to  advise 
on  sanitation  and  health  matters,  take  care  of 
the  sick  (a  specially  trained  hospital  corpsman 
was  assigned  to  each  team),  and  to  teach  basic 
construction  skills  to  villagers.  A  Seabee  team 
member,  Marvin  Shields,  CM3  (whose  deeds 
were  described  in  chapter  2),  was  the  first  Navy 
man  to  win  the  Medal  of  Honor  in  Vietnam. 

Figure  10-4  illustrates  the  diversity  of 
Seabee  functions  in  Vietnam. 










Officers  of  the  Supply  Corps  are  the  Navy's 
business  administrators.  As  such,  they  are 
responsible  for  ensuring  that  the  vast  logistics 
requirements  of  the  Navy,  as  set  forth  by  the 
Chief  of  Naval  Operations,  are  provided 
efficiently  and  economically  to  ships  and 
activities  around  the  world.  This  entails  the 
management  of  a  supply  system  that  must 
furnish  well  over  a  million  items  essential  to  the 
operations  of  ships,  missiles,  aircraft,  and 
facilities.  In  addition,  Supply  Corps  officers 
manage  the  operation  of  food  service,  ship's 
store,  and  Navy  Exchange  facilities;  and  disburse 
pay  and  allowances  of  Navy  men  and  women. 

Duty  assignments  of  Supply  Corps  officers 
range  from  that  of  supply  officer  aboard  a 
destroyer  to  the  Commander,  Naval  Supply 
Systems  Command,  a  rear  admiral,  who  also 
serves  as  the  Chief  of  the  Supply  Corps.  The 
Naval  Supply  Systems  Command  is  responsible 
for  overall  management  of  supply  ashore  and 
afloat.  Disbursing  and  certain  other 
comptrollership  billets  to  which  Corps  officers 
may  be  assigned  are  under  the  management  of 
Comptroller  of  the  Navy. 

The  afloat  supply  officer  is  chiefly 
concerned  with  procurement,  receipt,  custody, 
stowage,  and  expenditure  of  material  for  ship's 
use;  maintenance  of  stock  records  and  inventory 
control;  food  service  and  ship's  store  operations; 
and  payment  of  the  crew.  Ashore,  billets  involve 
requisitioning  and  local  procurement,  contract 
purchasing,  material  inspection  and  receipt, 
stock  management  at  field  supply  points,  supply 
systems  management,  storage  and  materials 
handling,  and  financial  management. 

Current  Corps  strength  is  about  4500 
officers,  50%  of  whom  serve  afloat  and  overseas. 
The  main  source  of  Supply  Corps  officer  input  is 
the  NROTC  (Regular)  Program  including  some 
"hard  science"  majors.  Others  are  received  from 
the  Naval  Academy,  OCS  programs,  the  LDO 
Program,  and  line  officer  transfers.  While  not 
officially  members  of  the  Corps,  about  300 
warrant  and  chief  warrant  officers  serving  in  the 
technical  specialty  of  Supply  Clerk  also  are 

assigned  to  Supply  Corps  billets  both  afloat  and 

Newly  commissioned  Supply  Corps  officers, 
including  line  transferees,  and  newly  appointed 
warrant  Supply  Clerks  are  sent  to  the  Navy 
Supply  Corps  School,  Athens,  Georgia,  for  26 
weeks  of  intensive  training  in  Basic  Supply 
Management.  In  addition  they  receive 
instructions  in  a  wide  range  of  sophisticated 
management  techniques,  including  automatic 
data  processing.  On  completion  of  the  course, 
most  Corps  officers  are  initially  assigned  to 
afloat  billets  followed  by  tours  ashore  in 
CONUS  and  overseas.  The  typical  rotation 
pattern  of  Corps  officers  is  discussed  in  chapter 
3.  By  his  or  her  third  tour,  the  typical  Supply 
Corps  officer  is  expected  to  develop  a  functional 
proficiency  in  one  of  the  following  fields: 
clothing  and  textiles,  financial  management,  fuel 
distribution,  merchandising,  procurement, 
subsistence  technology,  system  inventory 
management,  or  transportation  management. 

Courses  in  Navy  Exchange  Management  (6 
weeks)  and  Commissary  Store  Management  (4 
weeks)  are  conducted  several  times  yearly  at  the 
Navy  Ship's  Store  Office,  Brooklyn,  New  York. 
A  6-month  course  in  Transportation  Manage- 
ment conducted  at  the  Naval  Supply  Center, 
Oakland,  California,  covers  material  on  terminal 
operations  and  stevedoring,  traffic  management, 
and  warehousing.  Supply  Corps  officers  also  are 
eligible  to  attend  other  courses  of  varying  length 
conducted  at  both  military  and  civilian  facilities 
on  subjects  ranging  from  petroleum  storage  to 
computer  systems. 

Development  of  a  functional  proficiency  in 
no  way  detracts  from  the  Supply  Officer's 
overall  opportunity  to  upgrade  his  or  her 
professional  qualifications  as  a  naval  officer. 
Each  year  approximately  100  Supply  Corps 
officers  are  selected  for  postgraduate  training  at 
military  and  civilian  institutions,  some  at  the 
doctorate  level.  Studies  range  from  logistics  and 
management  sciences  to  law  and  personnel 
administration.  Long-range  plans  for  the  Supply 
Corps  officer  envision  him  as  a 
tech  no-economist  skilled  in  mathematical 
sciences,  analytical  methods,  and  behavioral 
sciences  essential  to  future  Navy  operations. 




The  term  "Medical  Department"  designates 
the  worldwide  medical  and  dental  services  and 
facilities  maintained  by  the  Department  of  the 
Navy  in  accomplishing  its  assigned  mission 
within  the  national  defense  structure  of  the 
United  States.  The  mission  of  the  Medical 
Department  is  to  safeguard  the  health  of  the 
Navy  and  Marine  Corps.  This  includes  care  and 
treatment  of  sick  and  injured  members  of  the 
naval  service  and  their  dependents;  training 
programs  for  Medical  Department  personnel; 
continuing  programs  of  medical  and  dental 
research;  prevention  and  control  of  diseases  and 
injuries;  promotion  of  physical  fitness  in 
members  of  the  naval  service;  care  for  on-the-job 
injuries  and  illness  of  civilian  employees;  and 
supervision  of  the  care  and  preparation  for 
shipment  and  interment  of  deceased  military 
members  and  of  civilian  personnel  for  whom  the 
Navy  is  responsible. 

Members  of  the  medical  profession  have 
always  played  an  important  role  in  the  Navy. 
They  have  served  with  gallantry  and  distinction 
on  every  type  of  fighting  ship,  from  the  Alfred, 
the  vessel  on  which  John  Paul  Jones  hoisted  the 
first  American  flag  in  1775,  to  the  modern 
nuclear-powered  submarines. 

The  history  of  the  Navy's  medical 
department  shows  that  it  is  increasing  in 
professional  competence,  specialization, 
mobility,  and  prestige— results  due,  in  no  small 
part,  to  the  organized  efforts  of  its  members:  In 
the  early  days  of  the  Navy,  however,  physicians 
were  selected  by  commanders  of  naval  vessels 
for  individual  voyages.  Medical  officers  were  not 
formally  organized  and  had  little,  if  any,  relation 
to  one  another.  Interesting  travel  and  a  share  in 
any  booty  a  ship  might  capture  served  as 
inducements  to  join  the  Navy. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  Navy,  medical  and 
surgical  attention  was  provided  by  Surgeons  or 
Surgeons'  Mates.  Their  assistants,  selected  from 
the  crew,  were  known  as  "loblolly  boys,"  a 
designation  used  in  the  British  Navy,  the  term 
was  derived  from  the  name  of  a  porridge  served 
to  the  sick  and  injured.  Loblolly  boys  were 
ill-trained,  but  undoubtedly  many  of  them  gave 

of  themselves  a  full  measure  of  their  capabilities; 
they  were  the  nucleus  of  a  group  much  later 
organized  into  what  is  now  the  Hospital  Corps. 

While  naval  regulations,  as  early  as  1798, 
called  for  "a  convenient  place  to  be  set  apart  for 
sick  and  hurt  men"  aboard  naval  vessels,  the 
ill-ventilated,  poorly  lit,  and  inadequately 
equipped  spaces  reserved  for  the  care  of  the  sick 
on  early  ships  was  a  far  cry  from  the  completely 
appointed  sickbays  of  today. 

The  lifesaving  drugs  and  effective  techniques 
of  modern  medicine  were  unknown.  Surgeons 
lacked  adequate  anesthetics  and  antiseptics. 
Great  faith  was  placed  in  vinegar  as  a  germ  killer; 
rum  and  opium  compounds  were  the  most 
frequently  used  agents  for  deadening  pain. 


The  first  real  effort  to  provide  a  distinct 
medical  organization  within  the  Navy 
Department  was  made  in  August  1842,  when 
Congress  established  the  Bureau  of  Medicine  and 
Surgery.  Surgeon  William  P.  C.  Barton,  who  27 
years  before  had  published  a  Scheme  for 
Systematizing  the  Medical  Department  of  the 
Navy,  was  chosen  as  first  chief  of  the  bureau.  He 
was  offered,  but  refused,  the  additional  title  of 
surgeon  general.  He  was  selected  from  a  list  of 
60  surgeons  then  serving  in  the  Navy. 

In  the  1860's  the  Medical  Department 
expanded  with  the  growth  of  the  Navy.  During 
this  decade  the  hospital  at  Washington,  D.C., 
was  built;  the  Annual  Reports  of  the  Surgeon 
General,  later  to  be  of  much  value  to  public 
health  authorities  and  other  officials,  were 
continued;  and  the  Navy's  first  so-designated 
hospital  ship,  the  Red  Rover  (figure  10-5),  was 
commissioned.  This  ship,  a  sidewheeler  captured 
from  the  Confederates,  was  converted  into  a 
hospital  ship  at  St.  Louis.  Virtually  a  "floating 
palace"  for  its  time,  it  had  elevators  between 
decks,  fully  equipped  wards,  screened  windows, 
well-appointed  operating  rooms,  and  nine 
"water  closets."  The  Navy's  first  female  nurses 
also  served  aboard  the  Red  Rover. 

In  1871  medical  officers  were  no  longer 
listed  simply  as  surgeons,  but  as  members  of  a 
staff  corps  of  the  Navy.  They  were  given  grades 



Figure  10-5.-USS  Red  Rover,  the  Navy's  first  regular 
hospital  ship,  was  in  use  during  the  Civil  War.  The 
Navy's  first  female  nurses  served  aboard  her. 

of  medical  director,  medical  inspector,  surgeon, 
and  past  assistant  surgeon,  the  grades  being 
generally  comparable  to  captain,  commander, 
lieutenant  commander,  and  lieutenant, 
respectively.  Assistant  surgeons  on  their  first 
cruise  had  the  "relative  rank"  of  ensign. 

Rating  designations  of  enlisted  personnel 
have  gone  through  many  changes.  The  loblolly 
boy  was  succeeded,  in  1843,  by  surgeons' 
steward.  During  the  Civil  War  male  nurses  were 
enlisted  and  assigned  to  receiving  ships  "in  a 
number  proportionate  to  the  necessities  of  the 
case."  The  designation  of  surgeons'  steward  was 
changed  to  that  of  apothecary  in  1866;  about 
1873,  the  male  nurse  became  a  "bayman." 
These  designations  remained  until  1898,  when 
the  present  Hospital  Corps  was  established. 

In  1  883  the  Museum  of  Naval  Hygiene  was 
founded  in  Washington.  The  first  Instruction  for 
Medical  Officers,  a  compilation  of  naval 
regulations  affecting  the  Medical  Department, 
was  revised.  It  had  first  been  published  in  1867 
when  Gideon  Welles  was  Secretary  of  the  Navy. 
After  the  1909  edition,  this  book  was  titled 
Manual  of  the  Medical  Department,  United 
States  Navv,  with  a  drastically  improved  edition 
in  1914. 

The  grade  of  rear  admiral  was  given  to  the 
Surgeon  General  of  the  Navy  in  1 899,  and  the 
Medical  Department  thus  acquired  added 

Under  Surgeon  General  Rixey  and  President 
Theodore  Roosevelt,  annual  physical 
examinations  for  officers  were  inaugurated. 

The  Nurse  Corps  (female),  forerunner  of  the 
present-day  Navy  Nurse  Corps,  was  created  by 
an  act  of  Congress  in  1908. 

In  1911  antityphoid  vaccination  was  made 
mandatory,  and  the  systematic  teaching  of  first 
aid  was  instituted.  In  the  following  year  the 
Dental  Corps  was  established  under  the  new 
Surgeon  General,  Charles  F.  Stokes. 

The  rating  of  hospital  steward  was  officially 
changed  to  pharmacist's  mate  (PHM)  in  1916; 
the'  Hospital  Corps  was  established  by  Congress 
at  3-1/2%  of  the  enlisted  strength  of  the  Navy 
and  the  Marine  Corps. 

In  1947  the  Medical  Service  Corps  was 
established  to  provide  commissioned  grades  for 
personnel  in  administration  and  supply, 
pharmacy,  optometry,  and  medical  allied 
sciences;  the  Nurse  Corps,  a  component  of  the 
Medical  Department,  was  established  as  a  staff 
corps  of  the  Navy  in  April  1947;  and  the  rating 
of  pharmacist's  mate  was  changed  to  hospital 

During  World  War  I,  the  Medical  Corps  made 
notable  improvements  in  sanitation  and  the 
control  of  infectious  and  contagious  diseases, 
such  as  typhoid  and  scrub  typhus. 

Medical  Department  personnel  rendered 
outstanding  service  to  the  men  of  the  Fourth 
Marine  Brigade,  part  of  our  Second  Division,  in 
France.  At  Belleau  Wood,  Chateau-Thierry,  and 
St.  Mihie  1,  among  other  battles,  hospital 
corpsmen  and  officers  shared  the  dangers  and 
brought  succor  to  the  wounded.  A  total  of  60 
Medical  Corps  officers,  1  2  Dental  Corps  officers, 
and  500  hospital  corpsmen  of  the  Navy  were 
assigned  to  field  service  with  the  Marines.  Of  17 
Medals  of  Honor  awarded  to  the  Armed  Forces 
during  the  war,  3  were  won  by  officers  of  the 
Navy  Medical  Department. 

In  preparation  for  overseas  assignments, 
corpsmen  and  doctors  trained  with  the  ground 
troops  from  the  first  days  at  Quantico,  Virginia. 
Out  of  these  weeks  of  training,  an  organization 
of  medical  facilities  was  developed-the  first 
practical  school  of  field  medicine  in  the  United 
States,  which  foreshadowed  the  later 
development  of  medical  support  for  Marine 
Corps  amphibious  landings  in  World  War  II. 

During  World  War  II,  the  largest  waterborne 
medical  department  in  the  history  of  warfare 
was  created.  By  August  1945,  there  were  42 
established  naval  hospitals,  as  well  as  1 2  special 
hospitals,  with  a  patient  load  of  81 ,445,  and  also 
many  smaller  medical  units  for  medical 
treatment,  physical  examinations, 
immunizations,  and  short-term  care.  In  this,  the 
most  destructive  of  all  wars,  the  Medical 
Department  achieved  a  remarkable  record  in. 
saving  human  lives.  Despite  the  fact  that  bombs 
and  high  explosives  produced  wounds  of  a  far 
more  serious  nature  than  in  any  previous 
warfare,  about  97  of  every  100  wounded  men 
managed  to  survive.  This  mortality  rate  of  less 
than  3%,  compared  with  1 1.1%  in  World  War  I, 
was  due  to  several  factors. 

Casualty  evacuation  from  beachheads  to 
advanced  base  hospitals,  a  joint  operation  with 
line  personnel  of  ships  and  aircraft,  was  a  highly 
important  contributing  factor  to  this  high  rate 
of  survival.  In  many  cases,  transport  by  water  or 
air  was  so  rapid  that  casualties  were  being 
operated  on  at  a  rear  base  hospital  2  hours  or 
less  after  being  wounded.  Hospital  ships 
incorporated  the  most  advanced  improvements 
of  permanent  hospitals  ashore  and  were 
completely  air-conditioned.  Air  evacuation, 
pioneered  on  a  large  scale  by  Navy  medical 
officers  and  hospital  corpsmen  attached  to  the 
Marine  Corps  in  the  early  campaigns  in  the 
South  Pacific,  likewise  ranks  high  among  factors 
resulting  in  such  low  mortality. 

Hospital  corpsmen,  who  braved  death  to  aid 
the  wounded  where  they  fell,  deserve  the  highest 
credit  for  their  contribution  to  the  achievement 
of  the  Medical  Department's  mission.  In  some 
cases,  their  casualty  rate  was  higher  than  that  of 
the  troops  they  were  supporting.  The  Hospital 
Corps  won  its  deserved  reward  in  the  form  of  a 
Presidential  Citation,  the  first  time  in  naval 
history  that  an  entire  combat  organization  was 
cited  for  heroism. 

In  previous  conflicts  in  which  this  nation 
engaged,  deaths  of  naval  personnel  from  disease 
far  outweighed  those  of  enemy  action.  World 
War  II  reversed  the  ratio.  The  early  and 
successful  use  of  vaccines,  antitoxins,  and  other 
preventive  measures  accounts  for  the  unusually 
low  disease  rate  among  servicemen. 

The  effectiveness  of  preventive  medicine  is 
dramatically  shown  by  the  low  mortality  rate 
from  diseases  among  American  combat  troops 
on  Guadalcanal,  where  jungles  were  sources  of 
malaria  and  jungle  fevers.  Thousands  of  Japanese 
on  that  island  perished  from  disease.  But 
Americans  listed  as  dead  (from  all  causes)  or 
missing  on  Guadalcanal  totaled  only  1500. 

In  addition  to  its  highly  important  task  of 
caring  for  the  wounded,  the  Medical  Department 
during  World  War  II  handled  an  enormous  case 
load  of  ordinary  sickness  and  injuries.  Some 
90,000  wounded  were  treated,  but  over  50  times 
that  number  of  cases  of  disease  and  noncombat 
injury  were  handled.  Many  new  and  improved 
methods  of  treatment  were  developed. 

During  the  war  the  Medical  Department 
expanded  its  personnel  to  a  strength  of 
1  70,000— a  total  larger  than  the  regular  force  of 
the  Navy  before  the  war.  Of  this  number  about 
21,000  were  medical  and  dental  officers  and 
1 1,000  were  nurses. 

Since  World  War  II  Navy  physicians  and 
dentists  have  further  advanced  their  professional 
techniques  and  have  made  more  mobile  the 
medical  care  they  provide  combat  forces. 

In  the  Republic  of  Vietnam,  wounded  men 
were  quickly  evacuated  by  helicopter  directly  to 
the  decks  of  hospital  ships.  Patients  requiring 
long-term  specialized  care  were  evacuated  by  air 
to  appropriate  facilities  in  the  United  States. 
Physicians  participated  in  the  planning  of 
operations,  to  avoid  strategic  assaults  in 
disease-ridden  areas  or  to  assure  that  control 
measures  would  be  ready  if  such  assaults  were 
made.  A  mobile  dental  laboratory  with  its  own 
powerplant  provided  most  types  of  dental  care 
close  to  the  front  lines.  Surgical  teams  with  their 
equipment  moved  about  by  air  to  supplement 
regular  medical  support  wherever  they  were 
needed,  particularly  in  combined  Navy  and 
Marine  Corps  amphibious  assault  operations. 
Devices  such  as  fully  equipped  surgical  trailers 
brought  definitive  care  to  frontline  troops. 

In  Vietnam,  hospital  corpsmen  served  with 
elements  of  the  Fleet  Marine  Force  while  under 
fire.  In  figure  10-6,  a  hospital  corpsman 
bandages  the  leg  of  a  wounded  Marine  prior  to 
the  •  Marine's  evacuation  by  helicopter.  The 
benefit  of  quick  evacuation  to  the  morale  of  the 
fighting  man  is  an  important  answer  to  the  why 



of  aeromedical  airlift.  Only  1%  of  personnel 
injured  by  hostile  action  in  Vietnam  died  after 
reaching  a  medical  facility.  In  Korea,  where 
fewer  than  159?  of  the  wounded  were  moved  by 
helicopter,  the  rate  was  2%;  and  in  World  War  II, 
with  no  helos,  the  rate  was  4.5%. 

Medical  personnel  also  were  active  in  the 
Vietnam  civic  action  program  (CAP), 
administering  to  the  medical  needs  of  the 
people.  The  hospital  corpsman  in  figure  10-7  is 
treating  an  injured  85-year-old  woman  while 


Figure  10-6.— A  hospital  corpsman  bandages  the  leg  of  a 
wounded  Marine  during  a  search-and-destroy  sweep 
near  An  Hoa,  South  Vietnam.  The  helicopter  in  the 
background  brings  in  more  troops  and  will  evacuate 
the  wounded. 

she  talks  to  the  chaplain  and  other  members  of 
the  MedCAP  team  of  which  he  is  a  part. 


The  first  naval  hospital  was  opened  in 
Portsmouth,  Virginia,  in  1830.  In  its  earliest 
.days,  the  medical  staff  was  limited  to  five  men 
and  very  little  equipment.  The  steady  progress 
made  in  the  naval  hospitalization  system  since 
1830  has  kept  pace  with  the  rapid  strides  made 
in  civilian  hospital  services  and  medical 
education  in  the  United  States  during  the  past 
century.  As  of  1976  the  Navy  had  14  hospitals, 
21  medical  centers,  and  198  clinics. 

A  naval  hospital  provides  relatively  full 
diagnostic  and  therapeutic  service  together 
with  bed  care,  nursing,  and  dietetic  services. 
Because  accessibility  and  capacity  to  serve  the 
Operating  Forces  are  prime  site  considerations, 
most  hospitals  are  located  along  the  coastal 
states.  Station  hospitals  can  offer  ex  tended  care 
to  patients,  but  they  are  smaller  and  more 
limited  in  scope.  A  medical  center  is  one 
equipped  and  manned  to  provide  temporary 
in-patient  treatment  for  those  with  a  favorable 
prognosis  for  early  release.  A  clinic  is  designed 
mainly  to  provide  examination  and  treatment 
for  ambulatory  patients  and  first  aid  for 
emergency  cases. 

The  largest  dental  facilities  ashore  are  naval 
dental  clinics,  established  in  areas  of  heavy 
personnel  concentration.  Equipped  and  manned 
to  furnish  complete  dental  care,  there  are  about 
10  clinics  worldwide.  Services  rendered  by 
dental  departments  at  other  shore  installations 
depend  on  the  size  of  the  dental  facility,  which 
in  turn  relates  to  the  number  of  personnel 

Aboard  ship,  the  scope  of  Medical 
Department  facilities  is  contingent  upon  the 
complement  of  medical  personnel,  available 
space  and  equipment,  capability  of  the  staff,  and 
mission  of  the  ship.  Facilities  thus  range  from 
the  scantily  furnished  sickbay  of  a  destroyer  to 
one  that  is  fully  equipped  aboard  a  carrier. 
Personnel  assigned  vary  from  2  hospital 



'tt-^&^&tttti^Z'-"     :      ,   -,  -  ••^lT-?£    -.  l^-:^.-.     '^^*S^ 

?;-2!^:-;  ^•: 


Figure  10-7.— Participating  in  the  civic  action  program,  members  of  the  MedCAP  team  journeyed  to  the  island  of 
Ky  Xuan  twice  each  week  to  minister  to  the  medical  needs  of  the  people. 

corpsmen  on  destroyer  types  (the  senior  being 
specially  trained  for  independent  duty)  to 
perhaps  40  or  45  officers  and  men  on  aircraft 
carriers.  The  type  or  class  of  a  ship  normally 
determines  the  size  and  capacity  of  its  dental 


Among  the  various  needs  of  naval  personnel 
is  that  of  religious  ministry.  Just  as  he  is 
responsible  for  the  military  performance  of  the 
personnel  of  his  command,  the  commanding 
officer  also  has  a  definite  responsibility  for 
ensuring  that  the  religious  needs  of  the  men  and 
women  under  his  command  are  met.  Chaplains 
are  assigned  to  commands,  therefore,  to  assist  in 
the  fulfillment  of  that  responsibility  and  to 

SUDDOrt    the    nre.sp.rvatinn    xrtr\    p.nhanrpmp.nt    nf 

the  moral  and  spiritual  well-being  of  the 
personnel  of  the  command. 

The  Navy  Chaplaincy,  established  November 
28,  1775,  has  played  a  significant  role  in  the 
providing  of  such  support  and  spiritual  guidance 
for  naval  personnel  and  their  dependents. 
Though  commissioned  as  an  officer,  the  chaplain 
is  first  an  ordained  member  of  the  clergy  in  one 
of  the  religious  bodies  of  the  country.  In  the 
wearing  of  the  naval  uniform,  it  is  believed  the 
chaplain's  effectiveness  is  enhanced  as  he 
attempts  to  provide  ministry  within  and  to  the 
military  organization.  The  uniform,  itself, 
indicates  responsibility  to  the  naval  service  and 
the  nation.  The  insignia  worn,  the  Cross  or  the 
Tablets  of  the  Law,  identify  the  chaplain  and 
emphasize  responsibility  to  church  and  spiritual 

Standards  for  appointment  as  a  chaplain  are 

annrnnfp.p.      must      he,      nhvsirallv 

qualified.  Each  must  have  completed  at  least 
1 20  semester  hours  of  undergraduate  study  in  an 
accredited  college  or  university  and  a  minimum 
of  90  semester  hours  in  an  approved  theological 
school.  Before  the  appointment  can  be  made, 
the  chaplain  must  be  duly  ordained  by  his  own 
Church  and  provided  with  an  ecclesiastical 
endorsement  by  that  Church. 

As  a  religious  leader,  the  chaplain  is  an 
advisor  to  the  commanding  officer  on  all  matters 
pertaining  to  the  moral,  spiritual,  and  religious 
welfare  of  Navy  and  Marine  personnel.  Divine 
services  conducted  by  the  chaplain  are  always  in 
accordance  with  the  customs,  traditions,  and 
regulations  of  the  chaplain's  own  Church. 
Frequently  called  upon  to  provide  religious 
services  for  those  of  other  faiths,  however,  the 
chaplain's  responsibility  includes  such  functions 
as  inviting  appropriate  clergy  aboard,  training 
lay  leaders,  and  providing  proper  material  and 
ecclesiastical  support  to  facilitate  appropriate 
services  for  men  and  women  of  all  faiths.  Each 
chaplain  is  called  upon  to  use  ideas,  techniques, 
and  methods  which  will  assist  the  development 
of  personal  growth  and  good  character  in  all 
persons  in  the  command. 

Additionally,  home  and  domestic  problems, 
troubling  personal  issues  and  crises,  as  well  as 
general  welfare  concerns  shape  the  pastoral  care 
dimension  of  the  chaplain's  responsibility.  Often 
the  bulk  of  the  chaplain's  effort  is  devoted  to 
pastoral  care  and  pastoral  counseling.  Every 
chaplain  soon  learns  of  persons  who  are 
perplexed  or  distraught  and  who  are  in  need  of 
counsel  and  assistance.  And,  too,  chaplains 
regularly  receive  requests  for  instruction  for 
baptism,  confirmation,  and  for  marriage. 

Chaplains  serve  at  sea  on  a  normal  rotational 
basis.  Some  are  assigned  directly  to  ships' 
companies.  Others  have  become  "circuit  riders" 
to  meet  the  needs  of  those  on  small  ships  and 
stations  or  when  units  are  widely  dispersed.  For 
example,  a  chaplain  assigned  to  minister  to 
destroyer  personnel  will  in  fact  serve  many  ships 
operating  over  great  distances.  Over  50%  of  the 
Navy  Chaplains  are  in  sea  or  overseas  billets.  In 
addition,  Navy  Chaplains  accompany  major 
tactical  and  support  units  of  the  U.S.  Marine 
Corps.  Approximately  20%  of  the  total  number 
on  active  duty  are  attached  to  Marine  Corps 

Units  at  any  given  time.  Ashore,  three  or  more 
chaplains  may  be  assigned  to  larger  Navy,  Marine 
Corps,  and  Coast  Guard  stations,  many  of  which 
have  well-equipped  chapels  and  educational 
facilities  (figure  10-8). 

Chaplains  serve  in  commissioned  grades  from 
lieutenant  Gunior  grades)  through  captain  and 
are  promoted  in  accordance  with  the  same 
precepts  and  regulations  which  govern  all  other 
naval  officer  promotions.  The  Corps,  itself,  is 
directed  by  the  Chief  of  Chaplains,  a  rear 
admiral.  A  second  rear  admiral  serves  as  detailed 
by  the  Chief  of,  Naval  Personnel. 


Although  the  American  Fleet  was  authorized 
in  1775,  and  the  Department  of  the  Navy 
established  by  Act  of  Congress  in  1798,  the 
Navy  had  no  official  legal  counsel  until  well  into 
the  19th  century. 


In  1864,  because  of  contract  frauds  arising 
under  Civil  War  naval  programs,  Secretary  of  the 
Navy  Gideon  Welles  created  the  position  of 
Solicitor  for  the  Navy  Department.  The  quickly 
proven  value  of  the  Solicitor's  function  moved 
Secretary  Welles  to  request  legislative 
ratification  of  the  new  legal  office,  and  by  the 
Act  of  2  March  1865  Congress  established  the 
Office  of  Solicitor  and  Naval  Judge  Advocate. 

The  Act  of  8  June  1880  established  the 
Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the 
Navy  as  we  know  it  today.  This  legislation 
placed  upon  the  Judge  Advocate  General  the 
duty  to  "receive,  revise,  and  have  recorded  the 
proceedings  of  all  courts-martial,  courts  of 
inquiry,  and  boards  for  the  examination  of 
officers  for  retirement  and  promotion  in  the 
naval  service,  and  to  perform  such  other  duties 
as  have  heretofore  been  performed  by  the 
Solicitor  and  Naval  Judge  Advocate  General." 
The  Judge  Advocate  General  was  given 




Figure  10-8.— On  the  naval  base  at  Norfolk,  Virginia,  are  the  chapels  of  three  faiths  under  one  roof.  To  the  left  is  the 
Protestant  chapel;  to  the  right,  the  Catholic  chapel;  and  connecting  the  two,  the  Jewish  chapel. 

cognizance  over  all  legal  matters,  of  whatever 
kind,  that  affected  the  interest  of  the  Navy. 

Tremendous  legal  problems,  some  of  a 
highly  intricate  character,  were  generated  by 
World  War  II.  In  particular,  great  difficulty  arose 
in  connection  with  the  preparation  and 
administration  of  the  Navy's  contracts  for  the 
procurement  of  goods  and  services.  To  solve  the 
immediate  crisis,  a  unit  of  civilian  attorneys 
were  gathered,  which  in  1 944,  evolved  into  the 
Office  of  the  General  Counsel  of  the  Navy. 

Establishment  of  the  Office  of  General 
Counsel  brought  about  a  dichotomy  in  the 
Navy's  legal  heirarchy  that  exists  today.  The 
Judge  Advocate  General  is  given,  in  addition  to 
military  justice  and  military  law  functions, 
cognizance  of  all  legal  duties  and  services 
throughout  the  Department  of  the  Navy  other 
than  those  specially  assigned  to  the  General 
Counsel  for  the  Department  of  the  Navy. 

Functions  assigned  to  the  Office  of  the  General 
Counsel  are  in  the  fields  of  business  and 
commercial  law. 


Prior  to  World  War  II,  Navy  lawyers  were 
generally  line  officers  with  legal  training,  and 
their  tours  of  legal  duty,  usually  in  the  Office  of 
the  Judge  Advocate  General,  alternated  with 
tours  of  line  duty  at  sea.  During  the  war,  large 
numbers  of  lawyers  served  in  an  admixture  of 
line  and  legal  functions  throughout  the  world. 

The  idea  of  organizing  the  Navy's  uniformed 
lawyers  into  a  distinctive  professional  group 
performing  only  legal  functions  was  first 
considered  a  number  of  years  ago.  In  1945  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy  convened  the  McGuire 


Committee  (chaired  by  Matthew  JF.  McGuire,  a 
prominent  civilian  lawyer)  to  examine 
court-martial  procedures  under  the  Articles  for 
the  Government  of  the  Navy.  In  its  November 
1945  report  to  the  Secretary,  the  committee 
formally  recommended,  among  other  things, 
establishment  of  a  Judge  Advocate  General's 
Corps  in  which  officers  would  perform  legal 
duties  only,  with  promotions  in  the  Corps  to  be 
predicated  mainly  upon  professional 
competence  in  the  performance  of  such  duties. 
The  committee  reasoned  that  combining  legal 
functions  with  line  functions  was  no  longer 
feasible  in  that  legal  difficulties  incident  to 
modern  warfare  require  full-time,  first-rate 
lawyers  just  as  operational  aspects  of  naval 
warfare  require  full-time,  first-rate  line  officers. 
It  was  considered  unrealistic  to  expect  efficiency 
in  these  increasingly  divergent  and  technical 
areas  from  the  same  individuals. 

The  recommendation  of  the  McGuire 
Committee  for  creation  of  a  Judge  Advocate 
General's  Corps  prompted  Secretary  of  the  Navy 
Forrestal  to^appoint  a  board  headed  by  Arthur 
A.  Ballantine  of  the  New  York  Bar  to  look 
further  into  the  question.  In  April  1946,  the 
Ballantine  report  concluded  that  World  War  II 
had  demonstrated  beyond  all  question  the  need 
to  employ  a  large  number  of  lawyers  for  the 
performance  of  legal  duties  on  a  continuous 
basis,  but  recommended  the  creation  of  "law 
specialist"  as  a  category  in  the  restricted  line  as 
_  being  more  advantageous  to  the  Navy  than 
'creation  of  a  JAG  corps.  In  June  1946  the 
procurement  of  300  lawyers  was  authorized  and 
the  law  specialist  program  was  implemented. 

It  was  assumed  originally  that  law  specialists 
would  supplement,  not  replace,  line  officers 
trained  in  law.  The  authorization  for  300  law 
specialists  was  predicated  on  this  assumption 
and  upon  the  requirements  of  a  Navy  operating 
under  the  Articles  for  the  Government  of  the 
Navy.  In  May  1950,  however,  enactment  of  the 
Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice  to  supplant 
the  Articles  established  new  requirements  for 
legal  services.  Many  functions  in  the 
court-martial  system  created  by  the  code  had  to 
be  performed  by  law  specialists,  and  could  not 
be  performed  by  other  officers,  even  though 
trained  in  law.  As  a  result,  in  the  years  after 
enactment  of  the  code,  the  number  of  required 

law  specialists  almost  doubled.  It  became 
apparent  that  law  specialists  should  supplant, 
rather  than  merely  supplement,  unrestricted  line 
officers  in  the  performance  of  legal  duties. 

During  ensuing  years  numerous 
recommendations  for  establishment  of  a  JAG 
corps  were  made.  The  attempts  were 
unsuccessful  until  late  in  1967  when  a 
subcommittee  of  the  House  Armed  Services 
Committee  scheduled  a  hearing  on  provisions  for 
the  establishment  of  a  JAG  corps  in  the  Navy. 
The  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the  Navy, 
appearing  at  the  hearing,  presented  convincing 
testimony  to  show  that  membership  in  a  legal 
corps  would  give  the  Navy  lawyer  a  sense  of 
professional  identity  and  was  expected  to 
provide  a  potent  career  incentive. 

The  proposed  legislation  made  the  full 
course  through  a  receptive  Congress  from 
subcommittee  hearings  to  final  passage  within  a 
period  of  little  more  than  2  months.  Public  Law 
90-179,  the  bill  establishing  the  JAG  Corps  as  a 
staff  corps  of  the  Navy,  was  signed  into  law  by 
the  President  on  8  December  1967. 

All  law  specialists,  including  women,  of  the 
Regular  Navy  and  Naval  Reserve  were 
redesignated  as  judge  advocates  in  the  JAG 
Corps.  The  statute  also  provides  that,  upon 
request,  the  Judge  Advocate  General  may 
designate  qualified  Marine  Corps  lawyers  as 
judge  advocates,  thereby  entitling  them  to 
perform  the  same  functions  as  Navy  judge 
advocates,  although  Marine  Corps  officers  do 
not  become  members  of  the  Navy  JAG  Corps  by 
virtue  of  such  designation. 

The  JAG  Corps  is  identified  by  a  device 
(shown  in  chapter  5)  comprised  of  two  gold  oak 
leaves  curved  to  form  a  semicircle,  the  center  of 
which  is  a  balanced  silver  "mill  rinde."  A  mill 
rinde  is  the  metal  bar  inserted  between  the  two 
stones  of  a  mill  to  bear  and  guide  the  upper 
stone  equally  in  its  course— to  prevent  it  from 
inclining  too  much  on  either  side— thus  ensuring 
that  all  the  grist  is  ground  evenly.  For  some  six 
centuries  the  mill  rinde  has  been  construed  in 
the  English-speaking  world  to  symbolize 
equality  and  justice  and  has  been  associated  with 
the  legal  profession. 

The  JAG  Corps  legislation  entitles  the  Judge 
Advocate  General  and  Deputy  Advocate  General 
to  the  grades  of  rear  admiral  (upper  half)  or 



major  general,  U.S.  Marine  Corps.  The  statute 
also  created  two  positions  for  Assistant  Judge 
Advocates  General  and  authorized  the  two 
officers  detailed  to  those  positions  to  hold  the 
grades  of  rear  admiral  (lower  half)  or  brigadier 
general,  U.S.  Marine  Corps. 


Military  justice  is  only  one  of  the  many  areas 
of  responsibility  that  are  handled  by  Navy 
lawyers.  JAs  also  are  responsible  for  legal  advice 
in  the  fields  of  international  law,  admiralty, 
claims,  litigation,  promotions  and  retirements, 
investigations,  administrative  law,  taxation,  and 
legal  assistance  to  service  members  and  their 

Activity  in  these  fields  and  in  military  justice 
is  constantly  expanding  and  changing.  The 
largest  change,  in  terms  of  expanded  rights  to 
military  people,  occurred  with  passage  of  the 
Military  Justice  Act  of  1968.  This  act  expanded 
the  rights  of  the  accused  to  include  lawyer 
counsel  before  special  courts-martial  and 
inaugurated  the  use  of  military  judges  to  preside 
over  special  courts-martial. 

JAG  Corps  members  serve  in  the  offices  of 
the  Secretary  of  Defense,  Secretary  of  the  Navy, 
Chief  of  Naval  Operations,  Chief  of  Naval 
Material,  Chief  of  Naval  Personnel,  Chief  of  the 
Bureau  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  Chief  of  Naval 
Research,  Comptroller  of  the  Navy,  and  the 
Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff,  among  others. 

Additionally,  JAs  are  assigned  to  the  staffs 
of  the  commandants  of  the  various  naval 
districts  to  handle  legal  work  generated  within 
the  district.  Locally,  they  serve  on  the  staffs  of 
fleet,  force  and  type  commanders  and  at  many 
naval  bases,  stations  and  schools. 

Since  1969,  the  JAG  Corps  has  been 
organized  into  four  basic  components:  the 
Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General,  staff  and 
activity  judge  advocates,  law  centers,  and  a 
training  component.  Under  that  organizational 
structure,  the  corps  experienced  problems  in 
personnel  distribution,  uniformity  of  funding 
and  support,  and  standardization  of  operations. 
These  problems  impeded  the  corps'  efforts  to 
render  nntimnm 

Following  an  extensive  study  of  the 
problem,  the  Naval  Legal  Service  was  established 
in  1973  with  the  following  mission:  To 
administer  the  legal  services  program  and 
provide  command  direction  for  all  Naval  Legal 
Service  activities  and  resources  as  may  be 
assigned;  and  to  perform  such  other  functions  or 
tasks  as  may  be  related  to  the  Naval  Legal 
Service  as  directed  by  the  Chief  of  Naval 

Basically,  the  mission  of  the  Legal  Service 
Offices  is  substantially  the  same  as  the  former 
law  centers.  Headquartered  in  Washington,  the 
Naval  Legal  Service  was  authorized  18  offices 
and  15  branch  offices  throughout  the  world. 
Technically,  the  offices  serve  as  legal-service 
centers  in  areas  of  major  concentrations  of  naval 
activities.  Within  the  limits  of  strength 
authorizations,  they  provide  a  full  array  of  legal 
services  to  commands  which  have  no  judge 
advocate  assigned.  A  primary  purpose  of  the 
reorganization,  and  the  Naval  Legal  Service,  was 
to  bring  all  trial  and  defense  counsels  under  the 
direct  authority  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General, 
thus  making  them  independent  of  court-martial 
convening  authorities. 

Even  though  they  are  relatively  new  on  the 
scene  as  an  organization,  the  responsibilities  of 
the  Navy  JAG  Corps  continues  to  expand 
concomitantly  with  the  passage  of  legislation  by 
Congress  and  the  increased  need  for  legal 
services  by  Navy  members. 


Women  are  an  integral  part  of  the  Navy; 
they  are  recruited,  trained,  and  assigned  under 
the  same  regulations  as  the  men  and  are  entitled 
to  the  same  benefits.  They  serve  in  a  wide 
variety  of  assignments  within  the  United  States 
and  in  overseas  areas.  The  law  does  not  permit 
them  to  serve  aboard  Navy  combatant  ships,  nor 
may  they  serve  on  aircraft  engaged  in  combat 

Although  nurses  had  served  with  the  U.S. 
Navy  for  many  years,  it  was  not  until  World  War 
I  that  women,  other  than  nurses,  became  a  part 
of  the  Navy.  These  Yeomen  (F)  were  enlisted  in 

1    1 

cer-warl      i« 

United  States  as  well  as  in  Hawaii,  France, 
Guam,  and  Panama,  primarily  in  stenographic 
billets!  They  also  served  in  billets  as  translators, 
draftsmen,  fingerprint  experts,  camouflage 
designers,  and  recruiters.  At  the  end  of  the  war, 
all  women  were  released  from  active  duty. 

Early  in  World  War  II,  the  Navy  again  faced 
acute  personnel  shortages.  Recognizing  the  fact 
that  women  could  be  used  to  expedite  the  war 
effort,  Congress  on  30  July  1942  passed 
legislation  authorizing  the  procurement  of  1,000 
officers  and  10,000  enlisted  women  for  the 
Naval  Reserve.  WAVES  (Women  Accepted  for 
Volunteer  Emergency  Service)  were  from  the 
beginning  an  integral  part  of  the  naval  service. 
They  have  never  been  a  separate  corps  or  an 
auxiliary.  Later,  the  original  legislation  was  so 
modified  that  by  the  end  of  World  War  II,  more 
than  86,000  women  were  on  duty  in  the 
continental  United  States  and  Hawaii.  This 
spectacular  growth  was  due  to  the  fact  that 
WAVES  proved  able  to  take  over  many  more 
jobs  than  was  at  first  believed  possible.  WAVES, 
officer  and  enlisted,  were  on  duty  in  nearly 
every  type  of  shore  activity,  including  naval  air 
stations,  naval  hospitals,  naval  district 
headquarters,  and  supply  depots.  Enlisted 
WAVES  served  as  yeomen,  disbursing  clerks,  and 
Link  trainer  instructors.  They  packed 
parachutes,  collected  weather  information,  and 
directed  air  traffic  from  control  towers. 

WAVES  composed  55%  of  the  uniformed 
personnel  in  the  Navy  Department  in 
Washington.  In  "Radio  Washington,"  the  nerve 
center  of  the  entire  Navy  communications 
system,  women  composed  75%  of  the  total 
allowance.  Seventy  percent  of  all  naval 
personnel  on  duty  in  the  Bureau  of  Naval 
Personnel  were  WAVES.  About  13,000  WAVES 
were  in  the  Hospital  Corps,  serving  in  naval 
hospitals  and  dispensaries. 

Women  officers  served  as  line  officers  in 
assignments  which  used  their  knowledge  and 
education  as  administrators,  language  specialists, 
communicators,  and  educational  service  officers. 

The  outstanding  record  established  by 
women  in  the  military  service  during  World  War 
II  paved  the  way  for  passage  of  the  Women's 
Armed  Services  Integration  Act  in  1948;  under 

this  law  Navy  women  became  a  permanent  part 
of  the  Regular  Navy  and  Naval  Reserve.  The 
basic  philosophy  underlying  the  Navy's 
endorsement  and  subsequent  implementation  of 
the  1948  Act  was  two-fold-to  make  available  to 
the  Navy  the  skills  of  women  in  noncombat 
assignments  and  to  maintain  within  the 
permanent  naval  establishment  a  nucleus  of 
officers  and  enlisted  women  upon  which  to 
build  in  the  event  of  a  national  emergency.  The 
women  in  the  Navy  would  provide  the  necessary 
training,  leadership,  and  experience  for  the 
substantial  numbers  who  would  be  needed  to 
meet  the  Navy's  personnel  requirements  in  the 
event  of  mobilization.  Officer  and  enlisted 
women  are  now  assigned  within  authorized 
allowances  and  are  included  within  the  total 
manpower  personnel  requirements.  As  a 
permanent  part  of  the  regular  Navy  and  Naval 
Reserve,  Navy  women  are  no  longer  officially 
designated  Waves,  though  the  term  "Waves"  has 
been  retained  as  a  nickname. 

In  the  not  too  distant  past  it  was  believed 
women  were  only  capable  of  filling  the 
traditional  personnel  and  administrative  billets. 
Realizing  the  inequity  of  this  belief,  some 
changes  have  been  instituted  to  consider  women 
on  an  equal  basis  with  their  male  counterparts 
(figure  10-9).  For  example,  women  are  now 
eligible  to  enter  the  Naval  Academy  and  are 
accepted  for  flight  training  as  jet  and  helicopter 
pilots.  With  expected  legislation  in  the  near 
future,  it  is  evident  a  single  standard  for  men 
and  women  will  evolve. 


To  be  eligible  for  appointment  from  civilian 
life  to  officer  candidate  status,  a  woman  must  be 
a  U.S.  citizen,  hold  a  baccalaureate  degree  from 
an  accredited  university,  and  be  between  the 
ages  of  19  and  27-1/2  at  the  time  of 
commissioning.  She  may  be  single  or  married, 
and  may  have  dependents  under  18  years  of  age. 
She  must  meet  the  mental,  moral,  and  physical 
standards  established  by  the  Navy. 

Women  officer  candidates  attend  Officer 
Candidate  School  at  Newport,  Rhode  Island,  and 
participate  in  an  integrated  19-week  curriculum 



vvith  male  officer  candidates.  The  curriculum  is 
:omposed  of  courses  in  leadership/management, 
discipline  administration,  material  management 
'3M),  personnel  administration,  naval  warfare, 
Seamanship,  piloting,  celestial  navigation, 
:ommunications,  engineering,  human  resource 
management  and  damage  control. 

Upon  successful  completion  of  OCS  the 
vvoman  officer  is  commissioned  an  ensign  in  the 
unrestricted  or  restricted  line  or  Supply  Corps 
ind  has  a  four-year  obligation  to  complete. 
Women  commissioned  in  the  Supply  Corps 
•eceive  a  period  of  additional  training  at  the 
sfavy  Supply  Corps  School,  Athens,  Georgia. 
For  her  initial  assignment,  she  may  be  ordered 
;o  a  1-4  year  tour  of  duty  within  the  continental 
J.S.  or  overseas.  During  this  period,  she  may 
ipply  for  augmentation  to  the  Regular  Navy. 


:igure  10-9.-Rear  Admiral  Fran  McKee  is  the  first 
woman  unrestricted  line  officer  promoted  to  flag 
rank  in  the  1 1  .9 

A  woman  officer  is  normally  screened  for 
postgraduate  education  in  the  grade  of 
lieutenant  (junior  grade)  or  lieutenant.  Women 
officers  selected  for  postgraduate  education 
participate  in  the  same  programs  as  their  male 


To  be  eligible  for  enlistment  in  the  Navy,  a 
woman  must  be  between  the  ages  of  18  and  30, 
be  a  high  school  graduate,  and  may  be  single  or 

Enlisted  women  undergo  integrated  recruit 
training  with  male  recruits  at  Orlando,  Florida. 
Some  of  the  courses  included  in  the  12-week 
training  period  are  naval  orientation, 
indoctrination  in  Navy  ratings,  ship  and  aircraft 
identification,  naval  history,  firefighting,  and 

Enlisted  women  can  strike  for  ratings  based 
on  the  same  criterion  as  men;  there  are, 
however,  certain  seagoing  ratings  which  are 
closed  to  women  due  to  legislation.  The 
majority  of  recruit  graduates  are  ordered 
directly  to  specialized  schools  for  training  in  the 
ratings  available  to  them. 

Upon  completion  of  training,  enlisted 
women  are  assigned  to  naval  activities 
throughout  the  world.  In  those  assignments  they 
have  demonstrated  their  ability  to  fulfill  the 
requirements  in  billets  once  held  exclusively  by 
men  (figure  10-10).  Some  examples  of  these  are 
aircraft  mechanics,  electricians,  and  machinists. 
This  ability  has  brought  about  an  expanded  role 
for  enlisted  women  in  today's  Navy. 


The  United  States  Coast  Guard  has  a  dual 
role  that  is  unique  among  the  services.  By. 
statute,  organization,  and  operation,  the  Coast 
Guard  is  a  military  service  and  a  branch  of  the 
Armed  Forces  always,  but  normally  it  operates 
as  a  service  in  the  Department  of 
Transportation.  In  time  of  war  or  when  the 

oirl  Atrf     cr\     A  irAr>+o 

f  V\ 



Figure  10-10.— An  enlisted  woman  demonstrating  her 
ability  to  fulfill  the  requirements  of  a  billet  once 
held  exclusively  by  men. 

Navy,  but  continues  to  perform  its  normal 
specialized  duties. 

The  Coast  Guard  is  responsible  for  a  large 
part  of  all  federal  operations  connected  with 
peacetime  maritime  activities.  In  time  of  war  or 
other  national  emergency,  these  peacetime 
activities  take  on  added  importance  because  of 
the  need  for  prompt  and  dependable  movement 
of  military  personnel  and  supplies.  The  Coast 
Guard  assists  other  Government  agencies  in 
special  undertakings  and  missions  for  which  its 
personnel  and  facilities  are  especially  qualified. 

The  Coast  Guard  maintains  a  state  of 
military  readiness  so  that  it  can  operate 
immediately  and  effectively  as  a  service  of  the 
Navy  in  time  of  war  or  when  so  directed  by  the 
President.  In  order  to  make  such  a  transition 
with  a  minimum  of  friction,  the  Coast  Guard's 
peacetime  organization,  regulations,  training, 

and  customs  parallel  those  of  the  Navy  insofar  as 
operations  permit.  Personnel  receive  the  same 
pay  and  allowances  as  prescribed  for 
corresponding  grades  and  rates  in  the  Navy. 

Whenever  the  Coast  Guard  operates  as  a 
service  in  the  Navy,  its  personnel  are  subject  to 
the  laws  prescribed  for  governing  the  Navy,  and 
precedence  between  commissioned  officers  of 
corresponding  grades  of  the  two  services  is 
determined  by  date  of  rank. 

Coast  Guard  officers  and  enlisted  men  are 
eligible  to  attend  the  various  schools  of 
instruction  maintained  by  the  Navy,  Army,  and 
Air  Force. 

Transfer  without  compensation  therefore  of 
military  stores,  supplies,  and  equipment  of  every 
character  is  authorized  between  the  Navy, 
Army,  and  Coast  Guard.  The  Secretary  of  the 
Navy  is  authorized  to  build  vessels  for  the  Coast 
Guard  at  naval  shipyards. 

In  1967,  the  Coast  Guard  was  removed  from 
the  Treasury  Department  (with  which  it  had 
been  associated  since  1790)  and  placed  in  the 
newly-created  Department  of  Transportation. 
When  operating  in  the  Department  of 
Transportation,  the  Commandant  of  the  Coast 
Guard  is  responsible  to  the  Secretary  of 
Transportation.  When  operating  in  the  Navy 
Department,  the  Commandant  reports  to  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy  and  the  Chief  of  Naval 


Law  Enforcement 

The  Coast  Guard  is  the  Nation's  foremost 
maritime  safety  and  law  enforcement  agency  in 
time  of  peace.  A  primary  function  is  the 
enforcement  of  all  applicable  Federal  laws  upon 
the  high  seas  and  in  waters  that  are  subject  to 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  United  States.  This 
includes  the  administration  of  laws  and  the 
promulgation  and  enforcement  of  regulations 
for  the  promotion  of  safety  of  life  and  property, 
and  covers  all  matters  not  specifically  delegated 
by  law  to  some  other  executive  agency.  Among 
the  more  important  duties  in  this  field  are 
enforcement  of  the  navigation  and  inspection 
laws,  anchorage  regulations,  and  laws  relating  to 


internal  revenue,  customs,  immigration, 
neutrality,  and  conservation  and  protection  of 
fisheries  and  wildlife  which  require  marine  or 
aviation  personnel  and  facilities  for  effective 

Port  Security 

Among  the  Coast  Guard's  major  duties  in 
the  national  defense  program  is  port 
security— safeguarding  against  destruction  or  loss 
from  sabotage  or  other  subversive  acts,  all 
vessels,  harbors,  ports,  and  waterfront  facilities 
in  the  United  States  and  its  territories.  This  duty 
includes:  prevention  of  illegal  entry  from  the  sea 
of  persons  or  things  inimical  to  the  United 
States;  supervision  and  control  of  the  loading  of 
explosives  and  other  dangerous  cargoes;  security 
checks  of  merchant  marine  officers  and 
crewmembers;  security  screening  of  waterfront 
workers  to  ensure  that  subversives  and  other 
undesirable  persons  are  denied  access  to 
restricted  waterfront  areas  and  vessels;  and 
patrolling  approaches  to  principal  harbors. 
Figure  10-11  is  a  class  of  medium-endurance 

cutter    capable   of  cruising    5000  miles   at    15 

Search  and  Rescue 

The  Coast  Guard  maintains  an  established 
organization  of  inshore  and  offshore  rescue 
surface  ships,  aircraft,  lifeboat  stations,  and 
rescue  coordination  centers  in  each  Coast  Guard 
district.  It  extends  medical  aid  to  crews  of 
vessels  at  sea,  cares  for  and  transports 
shipwrecked  and  destitute  persons,  and  engages 
in  flood  relief  work.  Figure  10-12  shows  a 
self-bailing,  nonsinkable  lifeboat  used  by  USCG. 
In  one  recent  year,  the  Coast  Guard  responded 
to  70,000  calls  for  assistance  with  about  4,200 
persons  saved  from  death,  more  than  140,000 
other  persons  were  aided,  and  $280,000,000 
worth  of  property  was  saved. 

Icebreaking  and 
Ice  Patrol 

The  Coast  Guard  removes  or  destroys 
derelicts,  wrecks,  and  other  dangers  to 


Figure  10-11.— Features  of  this  medium-endurance  cutter  include  a  3-inch  gun  and  helicopter  deck  aft. 



Figure  10-12.-Among  its  many  duties,  the  Coast  Guard  stands  ready  to  rescue  shipwrecked  survivors.  This  nonsinkable 

surf  boat  enhances  that  capability. 

navigation  and,  with  its  icebreaking  facilities, 
assists  marine  commerce  by  opening  ice-blocked 
channels  and  ports.  It  conducts  the  International 
Ice  Patrol  in  the  North  Atlantic  (figure  10-13)  to 
protect  shipping  from  the  danger  of  icebergs, 
and  carries  out  oceanographic  studies. 

Ocean  Stations 

The  Coast  Guard  operates  and  maintains 
ocean  stations  in  the  North  Atlantic  and  North 
Pacific.  The  function  of  an  ocean  station  is  to 
provide,  in  addition  to  meteorological  services  in 
ocean  areas  regularly  traversed  by  ships  and 
aircraft,  search  and  rescue,  communication,  and 
air  navigation  facilities. 

Merchant  Marine  Safety 

Functions  of  the  Coast  Guard  that  relate  to 
the  merchant  marine  include  the  following: 
investigation  of  marine  disasters  and  collection 
of  statistics  relating  to  such  disasters;  approval 
of  plans  for  construction,  repair,  and  alteration 
of  vessels;  issuance  of  certificates  of  inspection 
and  permits  indicating  approval  of  ships  for 
operations  that  may  be  hazardous  to  life  and 
property;  regulation  of  the  transportation  of 
explosives  and  other  dangerous  articles  on 
vessels;  licensing  and  certificating  of  officers, 
pilots,  and  seamen;  enforcement  of  manning 
requirements  for  the  mustering  and  drilling  of 
crews;  suspension  and  revocation  of  licenses  and 


certificates;  licensing  of  motorboat  operators; 
shipment,  discharge,  protection,  and  welfare  of 
merchant  seamen;  and  the  promulgation  and 
enforcement  of  rules  for  lights,  signals,  speed, 
steering,  sailing,  passing,  anchorage,  movement, 
and  towlines  of  vessels. 

Aids  to  Navigation 

The  Coast  Guard  establishes  and  maintains 
marine  aids  to  navigation  such  as  lighthouses, 
lights,  radio  beacons,  radio  direction-finder 
stations,  buoys,  unlighted  beacons,  and  VTS 

(Vessel  Traffic  Services),  as  required  to  serve  the 
needs  of  commerce  and  of  the  Armed  Forces.  It 
maintains  the  United  States  system  of  loran 
(long-range  aid  to  navigation)  to  serve  the  needs 
of  the  Armed  Forces,  mariners,  and  maritime 
airborne  commerce. 

The  Coast  Guard  maintains  about  40,000 
aids  to  navigation  in  the  United  States,  its 
territories  and  possessions,  the  Trust  Territory 
of  the  Pacific  Islands,  and  at  overseas  military 
bases.  These  aids  include  some  60  loran  stations, 
350  manned  light  stations,  and  30  offshore  light 

Figure  10-13.—  Infesting  Arctic  waters,  monster  chunks  of  ice  await  unsuspecting  ships.  The  SS  Titanic  ripped  out  her 

£     1C  A/I 


Marine  Environmental  Protection 

Although  the  Coast  Guard  has  been 
enforcing  our  fisheries  laws  since  1793  to 
conserve  marine  life,  the  increased  pollution  in 
and  near  our  coastal  waters  required  increased 
surveillance  and  new  techniques  to  combat  this 
serious  threat  to  our  marine  environment.  With 
the  enactment  of  the  Federal  Water  Pollution 
Control  Act  of  1 972  a  National  Strike  Force 
(NSF)  was  formed.  This  force  consists  of  three 
18-man  teams,  one  each  on  the  Pacific, 
Atlantic,  and  Gulf  Coast,  composed  of  people 
who  are  specially  trained  and  equipped  for 
antipollution  work.  Not  only  are  these  teams 
capable  of  handling  domestic  problems,  but  can 
also  be  deployed  at  a  moment's  notice  anywhere 
in  the  world  when  the  need  arises. 


The  Commandant  of  the  Coast  Guard  is  the 
chief  of  the  service  and  its  senior  officer,  with 
the  rank  of  admiral.  He  is  appointed  by  the 
President  for  a  term  of  4  years,  from  the  active 
list  of  line  officers  who  hold  a  permanent 
commission  as  commander  or  above  and  who 
have  completed  at  least  10  years'  service  as 
commissioned  officers  in  the  Coast  Guard.  From 
the  Coast  Guard  Headquarters  in  Washington  the 
Commandant  directs  the  policy,  legislation,  and 
administrative  affairs  of  the  service,  under  the 
general  supervision  of  the  Secretary  of 

The  basic  organization  pattern  of  the  Coast 
Guard  reflects  an  assignment  of  military 
command  and  operational  and  administrative 
responsibility  and  authority  among  components 
in  Headquarters,  in  district  offices,  and  in 
individual  units  in  the  field.  Duties  of  the  Coast 
Guard  in  most  instances  actually  are  performed 
by  individual  operating  units,  such  as  ships  and 
aircraft;  air,  light,  radio,  and  lifeboat  stations; 
marine  inspection  offices;  and  individual  logistic 
units  such  as  recruiting,  receiving,  and  training 
stations,  and  bases,  depots,  and  repair  shops. 

For  the  purposes  of  administration  the 
United  States  and  its  territories  and  possessions 

are  divided  into  12  districts,  each  under  a 
district  commander.  The  Commandant,  assisted 
by  the  headquarters  staff,  plans,  supervises,  and 
coordinates  activities  within  the  various  districts 
and  gives  immediate  direction  to  those  special 
service  units  in  the  field  which  report  directly  to 

The  district  commander,  assisted  by  his 
staff,  provides  regional  direction  and 
coordination  in  the  performance  of  duties  by 
individual  field  units.  The  chain  of  military 
command  and  operational  and  administrative 
control  ordinarily  runs  from  the  Commandant 
to  the  district  commander,  and  in  turn  from  the 
district  commander  to  the  commanding  officer 
or  officer  in  charge  of  a  particular  operating 
logistic  unit. 


Created  by  Act  of  Congress  on  4  August 
1790  at  the  request  of  the  first  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  Alexander  Hamilton,  as  a  seagoing 
service  of  10  boats  to  be  employed  "for  the 
security  of  the  revenue,"  the  Coast  Guard  was 
variously  known  by  such  names  as  the  Revenue 
Marine,  Revenue  Service,  and  Revenue  Cutter 
Service.  As  early  as  1799  Congress  provided  that 
the  cutters  should,  whenever  the  President 
directed,  cooperate  with  the  Navy.  On  28 
January  1915,  the  President  signed  a  law 
consolidating  the  Life  Saving  Service  and  the 
Revenue  Cutter  Service,  both  of  the  Treasury 
Department,  into  a  single  service  of  the  Treasury 
under  the  name  of  the  Coast  Guard. 

Early  Accomplishments.  The  early  Revenue 
Marine  found  itself  invested  with  many  other 
duties  besides  enforcing  the  revenue  laws.  The 
enforcement  of  state  quarantine  statutes,  the 
suppression  of  piracy  and  the  slave  trade,  and 
the  enforcement  of  neutrality  laws  and  of 
immigration  laws  were  included  in  its  manifold 

Eight  vessels  of  the  Revenue  Marine  were 
assigned  to  cooperate  with  the  newly  organized 
Navy  in  1 798  in  the  quasi-war  with  France. 

To  enforce  President  Jefferson's  1807 
embargo,  12  new  vessels  were  authorized  in 

1809,  and  these  helped  to  carry  the  naval 
burden  in  the  War  of  1812.  In  this  war  the 
Revenue  Marine  helped  to  protect  our  coastal 
trade  by  providing  convoy  between  ports.  It 
attacked  or  warded  off  attacks  of  privateers  and 
armed  flotillas  sent  out  by  British  squadrons 
ranging  freely  along  our  coasts,  and  it  captured 
hostile  armed  merchantmen. 

When  the  Seminole  War  broke  out  in  1836, 
eight  revenue  cutters  cooperated  with  the  Army 
and  Navy  in  blockading  rivers,  carrying 
dispatches,  transporting  troops  and  ammunition, 
and  providing  landing  parties  for  the  defense  of 
settlements  menaced  by  the  Indians. 

Eleven  cutters  participated  in  the  Mexican 
War  from  1846  to  1848,  principally  in 
cooperation  with  the  armies  under  Taylor  and 

In  1849  Captain  Frazer,  the  first  military 
commandant,  found  San  Francisco  a  difficult 
station  with  the  inrush  of  the  gold-seeking 
'49-ers.  There  were  some  600  vessels  riding  at 
anchor,  many  with  insubordinate,  lawless  crews. 
As  yet  there  were  no  civil  tribunals,  and  Captain 
Frazer  and  his  aides  worked  day  and  night 
enforcing  the  revenue  laws  and  helping 
shipmasters  suppress  mutiny  and  violence. 

Life  Saving  Service.  One  of  the  Coast 
Guard's  major  activities  has  always  been  the 
assisting  of  vessels  in  distress  and  the  saving  of 
life  and  property  at  sea.  Andrew  Jackson's 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury  first  designated  the 
Revenue  Marine  for  this  duty  in  1 83 1  when  he 
detailed  seven  cutters  to  patrol  areas  near  their 
stations  and  perform  such  functions.  The  first 
appropriation  for  saving  life  from  shore  was 
made  by  Congress  in  1 847.  By  1 847  there  were 
lifesaving  stations  at  many  points  along  the  coast 
of  New  England,  the  South  Atlantic  and  Pacific 
coasts,  and  the  Great  Lakes.  Lifesaving  medals 
were  authorized,  personnel  matters  reorganized, 
beach  patrols  and  signals  introduced,  and  the 
technique  of  using  the  breeches  buoy  developed. 

In  1854  the  Life  Saving  Service  had  been 
established  as  a  separate  bureau  of  the  Treasury. 
Officers  of  the  Revenue  Cutter  Service  were 
assigned  to  inspect,  drill,  and  discipline  the 
crews  of  the  lifesaving  stations.  Through  the 
combined  efforts  of  the  two  services,  over 

200,000  lives  and  more  than  a  billion  dollars 
worth  of  property  were  saved  in  the  years 
between  1871  and  1941. 

The  Civil  War.  The  revenue  cutter  Harriet 
Lane,  one  of  a  group  of  ships  sent  to  the  relief 
of  Federal  forces  at  Fort  Sumter,  was  present 
during  the  bombardment  of  that  fort.  Just  prior 
to  the  bombardment,  Harriet  Lane  hailed  the 
steamer  Nashville  to  show  her  colors.  When 
Nashville  failed  to  do  so,  Harriet  Lane  fired  a 
shot  across  her  bow  and  is  credited  with  firing 
the  first  shot  from  any  vessel  during  the  Civil 

The  Miami  was  Lincoln's  personal  transport 
from  which  he  landed  to  reconnoiter  on 
Confederate  soil  the  night  before  the  capture  of 
Norfolk.  Other  cutters  rendered  important 
services  in  the  waters  of  North  Carolina  and 
cooperated  with  the  naval  forces  in  the  gunboat 
flotilla  in  the  Chesapeake. 

Activities  from  1867  to  1917.  The  revenue 
cutter  Lincoln  was  the  first  American  ship  to 
explore  Alaskan  waters  following  our  purchase 
of  that  territory  from  Russia  in  1867.  From  the 
beginning,  Alaska  was  the  particular 
responsibility  of  the  Coast  Guard.  Its  cutters 
were  in  Alaskan  waters  from  early  May  until  late 
December  each  year,  rendering  aid  to  shipping, 
caring  for  the  shipwrecked,  and  assisting  the 
natives.  Public  Health  surgeons  detailed  to  the 
cutters  of  the  Alaska  Patrol  prescribed  for  and 
aided  the  sick. 

Organized  training  was  initiated  in  1876.  In 
that  year,  Congress  provided  for  the 
appointment  of  cadets  to  fill  the  lower 
commissioned  grades,  and  the  first  training  ship, 
Dobbin,  was  outfitted  as  a  floating  school  of 

In  cooperation  with  the  Navy,  13  cutters 
took  part  in  the  Spanish- American  War;  8  were 
with  Sampson's  fleet  on  the  Havana  blockade,  1 
was  with  Dewey's  fleet,  and  4  worked  with  the 
Navy  on  the  Pacific  coast. 

Following  the  sinking  of  the  Titanic  by 
collision  with  an  iceberg,  the  International  Ice 
Patrol  was  initiated  by  the  United  States  in 
1912.  Its  purpose  is  to  locate  icebergs  and  field 
ice  nearest  to  transatlantic  lanes  of  ocean  travel 



and  to  warn  ships  of  their  locations.  The  patrol 
also  conducts  oceanographic  research. 

Coast  Guard  in  World  War  I.  On  6  April 

1917,  when  we  declared  war  on  Germany,  the 
Navy  was  augmented  by  1 5  cruising  cutters,  over 
200  commissioned  officers,  and  5000  warrant 
officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the  Coast  Guard. 
They    were    entrusted    with    the    hunting    of 
submarines  and  raiders  and  with  guarding  the 
transport  of  troops.  A  squadron  of  Coast  Guard 
cutters,   based   at  Gibraltar,   performed   escort 
duty  between  that  port  and  the  British  Isles.  The 
cutter  Tampa,  bound  for  Milford  Haven  after 
escorting   a    convoy   to   Gibraltar,   disappeared 
during  a  storm  on  the  night  of  26  September 

1918,  leaving  no  trace  other  than  some  floating 
wreckage.    Over    100   Coast   Guardsmen   were 
among  the  130  persons  lost.  In  proportion  to  its 
strength,  the  Coast  Guard  suffered  the  highest 
losses  of  any  of  the  armed  services  in  World  War 

Development  Between  Wars.  Following 
World  War  I  the  experiment  of  Prohibition 
added  many  problems  to  the  Coast  Guard's 
work  of  preventing  smuggling.  Enforcement  of 
the  Prohibition  law  was  unpleasant  and  often 
dangerous,  but  funds  were  allotted  for 
expansion  to  an  extent  never  before  equalled. 
The  service  was  augmented  and  greatly 
improved,  especially  in  the  fields  of 
communications  and  intelligence. 

In  1932  the  Coast  Guard  Academy  was 
established  on  the  Thames  River  at  New 
London,  Connecticut. 

On  1  July  1939  the  Lighthouse  Service  of 
the  Department  of  Commerce  was  transferred  to 
the  Coast  Guard.  Its  functions  are  the 
construction,  operation,  maintenance,  repair, 
illumination,  and  inspection  of  all  aids  to 
navigation,  including  lighthouses,  lightships, 
buoys,  beacons,  fog  signals,  and  daymarks. 

In  1939  Congress  created  the  Auxiliary.  This 
was  a  voluntary  nonmilitary  organization  of 
civilians,  intended  to  train  and  instruct  those 
using  the  high  seas  and  navigable  waters  of  the 
United  States.  Another  purpose  was  to  secure 
the  cooperation  of  yachtsmen  and  other 
small-boat  owners  in  the  observance  of  the  laws 
and  the  adoption  of  safety  devices  on  their 

boats.  Later  some  3000  of  these  members  of  the 
Auxiliary  with  their  boats  became  available  as 
"coastal  pickets"  when  enemy  submarines  began 
to  prey  on  our  coastal  shipping. 

The  purpose  of  the  Auxiliary  today  is  to 
assist  the  Coast  Guard  in  promoting  marine 
safety  and  effecting  rescues;  in  promoting 
efficiency  in  the  operation  of  motorboats  and 
yachts;  in  fostering  a  wider  knowledge  of,  and 
better  compliance  with  all  regulations  governing 
the  operation  of  motorboats  and  yachts;  and  in 
facilitating  the  operations  of  the  Coast  Guard. 

When  the  President  proclaimed  our 
neutrality  on  5  September  1939  in'  the  war 
which  had  broken  out  in  Europe,  the  Coast 
Guard  assumed  a  wide  field  of  responsibility  in 
the  prevention  of  unneutral  acts  by  merchant 
vessels.  A  systematic  and  extensive  patrol  by 
aircraft,  vessels,  and  coastal  stations  was  carried 
out  all  along  our  coasts.  Radio  apparatus  aboard 
merchant  vessels  of  belligerent  nations,  while 
within  our  waters,  was  inspected  and  sealed. 

On  27  June  1940  the  President  invoked  by 
proclamation  and  delegated  to  the  Secretary  of 
the  Treasury  his  powers  under  the  Espionage 
Act  of  1917.  These  powers  included  the  right  to 
govern  the  anchorage  and  movement  of  all 
vessels  in  United  States  waters;  to  inspect  them 
and  place  guards  on  them;  to  take  full  possession 
and  control  of  them,  removing  the  officers  and 
crew  and  all  other  persons  not  specifically 
authorized  by  him  to  go  or  remain  on  board;  to 
secure  them  from  danger  or  injury;  and  to 
prevent  damage  to  harbors  and  waters  of  the 
United  States.  Shortly  afterward,  the  Dangerous 
Cargo  Act  gave  the  Coast  Guard,  jointly  with  the 
Bureau  of  Marine  Inspection  and  Navigation  of 
the  Department  of  Commerce,  wide  jurisdiction 
over  every  vessel  on  the  navigable  waters  of  the 
United  States  carrying  specified  high  explosives 
or  other  dangerous  cargo.  This  marked  the 
beginning  of  the  Coast  Guard's  wartime  port 
security  activities  designed  to  protect  navigable 
waterfront  property  and  shipping. 

The  Coast  Guard  Reserve  Act  of  1941 
established  the  Coast  Guard  Reserve  which, 
during  the  war  years,  grew  to  a  considerable  size. 
Numerous  volunteer  port  security  forces  were 
organized  by  utilizing  temporary  members  of 


the  Reserve  in  all  the  major  ports  to  guard 
wharves,  shipyards,  and  waterfront  property  on 
a  part-time  basis  and  with  all  services  donated  to 
the  Government. 

On  1  November  1941  the  entire  Coast  Guard 
was  ordered  to  operate  as  part  of  the  Navy. 
Coast  Guard  districts  automatically  went  under 
control  of  the  naval  districts  in  which  they  were 
located.  On  30  March  1942  the  Coast  Guard  was 
designated  as  a  service  of  the  Navy  Department, 
to  be  administered  by  the  Commandant  of  the 
Coast  Guard  under  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  in 
accordance  with  general  directives  issued  by  the 
Commander  in  Chief  (the  President),  the 
Secretary  of  the  Navy,  and  the  Chief  of  Naval 
Operations.  Before  the  declaration  of  war,  the 
larger  cutters  and  patrol  boats  capable  of 
offshore  operations  had  been  assigned  to  the 
fleet,  to  sea  frontiers,  or  task  forces  for  convoy, 
antisubmarine,  and  patrol  duty. 

Coast  Guard  in  World  War  II.  Shortly  after 
the  declaration  of  war  on  8  December  1941, 
Coast  Guard  vessels  got  into  action.  On  9  May 
1942  the  cutter  Icarus  sank  a  German  U-boat 
and  took  33  prisoners,  including  the  submarine's 
commanding  officer.  The  cutter  Campbell  was 
the  next  Coast  Guard  vessel  to  register  a  definite 
kill  in  the  gruelling  antisubmarine  war.  Postwar 
investigation  confirmed  the  sinkings  by  Coast 
Guard  vessels  of  seven  enemy  submarines. 

The  Coast  Guard  acquired  a  number  of 
civilian  craft,  including  sailboats  as  well  as 
powerboats,  that  were  capable  of  remaining  at 
sea  for  at  least  48  hours.  Some  carried  depth 
charges  and  were  armed  with  machineguns;  all 
were  equipped  with  radios.  They  functioned  as 
coastal  pickets  and  their  duties  were  to  observe 
and  report  actions  of  all  hostile  submarines, 
surface  craft,  and  air  forces,  and  to  attack  and 
destroy  when  their  armament  permitted.  They 
also  conducted  rescue  operations  offshore. 

New  scientific  developments  aided  the  Coast 
Guard  in  performing  wartime  duties.  In  addition 
to  loran  and  radar,  racon  and  anrac  were 
utilized.  Racon,  a  fixed  frequency  transponder 
that  gives  distance  and  bearing  within  1 20  miles 
of  a  plane  or  ship,  can  be  used  for  coastwise 
piloting  in  peace.  Anrac  is  a  form  of  remote 
radio  control  employed  to  light  and  extinguish 
electrically  lighted  unattended  beacons  and 
operate  fog  signals. 

During  1942  Coast  Guard  vessels  of  65  feet 
or  longer  increased  in  number  from  3732  to 
8357.  This  expanded  fleet,  together  with  the 
Coast  Guard's  regular  cutters,  brought  in  over 
1 500  survivors  of  enemy  torpedoings  along  the 
Atlantic  Coast,  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  in  the 
Caribbean.  They  were  assisted  by  Coast  Guard 
planes,  which  numbered  around  200  during  the 
war.  Lifeboat  stations  along  the  Atlantic  Coast 
picked  up  hundreds  of  survivors,,  in  lifeboats 
after  they  had  been  spotted  by  Coast  Guard 
aircraft  on  antisubmarine  patrols  off  the  coasts. 
The  planes  guided  fishing  vessels  and  other  craft 
to  submarine  victims  in  the  water.  As  the 
submarine  menace  along  our  coasts  subsided, 
most  of  the  24,000  Coast  Guardsmen  that  had 
been  patrolling  40,000  miles  of  our  coast  were 
released  for  sea  duty.  Temporary  reservists  and 
SPARS  (the  Coast  Guard's  counterpart  to  the 
WAVES)  relieved  many  others  for  more  active 
service  in  the  frontline  of  amphibious  and 
antisubmarine  attack. 

A  total  of  351  Navy  vessels  were  manned  by 
Coast  Guardsmen.  These  included  destroyer 
escorts,  troop  transports,  cargo  vessels,  tankers, 
landing  craft,  and  a  variety  of  patrol  craft.  In 
addition,  many  other  types  of  Navy  ships  had 
Coast  Guardsmen  in  their  crews.  The  Coast 
Guard  also  manned  291  Army  vessels,  including 
freight  and  supply  vessels,  large  tugs,  tankers, 
and  freight  boats  which  constituted  supply 
echelons  for  Southwest  Pacific  and  Philippine 
Army  bases.  Out  of  a  total  of  1035  Coast 
Guardsmen  who  died  aboard  ship,  572  were 
killed  in  action.  Altogether  over  1800  died  in 
the  war. 

Return  to  Peacetime  Duties.  Following 
World  War  II,  the  Coast  Guard  was  demobilized 
until  it  reached  a  low  of  18,687  officers  and 
men  in  1947.  The  Korean  conflict,  commencing 
in  June  1950,  had  tremendous  impact  on  the 
Coast  Guard  even  though  it  was  not  transferred 
to  the  Navy  as  in  previous  emergencies. 

The  impact  of  defense  mobilization  was 
reflected  in  added  operational  demands  for  all 
phases  of  the  peacetime  missions  of  the  Coast 
Guard.  Presidential  Executive  Order  10173 
instituted  a  port  program  designed  to  protect 
ships,  harbors,  ports,  and  waterfront  facilities. 
To  carry  out  the  program,  the  Coast  Guard 
assigned  Captains  of  the  Port  to  all  major  cities. 



The  Coast  Guard  operated  five  weather 
stations  in  the  Pacific  during  the  conflict  to 
provide  more  reliable  weather  data,  and  a 
number  of  loran  (long-range  aids  to  navigation) 
transmitting  stations  were  built  to  provide  better 
ship  and  aircraft  navigation  in  the  area. 

Faced  with  a  problem  of  enemy  infiltration 
along  the  long,  irregular  coastline  of  the 
Republic  of  Vietnam  in  1965,  the  Navy  turned 
to  the  Coast  Guard  for  assistance.  Highly 
maneuverable  Coast  Guard  82-foot  patrol  craft 
were  determined  to  be  the  best  vessels  for  use  in 
combating  the  Viet  Cong  infiltrators,  so  17 
heavily  armed  cutters  were  sent  to  Vietnam  to 
form  the  backbone  of  the  Navy's  operation 
"Market  Time." 

An  additional  9  cutters  were  later  sent  to 
Vietnam,  and  the  26  vessels  were  divided  into  3 
squadrons  which  patrolled  the  entire  coast, 
boarding  suspicious  vessels  and  searching  for 
weapons,  ammunition,  and  other  contraband. 

A  major  encounter  with  the  enemy  took 
place  in  May  1966  when  the  cutter  Point  Grey 
spotted  two  bonfires  on  the  beach  which 
appeared  to  be  signals  for  infiltrators.  The  Point 
Grey  waited  in  darkness  for  the  enemy  to  make 
a  move,  and  after  making  radar  contact  with  an 
unidentified  vessel,  the  cutter  went  into  action 
and  forced  it  aground. 

The  enemy  ship,  a  125-foot  trawler,  was 
ripped  apart  by  the  Point  Grey  and  other  cutters 
and  aircraft.  Salvage  crews  later  removed  15  tons 
of  weapons  and  ammunition  from  her  charred 
and  broken  hull. 

In  mid-1967,  in  response  to  a  Navy  request 
the  Coast  Guard  sent  five  of  its  larger  cutters 
into  action  to  strengthen  Vietnam  coastal 
defenses.  By  the  end  of  the  conflict  nearly  all 
major  Coast  Guard  cutters  had  been  on  a 
Vietnam  deployment. 

On  April  1.  1967,  after  nearly  177  years  in 
the  Treasury  Department,  the  Coast  Guard  was 
transferred  to  the  new  Department  of 
Transportation  (DOT). 

The  Coast  Guard  today  is  always  mindful 
that  it  is  a  branch  of  the  Armed  Forces.  Units 
and  personnel  are  trained  to  meet  or  exceed 
Navy  fleet  performance  standards.  Energy 
restrictions  during  1974  curtailed  Navy  refresher 
training  for  45  cutters,  but  particular  emphasis 
was  placed  on  refresher  training  for  the  crew  of 

high-endurance  cutters.  Present  policy  calls  for 
all  cutters  of  the  378-foot  Hamilton  class  to 
undergo  four  weeks  of  training  annually. 

The  Coast  Guard  Today.  Today's  peacetime 
Coast  Guard  is  adding  exciting  new  pages  to  its 
history  almost  daily  in  search  and  rescue 
missions,  prevention  and  cleanup  of  pollution, 
by  fighting  crime  on  the  high  seas,  and  in  the 
protection  of  U.S.  fisheries. 

The  numerous  missions  of  the  Coast  Guard 
are  carried  out  by  37,000  military  and  6,000 
civilian  personnel.  From  scattered  bases,  they 
operate  a  fleet  of  250  ships,  160  aircraft,  and 
more  than  2,000  small  craft.  They  also  maintain 
more  than  45,000  aids  to  navigation.  Others  are 
busy  ensuring  the  safety  of  the  merchant 
marine,  recreational  boaters,  and  the  Nation's 
bridges.  America's  entire  icebreaking  fleet, 
which  operates  in  the  Arctic,  Antarctic,  and  on 
the  Great  Lakes  during  the  winter  season,  flies 
the  Coast  Guard  ensign. 

More  than  11,700  Coast  Guard  reservists 
augment  regular  forces  in  peak ,  periods  and 
emergency  situations.  Last  year  reservists 
provided  approximately  2.8  million  man-hours 
of  support  to  the  regular  Coast  Guard. 
Additionally,  45,000  citizen  volunteers  of  the 
Coast  Guard  Auxiliary  lend  valuable  assistance 
to  the  Coast  Guard. 

The  prevention  of  smuggling,  another  duty 
that  dates  back  to  the  Coast  Guard's  earliest 
days,  is  still  a  major  mission  and  very  much  in 
the  limelight.  Coast  Guard  forces  are  extensively 
involved  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  and  the 
Caribbean  assisting  the  Drug  Enforcement 
Agency  and  the  Bureau  of  Customs  in 
operations  designed  to  stem  the  flow  of 
narcotics  into  the  country. 

In  addition  to  these  traditional  assignments, 
the  Coast  Guard  has  recently  undertaken  major 
new  missions,  especially  in  the  area  of 
environmental  protection.  Three  strategically 
located  "strike  teams"  respond  to  about  60 
major  pollution  incidents  each  year. 

Looking  to  the  future,  the  Coast  Guard  is 
planning  for  increased  offshore  law-enforcement 
patrols  with  the  enactment  of  the  200-mile 
maritime  economic  zone.  The  new  zone  will 
equal  about  one-third  the  size  of  the  Nation. 



A  nation's  merchant  ships  are  an  important 
part  of  her  seapower.  They  are  far  more  than  a 
means  of  transportation.  They  make  the  entire 
world  a  market  for  our  products,  thus 
contributing  to  our  economic  well-being.  They 
bring  back  to  our  ports  the  materials  that  we 
lack,  and  that  are  essential  to  our  industries. 
Their  visits  to  remote  ports  convey  American 
ideas  and  ideals  to  foreign  nations. 

During  a  war,  merchant  shipping  provides  a 
vital  link  between  the  fighting  force  overseas  and 
the  production  army  on  the  homefront. 

American  merchant  shipping  has 
experienced  some  extreme  stages  of  expansion 
and  decline.  It  flourished  in  the  early  days  of  the 
republic  while  Europe  was  at  war.  Its  peak  was 
reached  in  the  1850's,  due  in  part  to  the 
superiority  of  American-built  clipper  ships. 
Following  the  Civil  War,  a  period  of  decline  set 
in.  American  expansion  at  this  time  was  inland, 
so  that  capital  shifted  away  from  shipping.  Great 
Britain  was  better  equipped  to  build  iron-hulled 
steamships,  and  during  this  period  she 
constructed  them  in  large  numbers.  As  a  result, 
at  the  start  of  World  War  I  our  tonnage  was 
about  one-quarter  that  of  Great  Britain.  While 
our  exports  and  imports  continued  to  grow, 
most  of  them  were  carried  in  foreign  vessels, 
U.S.  flagships  carrying  only  10%. 

World  War  I  brought  about  a  brief,  frenzied 
attempt  to  remedy  this  situation,  and  as  a  result 
of  the  increased  shipbuilding  during  this  time, 
by  30  June  1921  we  had  2752  steamships  of 
1 000  gross  tons  or  over.  One  permanent 
achievement  in  this  period  was  the  establishing 
of  a  network  of  subsidized  American  lines  to  the 
principal  ports  of  the  world.  It  was  not  until 
1936,  however,  when  Congress  passed  the 
Merchant  Marine  Act  providing  for  the  payment 
of  construction  and  operating  differential 
subsidies,  that  American  ship  owners  were 
encouraged  to  consider  expansion. 

The  Merchant  Marine  Act  of  1936 
established  a  Maritime  Commission  to 
administer  the  Act.  After  a  survey  of  the 
country's  need  for  ships,  the  Commission 

suggested  a  building  program  of  500  ships  over  a 
10-year  period.  From  1939  to  1941,  185  ships 
were  built.  The  Japanese  attack  on  Pearl  Harbor 
shifted  shipbuilding  into  high  gear. 

To  offset  heavy  submarine  losses,  2708  large 
but  relatively  slow  Liberty  ships  were  turned  out 
from  1939  to  1945,  principally  in  new, 
improvised  yards.  In  addition,  3069  other 
merchant-type  ships  were  built,  for  a  total  of 
5777.  Close  cooperation  with  naval  authorities 
had  resulted  in  types  of  ships  ready  for  fast 
production  and  designed  to  meet  the  auxiliary 
needs  of  the  United  States,  Navy  and  to  fit 
war-use  specifications. 

Many  faster  ships  designed  under  the 
Maritime  Commission's  long-range  policy  had 
been  built  by  shipyards,  encouraged  by  the 
nation's  new  maritime  program.  Building 
schedules  were  stepped  up. 

It  was  soon  apparent  that  the  immense 
shipbuilding  phase  of  its  duties  would  be  a 
full-time  job  for  the  Maritime  Commission  and 
that  an  agency  was  needed  to  handle  wartime 
merchant  fleet  operational  problems.  Such  an 
agency,  the  War  Shipping  Administration 
(WSA),  was  formed  in  February  1943. 

The  responsibility  of  WSA  included  the 
purchase  or  requisition  of  vessels  for  its  own  use 
or  for  use  by  the  Army,  Navy,  and  other 
Government  agencies;  the  repairing,  arming,  and 
installation  of  defense  equipment  on 
WSA-controlled  vessels  and  Allied  vessels  under 
lend-lease  provision;  and  the  conversion  of 
vessels  to  troop  transports,  hospital  ships,  and 
for  other  special  purposes.  Their  responsibility 
embraced  also  training  and  providing  shipboard 
personnel;  operation,  loading,  discharging,  and 
general  control  of  the  movement  of  the  ships; 
administering  marine  and  war-risk  insurance  laws 
and  funds;  and  control  of  port  and  terminal 
facilities,  forwarding,  and  related  matters.  With 
all  merchant  ships  subject  to  WSA  requisition, 
qualified  ship  operators  became  operating  agents 
for  the  United  States  Government.  Thus, 
although  the  American  maritime  industry  was 
placed  under  wartime  orders,  it  remained  intact 
in  its  organization. 

The  full  story  of  the  accomplishments  of  the 
merchant  marine  in  World  War  II  is  related  in 


The  United  States  Merchant  Marine  at  War,  a 
report  submitted  in  January  1946  to  the 
President  of  the  United  States  by  Vice  Admiral 
Emory  S.  Land,  Chairman  of  the  Maritime 
Commission  and  War  Shipping  Administrator.  A 
brief  summary  will  serve  to  indicate  the  scope  of 
merchant  marine  activity  in  World  War  II. 

The  summit  was  attained  in  the  hazardous 
Murmansk  Run.  The  war  with  Japan  prevented 
full  use  of  our  World  War  I  shipping  lane  to 
Russia  through  the  port  of  Vladivostok.  The 
Mediterranean  was  closed  as  a  gateway  to 
Russian  ports;  the  Persian  Gulf  entailed  a  long 
voyage  around  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  The 
most  direct  route  was  through  the  Straits  of 
Denmark  between  Iceland  and  Greenland,  then 
around  the  North  Cape  of  Norway  into 
Murmansk.  This  was  the  Murmansk  Run,  a 
voyage  that  combined  all  the  elements  of  danger 
from  man  and  nature  alike.  But  the  slow,  gray 
convoys  made  that  trip,  through  icy  fogbound 
seas,  where  they  were  exposed  to  attack  by  dive 
bombers,  surface  raiders,  and  submarines  moving 
out  from  the  Nazi-held  fjords  of  Norway.  Even 
after  they  had  reached  their  destination  and 
were  unloading  their  cargo,  they  were  subjected 
to  attack  by  planes  of  the  Luftwaffe. 

The  merchant  marine  carried  millions  of 
tons  of  cargo  across  every  ocean.  These  cargoes 
were  as  varied  as  the  sealanes  they  traveled  and 
ranged  in  size  from  pins  to  locomotives. 
Strategic  materials  were  sometimes  brought  back 
in  these  ships,  as  were  goods  that  were 
considered  essential  for  civilian  use. 

By  the  end  of  the  war  with  Japan  the 
WSA-controlled  fleet  numbered  3,956  ships, 
with  a  deadweight  tonnage  of  about  40,750. 
Some  54%  of  the  vessels  under  WSA  control 
consisted  of  the  well-known  Liberty  ships,  with 
a  speed  of  about  1 1  knots.  Construction  of 
Victory  ships  began  in  1944,  when  turbines 
became  available  for  merchant  ships.  The 
Victory  ships  had  approximately  the  same 
tonnage  as  the  Liberty's  (about  11,000  tons), 
but  its  more  modern  propulsion  machinery 
made  it  a  faster  ship,  with  a  speed  of  15-17 

Other  ships  in  the  merchant  fleet  include  the 
C-types,  which  vary  from  coastal  vessels  of 

9,000  deadweight  tons  to  freighters  of  more 
than  13,000  tons.  In  addition,  there  are  special 
types-primarily  freighters,  combination 
passenger-cargo  ships,  refrigerator  ships,  and 
bulk  carriers. 

To  meet  the  need  for  large,  fast  cargo  ships 
capable  of  service  in  forward  areas  in  wartime,  a 
need  pointed  up  by  the  demands  of  the  Korean 
War,  the  Maritime  Administration  of  the  U.S. 
Department  of  Commerce  undertook  a 
construction  program  of  35  ships  of  the  Mariner 


The  program  for  training  personnel  for 
service  in  the  merchant  marine  was  established 
in  1938  by  the  U.S.  Maritime  Commission. 
Training  stations  and  supplementary  training 
ships  were  established  on  the  Atlantic,  Gulf,  and 
Pacific  coasts.  In  postwar  years  merchant  marine 
training  became  a  function  of  the  Maritime 
Administration,  under  which  a  peacetime 
training  program  now  functions  through  the 
U.S.  Merchant  Marine  Academy  and  state 
maritime  academies. 

The  Merchant  Marine  Academy  trains 
American  citizens,  high  school  graduates  and 
under  21  years  of  age,  to  become  officers  in  the 
merchant  marine.  The  course  is  4  years:  the  first 
year  at  the  Academy,  located  at  King's  Point, 
New  York,  the  second  year  aboard  merchant 
ships,  and  the  last  2  years  at  the  Academy. 
Graduates  receive  a  merchant  marine  license  as 
third  mate  or  third  assistant  engineer  and  are 
eligible  to  apply  for  a  commission  as  ensign  in 
the  Naval  Reserve.  The  Academy  grants  a 
bachelor  of  science  degree. 

In  addition  to  the  academy  at  King's  Point, 
the  Maritime  Administration  supervises  five 
merchant  marine  schools  in  Maine,  New  York, 
Massachusetts,  California,  and  Texas.  These  state 
institutions  operate  partially  with  the  aid  of 
Federal  funds  under  Federal  requirements.  Upon 
graduation,  students  receive  a  license  similar  to 
those  awarded  King's  Point  graduates  and  upon 
individual  application  and  acceptance,  a 
commission  as  ensign  in  the  Naval  Reserve. 



The  Merchant  Marine  Act  of  1936  in  its 
Declaration  of  Policy  states: 

"It  is  necessary  for  the  national 
defense  and  development  of  its  foreign 
and  domestic  commerce  that  the  United 
States  shall  have  a  merchant  marine  (a) 
sufficient  to  its  domestic  waterborne 
commerce  and  a  substantial  portion  of 
the  waterborne  export  and  import 
foreign  commerce  of  the  United  States 
and  to  provide  shipping  service  on  all 
routes  essential  for  maintaining  the  flow 
of  such  domestic  and  foreign  waterborne 
commerce  at  all  times,  (b)  capable  of 
serving  as  a  naval  and  military  auxiliary 
in  time  of  war  or  national  emergency,  (c) 
owned  and  operated  under  the  United 
States  flag  by  citizens  of  the  United 
States  insofar  as  may  be  practicable,  and 
(d)  composed  of  the  best-equipped, 
safest,  and  most  suitable  types  of  vessels, 
constructed  in  the  United  States  and 
manned  with  a  trained  and  efficient 
citizen  personnel.  It  is  hereby  declared 
to  be  the  policy  of  the  United  States  to 
foster  the  development  and  encourage 
the  maintenance  of  such  a  merchant 

The  United  States  Maritime  Commission, 
which  came  into  being  under  the  act  of  1936, 
was  created  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  out  this 

Since  1961,  responsibility  for  administering 
Federal  programs  concerned  with  the  promotion 
and  development  of  the  merchant  marine  has 
been  vested  in  the  Federal  Maritime 
Commission,  an  independent  regulatory  agency, 
and  the  Maritime  Administration  in  the 
Department  of  Commerce. 

The  Federal  Maritime  Commission  exercises 
regulatory  control  over  rates  and  practices  of 
ocean  shipping  lines,  and  reviews  agreements 
among  ship  operators  and  freight  forwarders  for 
evidence  of  discriminatory  practices. 

Located  within  the  Maritime 
Administration,  the  Maritime  Subsidy  Board 
holds  hearings  to  decide  whether  charter  of 
war-built,  dry-cargo,  Government-owned  vessels 
is  necessary  to  provide  essential  services  for 
which  privately  owned  tonnage  is  not  available 
or  unavailable  at  reasonable  rates  and 
conditions.  The  Maritime  Subsidy  Board  also 
makes  determinations  regarding  the  recipients 
and  amounts  of  ship  construction  and  operating 

The  Maritime  Administration  carries  out  the 
administration  of  subsidies  and  directs  programs 
of  shipbuilding,  ship  operation,  and  reserve  fleet 
maintenance  when  required  in  the  national 
interest.  Through  the  National  Shipping 
Authority,  established  in  March  1951,  it 
operates  vessels  through  general  agents 
appointed  from  private  shipping  companies,  to 
supply  services  such  as  the  carrying  of  military 
goods  when  privately  owned  or  chartered  vessels 
are  not  available  at  reasonable  rates. 



The  U.S.  Marine  Corps  consists  of  not  less 
than  three  combat  divisions  and  three  aircraft 
wings,  and  such  other  land  combat,  aviation,  and 
other  services  as  necessary  to  support  them.  It  is 
organized,  trained,  and  equipped  to  provide 
Fleet  Marine  Forces  of  combined  arms,  together 
with  supporting  air  components,  for  service  with 
the  fleet  in  the  seizure  or  defense  of  advanced 
naval  bases,  and  for  the  conduct  of  such  land 
operations  as  may  be  essential  to  the 
prosecution  of  a  naval  campaign.  In  addition, 
the  Corps  provides  detachments  and 
organizations  for  service  on  ships  of  the  Navy; 
provides  security  detachments  at  naval  stations, 
naval  bases,  and  embassies  and  legations  in 
foreign  countries;  and  performs  such  other 
duties  as  the  President  may  direct. 

The  Corps  has  primary  responsibility  for 
developing,  in  coordination  with  the  other 
military  services,  the  doctrines,  tactics, 
techniques,  and  equipment  employed  by  landing 
forces  in  amphibious  operations. 

The  peacetime  regular  strength  of  the  Corps 
is  limited  to  a  maximum  of  196,000  personnel. 

The  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps  has 
coequal  status  with  the  members  of  the  Joint 
Chiefs  of  Staff  in  matters  of  direct  concern  to 
the  Corps.  He  is  responsible  for  its 
administration,  discipline,  internal  organization, 
training,  efficiency,  and  readiness;  for  the 
operation  of  its  material  support  system;  and  for 
the  total  performance  of  the  Corps.  When 
performing  these  functions,  the  Commandant  is 
responsible  directly  to  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy;  he  is  not  a  part  of  the  command  structure 
of  the  Chief  of  Naval  Operations.  There  is  a 
close  cooperative  relationship,  however,  between 

CNO,  as  the  senior  military  officer  of  the 
Department  of  the  Navy,  and  the  Commandant 
of  the  Marine  Corps,  who  has  command 
responsibility  over  that  organization.  The 
Commandant  is  responsible  to  CNO  for  the 
readiness  of  those  elements  of  the  operating 
forces  of  the  Marine  Corps  assigned  to  the 
Operating  Forces  of  the  Navy.  Marine  Corps 
forces,  when  so  assigned,  are  subject  to  the 
command  exercised  by  CNO  over  the  Operating 
Forces  of  the  Navy.  Units  also  may  be  assigned 
under  the  operational  control  of  unified  or 
specified  commanders,  as  part  of  the  naval 
components  within  those  commands. 

The  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps 
advises  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  on  all  matters 
pertaining  to  the  Corps. 

The  Chief  of  Naval  Material  is  responsive  to 
the  Commandant  in  meeting  the  material 
support  needs  of  the  Marine  Corps  that  are  to  be 
provided  by  the  Naval  Material  Command. 

Figure  11-1  shows  the  general  organization 
of  the  Corps.  Major  elements  of  Marine  Corps 
operating  forces  normally  are  assigned  to  Fleet 
Marine  Forces,  which  are  integral  parts  of  the 
fleets,  having  the  status  of  type  commands. 

Bureaus  and  offices  of  the  Navy  Department 
perform  certain  technical  and  service  functions 
for  the  Marine  Corps,  just  as  they  do  for  the 
Navy.  For  example,  medical  services  are 
provided  by  the  Bureau  of  Medicine  and 
Surgery.  Legal  advice  and  legislative  services  are 
provided  by  the  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the 
Navy.  Navy  personnel  for  service  in  Marine 
Corps  units  are  provided  by  the  Bureau  of  Naval 
Personnel.  Reciprocally,  the  Marine  Corps 
provides  security  detachments  for  the  protection 



































Figure  11-1.— General  organization  of  the  U.S.  Marine  Corps.  The  illustration  does  not  delineate  specific  command 




of  bases  and  stations  of  the  Navy,  units 
(including  squadrons)  for  service  on  Navy 
vessels,  and  Marine  Corps  personnel  for  duty 
with  those  bureaus  and  offices  performing 
significant  service  for  the  Marine  Corps. 

The  Marine  Corps  Supporting  Establishment 
includes  the  Marine  Corps  recruit  depots  at  San 
Diego  and  Parris  Island,  the  Marine  Corps 
Development  and  Education  Command  at 
Quantico,  the  Marine  Corps  Recruiting  Service, 
the  Marine  Corps  supply  installations,  and  the 
various  Marine  barracks  and  Marine  Corps  air 

The  relationship  between  the  Secretary  of 
the  Navy  and  the  Commandant  of  the  Marine 
Corps  is  direct.  When  the  President  orders  units 
of  the  Marine  Corps  to  perform  duties  that  are 
not  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Secretary  of 
the  Navy,  the  President  may  require  the 
Commandant  to  report  to  some  other 
department  head  for  that  purpose.  As  an 
example,  during  World  War  I  the  President 
directed  the  Commandant  to  report  to  the 
Secretary  of  War  with  respect  to  Marine  Corps 
units  detached  for  service  with  the  Army.  In 
1921  and  again  in  1926  the  Commandant,  at  the 

s.*         ,       *1     «  -    >*  •      -i1*."-'.    ^- f 

,     «,;.   ,-l  -t^J*-',-  ,    ,  V*  -:'*-  *    '•      .»   *     ' 
V*i      .  "j     _    "     %•>,.'•      "      ,      - 


Figure  11-2.-Rugged  in  combat,  U.S.  Marines  on  parade  present  the  perfect  example  of  proper  military  bearing. 
This  ceremony  is  taking  place  at  the  Marine  Barracks,  Washington,  D.C. 


direction  of  the  President,  reported  to  the 
Postmaster  General  with  respect  to  Marine  Corps 
units  ordered  to  guard  the  U.S.  mail. 


The  U.S.  Marine  Corps,  perhaps  to  a  greater 
degree  than  any  other  military  group, 
demonstrates  the  power  of  pride  in  tradition  to 
unify  and  motivate  a  fighting  force.  Almost  as 
soon  as  he  becomes  a  member  of  the 
organization,  the  Marine  learns  that  his 
traditions  are  as  much  a  part  of  his  equipment  as 
his  pack  or  his  rifle.  These  traditions  have  been 
growing  since  the  Continental  Marines  were 
organized  on  10  November  1775,  the  birthday 
of  the  Corps.  Marine  Corps  tradition  has  many 
phases:  discipline,  devotion  to  duty,  leadership, 
loyalty,  self-sacrifice,  versatility,  and  pride  in  a 
job  well  done  (figure  11-2).  Reflections  of 
Marine  tradition  can  be  found  in  the  uniform, 
the  insignia,  the  words  of  the  "Marines'  Hymn," 
and  the  nicknames  earned  through  the  years. 

The  familiar  emblem  of  the  eagle,  globe,  and 
anchor  (figure  1 1-3),  officially  adopted  in  1868, 
is  symbolic  of  worldwide  service  in  a  seagoing 
force-the  "soldiers  of  the  sea."  The  spread 
eagle,  the  national  symbol,  holds  in  its  beak 
streamers  that  bear  the  Marines'  motto,  Semper 
Fidelis  (Always  Faithful),  officially  adopted  in 

According  to  tradition,  the  origin  of  the 
"Marines'  Hymn"  dates  back  to  the  Mexican 
War  when  an  unknown  Marine  on  duty  in 
Mexico  wrote  the  first  verse,  "From  the  Halls  of 
Montezuma  to  the  Shores  of  Tripoli"  (figure 

The  Marine  Corps  march,  "Semper  Fidelis," 
was  composed  in  1888  by  John  Philip  Sousa,  at 
that  time  leader  of  the  Marine  Band.  The  band 
played  for  the  first  presidential  inauguration  in 
Washington  in  1801  and  became  known  as  "the 
President's  own"  during  the  early  years  of  the 
1 9th  century,  a  title  it  holds  today. 

The  term  "leatherneck"  dates  back  to  the 
time  when  Marines  wore  leather  stocks,  or 
collars,  to  improve  military  bearing  by  forcing 
the  wearer  to  keep  his  head  up.  The  nickname 

Figure  11-3.-Emblem  of  the  U.S.  Marine  Corps. 

"Devil  Dogs"  reputedly  was  assigned  to  Marines 
by  the  Germans  in  World  War  I  after  the  action 
at  Belleau  Wood,  in  which  the  Fourth  Marine 
Brigade  distinguished  itself.  The  German  reports 
were  said  to  have  referred  to  the  Marines  as 


Fighting  men  have  been  assigned  to  ships 
since  the  time  of  the  Phoenicians,  about  five 
centuries  before  the  Christian  Era.  The  Greeks 
and  Romans  followed  this  practice,  and  later  the 
British.  In  1664,  during  the  reign  of  Charles  II, 
the  Duke  of  York  and  Albany's  Maritime 
Regiment  of  Foot  was  organized,  from  which 
the  Royal  Marines  are  descended. 

In  1740  the  American  Colonial  Marines 
came  into  being,  and  served  under  Admiral 
Vernon  of  the  Royal  Navy,  chiefly  in  the  West 
Indies.  Lawrence  Washington,  half-brother  of 
George  Washington,  was  an  officer  in  the 



Lieutenant  Presley  O'Bannon 


Figure  11-4.-(continued) .  .  .  and  in  the  war  with  the  Barbary  Powers.  An  official  version  of  the  Hymn  was  issued 

in  1929. 

from  Alfred  v.  Glasgow  (1776)  to  Alliance  v. 
Sybil^  (1783).  Not  to  be  mistaken  for 
Continental  Marines  were  the  many  Marines  in 
various  state  navies  of  the  revolutionary  era. 

After  independence  was  won,  the  Marines, 
like  the  rest  of  the  Continental  forces  except  for 
one  small  Army  unit,  went  out  of  existence. 
During  the  trouble  with  Algerian  pirates  in 
1794,  Marines  were  authorized  by  Congress  to 
complement  the  small  naval  force  contemplated 
at  the  time.  When  the  crisis  passed  without  war, 
however,  naval  construction  was  cut  back  to 

such  an  extent  that  the  enlistment  of  Marines 
was  never  begun. 

Marines  were  not  actually  recruited  until  the 
revival  of  the  Navy  in  1798  during  the 
controversy  with  France  over  American 
neutrality  at  sea.  After  the  separation  of  the 
Navy  from  the  War  Department  in  April  1798, 
the  Marines  already  in  service,  as  well  as  those  to 
be  raised  thereafter,  were  brought  into  one  corps 
by  the  act  of  1 1  July  1 798. 

During  the  quasi-war  resulting  from  the 
diplomatic  impasse  with  France,  the  Marines 


11         "From  the  Halls  of  Montezumo.  .   ."    General  Quitman  leads  his  battered  battalion  of 
|W     Marines  into  Mexico  City  on  14  September  1847,  ending  the  Mexican  War  with  American 
victory.    The  red  strip  on  the  trousers  of  the  Marine  dress  uniform  commemorates  the 
blood  shed  in  the  desperate  fight  at  Chapultepec  on  the  previous  day. 


Figure  11-4.-The  first  lines  of  the  "Marines'  Hymn,"  "From  the  Halls  of  Montezuma  to  the  Shores  of  Tripoli," 
commemorate,  in  reverse  chronological  order,  the  accomplishments  of  the  Marine  Corps  in  the  Mexican  War . . . 

Colonial  Marines  at  the  time  the  organization 
was  assigned  as  the  43d  Regiment  of  Foot  in 
the  British  Army. 

The  U.S.  Marine  Corps  dates  from  the 
resolution  of  the  Continental  Congress  on  10 
November  1775,  authorizing  two  battalions  of 
Marines.  Never  larger  than  one  battalion  in 
actual  strength,  the  Continental  Marines  served 
gallantly  throughout  the  Revolution.  Recruiting 
was  begun  at  Tun  Tavern  in  Philadelphia,  and 
Major  Samuel  Nicholas,  regarded  now  as  the  first 
commandant,  led  the  first  overseas  expedition  in 

1776-a    raid    on    New    Providence,    Bahama 

The  Marines  fought  with  Washington  in  the 
Trenton-Princeton  campaign  (1776-77).  They 
served  with  Clark  in  the  West  (1778-79);  and 
French  Marines  in  the  American  service  were 
part  of  John  Paul  Jones'  descent  on  Whitehaven, 
England,  and  spectacular  defeat  of  the  Serapis 
(1779).  American  Marines  participated  in  the 
ill-fated  Penobscot  expedition  (1779)  and  in  the 
defense  of  Charleston  (1780).  Marines  fought  in 
most  of  the  important  sea  battles  of  the  war, 


fought  in  all  the  major  sea  actions,  as  well  as 
innumerable  encounters  with  privateers  and 
pirates  in  the  West  Indies.  They  also  carried  out 
landings  on  Curacao  (1800)  and  Puerto  Plata, 
Santo  Domingo  (1800),  and  guarded  French 
prisoners  of  war  in  the  United  States. 

In  the  War  with  Tripoli,  commencing  in 
1 801,  Marines  took  part  in  naval  engagements  in 
the  Mediterranean  and  in  the  blockade  of  Tripoli 
City.  Marines,  led  by  First  Lieutenant  Presley  N. 
O'Bannon,  after  a  600-mile  march  from  Egypt, 
participated  in  the  only  land  campaign  of  the 
war— the  capture  of  Derne  (1 805). 

In  the  War  of  1812,  Marines  fought  in  every 
major  naval  engagement,  including  the  Battle  of 
Lake  Erie  under  Oliver  Hazard  Perry.  On  land 
they  are  best  remembered  for  the  defense  of 
Sackett's  Harbor,  N.Y.,  and  Norfolk,  Va. 
(1813),  and  for  the  Battles  of  Bladensburg 
(1814)  and  New  Orleans  (181 5). 

General  lawlessness  in  the  Caribbean  and  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico  growing  out  of  the  collapse  of 
the  Spanish  Empire  led  to  many  naval 
encounters  with  pirates  and  revolutionaries  in 
the  second  and  third  decades  of  the  19th 
century.  Marine  landings  against  pirate 
strongholds  were  made  at  Grand  Barataria 
(1814),  Amelia  Island  (1817),  Port-au-Prince, 
Haiti  (1817,  1821),  and  Fajardo,  Puerto  Rico 
(1824).  On  the  other  side  of  the  world, 
plundering  of  American  merchantmen  in  the 
East  Indies  led  to  Marine  landings  in  Sumatra  in 
1832,  1838,  and  1839.  Under  the  provisions  of 
the  act  of  30  June  1 834,  which  established  the 
land  warfare  responsibilities  of  the  Marine 
Corps,  Marines  commenced  in  1836  a  6-year 
land  campaign  against  the  Creek  and  Seminole 
Indians  in  Georgia  and  Florida  in  conjunction 
with  the  Army.  Colonel  Archibald  Henderson, 
the  "grand  old  man  of  the  Marine  Corps"  who 
served  as  commandant  for  39  years  under  nine 
presidents,  led  the  expedition  against  the 
Indians.  Marines  were  also  active  with  the 
"Mosquito  Fleet"  which  the  Navy  sent  into  the 
Everglades  during  the  war. 

Marines  with  the  Wilkes  Exploring 
Expedition  (1838-42)  made  several  landings  in 
Fiji,  Samoan,  and  Gilbert  island  groups,  to 
pacify  hostile  inhabitants  or  redress  injuries  to 

American  merchant  seamen.  Attacks  on 
merchant  vessels  by  coastal  tribes  took  Marines 
ashore  in  West  Africa  several  times  in  1843. 
Marines  got  their  first  acquaintance  with  China 
in  1844  when  they  landed  at  Canton  during  an 
anti-American  riot. 

Marines  served  in  both  theaters  of  operations 
during  the  Mexican  War.  Marines  were  the  first 
U.S.  troops  in  Mexico  with  their  landing  at 
Burrita,  15  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  Rio 
Grande.  Marines,  in  conjunction  with 
Commodore  Matthew  C.  Perry's  Gulf  Squadron 
and  Major  General  Winfield  Scott's  army,  took 
part  in  the  landing  at  and  capture  of  Vera  Cruz. 
A  Marine  battalion  served  as  part  of  General 
Quitman's  division  in  the  capture  of  Mexico 
City.  Marine  Captain  George  C.  Terrett's 
company  was  joined  by  Second  Lieutenant 
Ulysses  S.  Grant  and  26  soldiers  in  an  assault  on 
the  city's  San  Cosme  gate.  Thus,  Marines  were 
among  the  first  forces  to  enter  the  city.  When 
the  battalion  returned  to  Washington,  D.C.,  the 
city  presented  the  Commandant  a  standard 
emblazoned  with  "From  Tripoli  to  the  Halls  of 
the  Montezumas". 

In  the  West,  Marines  made  the  landings 
which  initially  secured  the  coast  of  California 
(July-October  1846),  fought  ashore  in  the 
reconquest  of  the  interior  (December 
1846- January  1847),  and  occupied  several  towns 
in  Baja,  California  and  Western  Mexico  (March 
1847-April  1848). 

A  number  of  landings  in  support  of 
American  commerce  were  carried  out  by 
Marines  in  the  1850s,  the  most  important  being 
the  reduction  of  the  Barrier  Forts  at  Canton, 
China  (November  1856).  A  formidable  Marine 
guard  accompanied  Perry's  mission  to  Japan  in 
1853-54.  In  the  United  States,  Marines  were 
involved  in  the  capture  of  John  Brown  at 
Harpers  Ferry,  Va.  (October  1859).  The  senior 
Federal  officer  present  who  exercised  overall 
command  was  Brevet  Colonel  Robert  E.  Lee,  2d 
U.S.  Cavalry. 

Although  their  part  in  the  Civil  War  was 
comparatively  minor,  Marines  were  among  the 
first  U.S.  troops  to  feel  the  impact  of  the 
coming  conflict  when  the  barracks  at  Pensacola, 
Florida,  was  compelled  to  surrender  to  local 


forces  in  January  1  861 ,  and  the  barracks  at  Nor- 
folk was  evacuated  in  April.  A  Marine  battalion 
fought  in  the  first  battle  of  Bull  Run  (July  1861). 
Marines  were  aboard  all  major  vessels  of  the 
blockading  fleets,  and  a  Marine  battalion  serving 
in  Admiral  DuPont's  squadron  (October  1861- 
March  1862)  carried  out  a  number  of  armed  re- 
connaissances along  the  south  Atlantic  coast. 
Other  operations  of  the  war  in  which  Marines 
took  part  were  the  landing  at  Hatteras  Inlet,  N.C. 
(August  186 1 );  the  attacks  by  the  Virginia  on  the 
Cumberland  and  Congress  (March  1862);  the 
Battle  of  Drewry's  Bluff,  Va.  (May  1862);  the 
siege  of  Charleston,  S.C.  (1863-1864);  suppres- 
sion of  the  New  York  Draft  Riots  (July  1863); 
the  defense  of  Gunpowder  Bridge,  Md.  (July 
1864);  the  Battle  of  Mobile  Bay  (August  1864); 
the  expedition  up  Broad  River,  S.C.  (November- 
December  1  864);  and  the  capture  of  Ft.  Fisher, 
N.C.  (January  1865).  For  heroism  at  Drewry's 
Bluff,  Corporal  John  F.  Mackie  became  the  first 
Marine  recipient  of  the  Medal  of  Honor. 

In  the  33  years  of  peace  following  the  Civil 
War,  the  Marines  saw  action  on  foreign  soil  32 
times,  most  memorably  in  the  assault  on  the 
Salee  River  forts  in  Korea  (June  1871)  and  on 
the  Isthmus  of  Panama  (April-May  1 885). 

During  the  period  between  1876  and  1891, 
when  Colonel  Charles  G.  McCawley  was 
commandant,  the  organization  of  the  Marine 
Corps  was  considerably  improved.  One  inno- 
vation with  which  he  is  credited  was  obtaining 
an  annual  quota  of  graduates  from  the  Naval 
Academy  for  commissioning  as  Marine  officers. 

At  Guantanamo  Bay,  Cuba  (June  1898) 
Marines  seized  an  advance  base  for  naval 
operations.  During  the  battle  for  Cuzco  Well,  6 
miles  southeast  of  Guantanamo,  naval  gunfire 
meant  to  support  the  battalion  fell  directly  on 
Marine  positions  instead.  Sergeant  John  H. 
Quick  stood  calmly  exposed  between  the  fire  of 
the  enemy  and  that  of  the  ship  and  sent  a  signal 
to  cease  fire  with  an  improvised  flag.  The 
shelling  ceased;  Quick  emerged  unscathed  and 
was  later  awarded  the  Medal  of  Honor  for  his 
courageous  act. 

With  the  fleet,  Marines  manned  secondary 
batteries  in  the  Battles  of  Manila  Bay  and 
Santiago  (May-July  1898)  and  provided  the 

landing  parties  which  took  possession  of  Guam 
(June  1898)  and  various  ports  in  Puerto  Rico 
(July-August  1898).  Marines  on  occupation  duty 
in  the  Philippines  after  the  Spanish  surrender 
were  drawn  immediately  into  the  suppression  of 
the  insurrection  attendant  upon  the  American 
occupation  (June  1898- July  1902).  During  the 
Boxer  Rebellion,  Marines  defended  the 
American  Legation  in  Peking  and  formed  part  of 
the  allied  relief  column  that  captured  the 
Chinese  capital  (June-August  1900). 
Establishment  of  formal  Marine  guards  for 
American  diplomatic  posts  also  dates  from  this 

During  the  relief  of  Peking  at  the  siege  of 
Tientsin,  the  Marines  alternately  helped  and 
were  helped  by  the  Royal  Welsh  Fusiliers  during 
various  critical  stages  of  the  fighting.  This 
two-way  support  gave  rise  to  mutual  admiration 
between  fighting  men,  which  to  this  day  is 
commemorated  by  an  exchange  of  cables  on  1 
March,  Saint  David's  Day.  The  message  reads 
simply,  "And  Saint  David,"  the  ancient  Welsh 

The  years  1903-04  saw  Marines  in  Santo 
Domingo  and  Panama,  and  a  special  detail  served 
as  guards  for  a  U.S.  diplomatic  mission  traveling 
to  Abyssinia  by  camel  caravan.  From  1906  to 
1909  the  Marines  participated  in  the  Army  of 
Occupation  in  the  Cuban  Pacification;  in  1914 
an  expedition  was  sent  to  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico; 
from  1909  through  the  1 920s  (except  for  1911) 
Marine  units  remained  in  Nicaragua;  in  1912  and 
again  in  1916-24  Marines  occupied  the 
Dominican  Republic;  and  in  1915  they  occupied 

During  this  period  forward-looking  officers 
of  the  Corps,  such  as  John  A.  Lejeune  and  John 
H.  Russell  (both  subsequently  to  become 
commandants)  had  already  visualized  the 
modern  Marine  Corps  as  a  fleet  expeditionary 
force  designed  for  the  seizure  and  defense  of 
advanced  bases,  as  the  means  whereby  a 
balanced  fleet  projects  its  power  into  the 
shoreline.  In  line  with  this  thinking,  an  Advance 
Base  Force  (ancestor  of  the  Fleet  Marine  Force) 
was  organized  within  the  Corps  for  just  such 
missions;  and  prior  to  our  entry  into  the 
European  war,  pioneer  steps  toward  modern 
amphibious  techniques  were  taken. 



New  weapons  and  equipment  came  into  the 
hands  of  Marines  in  the  decade  before  World 
War  I,  and  new  tactics  based  on  the  use  of  these 
weapons  were  developed.  Gasoline-powered 
trucks  facilitated  transportation  and  supply 
problems,  and  radio  provided  rapid  long-distance 
communications.  Improved  artillery,  more 
reliable  machineguns,  and  automatic  rifles  gave 
Marine  units  greatly  increased  firepower.  The 
airplane  gave  promise  of  unlimited  possibilities, 
and  on  22  May  1912,  First  Lieutenant  Alfred  A. 
Cunningham  was  assigned  to  naval  aviation  duty 
as  the  first  Marine  pilot. 


During  World  War  I,  the  4th  Marine  Brigade 
served  as  one  of  the  infantry  brigades  of  the 
Army's  2d  Division.  In  its  first  offensive  action 
of  the  war,  the  brigade  was  thrown  in  to  stop 
the  determined  German  attack  pointed  toward 
Paris.  Fighting  furiously,  the  Marines  attacked 

the  well-entrenched  Germans  at  Belleau  Wood 
and  finally  cleared  them  out  by  26  June  1918. 
In  20  days  of  heroic  fighting,  the  Marine  brigade 
had  met  and  defeated  part  of  two  of  Germany's 
most  distinguished  divisions. 

For  heroic  conduct  by  the  brigade  in  that 
battle,  the  French  Army  commander  changed 
the  name  of  the  wood  to  Bo  is  de  la  Brigade  de 
Marine,  or  Marine  Brigade  Wood,  and  awarded 
the  Croix  de  Guerre,  or  Cross  of  Gallantry,  to 
this  spirited  American  unit. 

After  further  action  at  Soissons,  St.  Mihiel, 
and  Blanc  Mont  Ridge,  November  of  1918 
found  the  brigade,  along  with  other  American 
units,  in  the  final  phase  of  the  great 
Meuse-Argonne  offensive  (figure  11-5).  The  2d 
Infantry  Division,  with  the  Marines  leading  it, 
was  assigned  the  mission  of  driving  a 
wedge-shaped  attack  through  the  backbone  of 
hostile  resistance.  The  attack  was  completely 
successful,  and  the  Marines  were  still  advancing 
when  news  of  the  armistice  was  announced. 


Figure  11-5.-Marines  set  up  a  light  gun  against  the  Germans  during  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive  of  World  War  I. 



Prior  to  leaving  France,  the  4th  Marine 
Brigade  had  three  times  been  awarded  the  Croix 
de  Guerre,  the  only  American  unit  so  honored. 

The  5th  Marine  Brigade  served  mainly  on 
military  police  and  line  of  communications  duty 
in  France. 

Marine  aviation  units  under  Cunningham,  the 
Corps'  first  aviator,  formed  the  Day  Wing  of  the 
Northern  Bombing  Group  in  northern  France  and 
Belgium.  Fifty-seven  bombing  missions  were 
flown  by  Marine  pilots,  and  they  accounted  for 
a  dozen  German  planes.  An  antisubmarine  patrol 
station  was  operated  in  the  Azores  from  21 
January  1918  until  the  armistice  of  1 1 
November  1918. 


The  period  of  peace  between  World  War  I 
and  World  War  II  was  anything  but  peaceful  for 
the  U.S.  Marines.  In  three  Caribbean  countries 
(Haiti,  Santo  Domingo,  and  Nicaragua)  they 
quelled  armed  revolt  and  organized  efficient 
native  police  forces  that  could  handle 
insurrections  after  they  had  withdrawn. 

During  these  years  the  Corps'  few  Marine 
aviators  began  to  develop  the  doctrine  of  close 
air  support  for  troops  on  the  ground  that  reached 
perfection  in  the  latter  stages  of  World  War  II 
and  in  Korea.  In  1927  Major  Ross  E.  Rowell 
led  the  first  organized  dive  bombing  attack  in 
history  against  an  organized  enemy  (Sandino's 
rebels  in  Nicaragua).  Aircraft  were  used  for 
reconnaissance,  observation,  supply  drops 
(including  replenishment  of  emergency  medical 
stores),  and  casualty  evacuation. 

In  1928  First  Lieutenant  Christian  F.  Schilt 
made  a  series  of  remarkable  rescue  flights  near 
Quilali,  Nicaragua.  Several  Marines  had  been 
wounded  by  bandits  and  had  no  way  to  reach 
medical  aid.  Lieutenant  Schilt  used  the  main 
street  of  the  village  for  an  airstrip,  once  the 
buildings  on  each  side  had  been  razed  to  make 
room  for  his  wings.  For  3  days  he  flew  out 
wounded  men,  bringing  ammunition  and 
supplies  on  each  return  trip.  For  his 
demonstrated  "almost  superhuman  skill,"  he 
was  awarded  the  Medal  of  Honor. 

Constantly  recurring  duty  in  China  took 
Marines  there  on  several  occasions  after  1 854 
when  internal  strife  necessitated  their  presence 
to  protect  American  interests.  In  1911  they 
landed  in  China  during  the  overthrow  of  the 
Manchu  Dynasty.  Troublesome  conditions  in 
1 924  again  required  the  strong  protective  arm  of 
the  Marines,  and  in  1927  a  force  of  about  5000 
Marines  was  stationed  at  various  points, 
principally  Shanghai  and  Tientsin.  Most  of  the 
force  returned  to  the  United  States  in  1929, 
leaving  only  the  4th  Regiment  in  Shanghai. 

In  1941  Marines  were  stationed  throughout 
the  world.  About  2000  were  serving  in  China 
and  the  Philippines,  under  the  Commander  in 
Chief  of  the  Asiatic  Fleet.  Several  thousand 
Marines  were  on  duty  at  naval  stations  in  the 
Hawaiian  Islands,  Guam,  Wake,  Midway, 
American  Samoa,  the  Panama  Canal  Zone,  and 
Cuba.  Marines  were  in  Iceland,  on  various  islands 
in  the  Atlantic  and  Caribbean  area,  and  in 
England  and  northern  Ireland. 

Perhaps  the  most  important  contribution  of 
the  Marine  Corps  to  the  Nation  during  this 
period— or  during  the  entire  existence  of  the 
Corps,  for  that  matter— was  its  evolution  of  the 
techniques  and  doctrine  for  successful 
amphibious  warfare,  which  were  brought  into 
being  at  the  Marine  Corps  Schools,  Quantico, 
Virginia,  primarily  between  1922  and  1935.  As  a 
necessary  concomitant  to  this  doctrinal 
development,  the  Fleet  Marine  Force,  basic 
instrument  for  execution  of  these  doctrines,  was 
organized  in  1933.  Both  the  Fleet  Marine  Force 
organization  and  the  doctrines  upon  which  it 
was  shaped  served  virtually  unchanged  in 
concept  throughout  all  of  World  War  II.  And  in 
1941,  when  the  Army  began  to  show  interest  in 
landing  operations  (which  had  hitherto  been 
exclusively  within  the  Marine  Corps  province), 
Marines  provided  a  working  doctrine  and  trained 
seven  Army  divisions,  including  the  first  three 
divisions  to  receive  amphibious  training. 


'Any  story  of  the  war  against  Japan  in  the 
Pacific,  the  greatest  naval  war  of  all  time,  brings 
into  sharp  focus  the  activities  of  U.S.  Marines. 



They  were  part  and  parcel  of  that  war  from  the 
day  of  the  attack  against  Pearl  Harbor  to  the 
occupation  of  conquered  Japan.  Marines  served 
at.  Corregidor  and  Bataan.  The  U.S.  outpost 
island  of  Guam  fell  to  the  Japanese  only  after  a 
determined  but  futile  stand  by  the  handful  of 
Marines  stationed  there.  The  stubborn  defense 
of  Wake  waged  by  the  naval  command  with  the 
fighting  Marine  detachment  evoked  the 
admiration  of  the  Nation  in  its  darkest  hour  and 
won  grudging  respect  from  the  enemy. 

Throughout  the  early  part  of  1942,  while 
the  enemy  roamed  the  Pacific  at  will,  Marine 
defense  battalions  were  sent  to  critical  outlying 
islands  in  the  Pacific  to  defend  and  hold  them 
until  a  counteroffensive  could  be  launched.  The 
first  concerted  U.S.  offensive  of  World  War  II 
began  in  the  Pacific  with  the  landing  of  Marines 
at  Guadalcanal  in  August  1942.  For  over  4 
months  the  battle  raged  as  fresh  Japanese  troops 
were  landed,  only  to  be  fought  down  by  General 
Vandegrift's  Marines.  The  long  channel  between 
Guadalcanal  and  Tulagi  became  an 

iron-bottomed    sea,    cluttered    with   US 
Japanese     ships     sunk     in     furious   ' 
engagements.  From  Henderson  Field,  the 
airstrip    on    Guadalcanal,    Navy,    Marine    aH 
Army  planes  rose  to  shoot  down  Japan's  best 

With  Guadalcanal  secured,  Marines  of  newly 
created  divisions  fought  the  Japanese  from  two 
directions.  Two  divisions  drove  through  th 
upper  Solomons  to  New  Britain  and 
Bougainville,  making  the  reduction  of  Rabaul 
one  of  Japan's  strongest  island  fortresses  a 
foregone  conclusion.  Meantime,  another  division 
landed  at  Tarawa,  first  step  in  the  central 

More  than  3300  casualties  within  76  hours 
made  the  battle  of  Tarawa  extremely  costly;  yet 
it  was  unique.  For  the  first  time  in  history,  a 
seaborne  assault  was  launched  against  a  heavily 
defended  coral  atoll,  and  assault  amphibians 
(figure  11-6)  were  used  in  an  assault  landing. 
The  operation  demonstrated  the  soundness  of 
existing  Marine  Corps  doctrines,  but  brought  to 

Figure  1 1-6.-Armored  assault  amphibians  of  a  Marine  battalion  form  i 


into  line  for  the  drive  to  the  beach. 


Figure  11-7.— Beaches  on  Iwo  Jima  (Iwo  Island)  are  covered  with  volcanic  ash  and  cinders  that  make  running  almost 
impossible.  The  Marine  amphibious  landing  in  February  1945  began  what  General  Holland  Smith  said  was 
".  .  .  the  most  savage  and  costly  battle  in  the  history  of  the  Marine  Corps"  against  a  well-fortified,  almost 
impregnable  defense. 

light    other    areas    requiring    improvement   for 
future  operations. 

Then  came  the  Marshalls,  another  step  in  the 
central  Pacific,  and  the  4th  Marine  Division,  part 
of  the  Marine  V  Amphibious  Corps,  gained  its 
first  combat  experience  in  an  operation  where 
tactical  surprise  and  crushing  air  and  naval 
bombardment  put  the  Japanese  at  an  immediate 
disadvantage.  From  the  Marshalls  the  offensive 
moved  on  westward,  the  next  amphibious 
assault  being  against  the  Marianas.  Here,  in 
mid-1944,  a  task  force  of  field  army  size,  under 
an  overall  Marine  command  comprising  two 
Marine  amphibious  corps,  three  Marine  divisions, 
a  Marine  brigade,  and  two  Army  divisions, 
wrested  the  strategic  islands  of  Saipan,  Tinian, 
and  Guam  from  a  stubborn  enemy  and  breached 
the  Japanese  inner  island  defense  chain. 

After  the  Marianas  came  the  Palaus,  where 
the  1st  Marine  Division,  in  its  third  major 
operation,  landed  on  the  bitterly  defended 
island  of  Peleliu  and  seized  it,  providing  General 
MacArthur  with  protection  on  his  eastern  flank 
as  he  prepared  to  move  into  the  Philippines. 

In  February  1945  the  V  Amphibious  Corps 
landed  on  the  island  of  Iwo  Jima  to  fight  one  of 
the  bitterest  actions  of  the  war  (figure  11-7). 
The  Japanese,  having  profited  from  earlier 
experiences  against  Marines,  organized  the 
island's  excellent  terrain  to  a  degree  never 
encountered  before  and  staged  a  bloody, 
last-ditch  fight.  Fewer  than  1 100  prisoners  were 
taken.  The  hard-won  victory  at  Iwo  paved  the 
way  for  landing  on  Okinawa  and  helped  to 
secure  the  airlanes  followed  by  B-29s  to  the 
main  Japanese  islands. 


Probably  the  most  fitting  tribute  to  the  men 
who  fought  on  Iwo  was  expressed  by  Admiral 
Chester  W.  Nimitz  when  he  said,  "Among  the 
Americans  who  served  on  Iwo  Island, 
uncommon  valor  was  a  common  virtue." 

After  82  days  of  bitter  fighting,  the  island  of 
Okinawa,  last  obstacle  before  the  main  Japanese 
islands,  fell  to  American  forces.  Here  as  before, 
the  Marine  divisions  demonstrated  their 
versatility,  taking  part  in  the  amphibious  assault 
and  in  the  extensive  land  fighting  that  followed. 
Here  again  the  Marines  fought  under  the  guns  of 
the  fleet,  operating  over  6000  miles  from  home 
waters  and  threatened  continuously  by  the 
Japanese  kamikaze  planes. 

The  war  saw  the  Fleet  Marine  Force  expand 
from  two  divisions  operating  under  an 
amphibious  corps,  to  six  divisions  and  four 
aircraft  wings,  comprising  two  corps  which  were 
earmarked  to  spearhead  the  final  landings  on 
Japan  proper.  On  30  August  1945,  3  days  before 
the  formal  surrender  document  was  signed 
aboard  USS  Missouri,  10,000  Marines  and  naval 
forces  landed  and  took  possession  of  the 
Yokosuka  naval  base  and  neighboring  islands. 
While  they  landed  as  assault  troops,  they  met  no 
opposition,  and  they  became  a  part  of  the  Allied 
occupation  forces. 


As  a  result  of  cuts  in  appropriations  after 
World  War  II,  Marine  Corps  strength  by  June 
1 950  had  dropped  to  just  a  shade  under  75,000. 
Of  this  number,  approximately  28,000  were 
serving  in  the  Fleet  Marine  Forces.  Others  served 
at  posts  and  stations,  naval  bases,  on  ships,  in 
supply  and  administrative  billets,  and  in  a 
variety  of  special  assignments. 

Although  the  Corps  had  one  division  and 
one  aircraft  wing  on  each  coast,  all  units  therein 
were  considerably  undermanned.  In  fact, 
regiments  were  hardly  more  than  understrength 
battalions;  service  and  support  units  also  were 
reduced  or  eliminated.  The  Marine  Corps  in 
1 950,  then,  was  little  more  than  a  skeleton  of  its 
former  self;  but  when  North  Korean 
Communists  launched  their  attack  on  the 
Republic  of  Korea,  the  Corps  again  lived  up  to 

its  tradition  of  a  force  in  readiness.  The  1st 
Provisional  Marine  Brigade  departed  the  United 
States  for  the  Far  East  on  14  July  1950,  only  7 
days  after  its  activation.  A  balanced  air-ground 
team,  the  brigade  distinguished  itself  in  the  role 
of  mobile  reserve,  or  "fire  brigade,"  during  the 
fierce  August  battles  in  defense  of  the  perimeter 
around  the  port  of  Pusan. 

Even  while  the  defensive  battle  was  in 
progress,  United  Nations  forces  prepared  to  take 
the  offensive.  The  Marines  made  an  amphibious 
assault  landing  deep  in  the  enemy  rear  to  seize 
the  port  of  Inchon  and  the  Korean  capital, 
Seoul.  For  the  Inchon-Seoul  operation,  the  1st 
Marine  Division  and  1st  Marine  Aircraft  Wing 
were  teamed  with  an  Army  division  in  X  Corps. 
This  operation  on  15  September  1950  severed 
the  enemy  line  of  communications  and,  coupled 
with  Army  pressure  from  the  Pusan  perimeter, 
forced  him  to  withdraw  rapidly  northward. 

The  North  Korean  armies  retreated  across 
the  38th  parallel.  To  complete  their  destruction, 
a  double  envelopment  was  planned,  including  an 
amphibious  landing  by  X  Corps  at  Wonsan  in 
northeast  Korea,  as  one  arm  of  the  pincer.  But 
so  rapidly  did  the  enemy  resistance  collapse  that 
the  Wonsan  landing  was  unopposed.  U.N.  forces 
advanced  toward  the  Yalu  River,  mopping  up 
the  remnants  of  defeated  enemy  forces  and 
occupying  the  country. 

By  the  end  of  November,  the  1st  Marine 
Division  had  reached  the  Chosin  Reservoir  far 
into  North  Korea.  But  the  Chinese  Communists, 
having  stealthily  crossed  the  Yalu  River,  struck 
advancing  U.N.  forces  in  great  strength.  The  1st 
Marine  Division  was  attacked  by  elements  of 
eight  Chinese  divisions  and  was  cut  off  from  its 
base  on  the  coast.  From  Yudam-ni,  the  point  of 
farthest  advance,  the  Marines  began  to  fight 
their  way  out  of  encirclement.  The  weather  was 
almost  as  bitter  an  enemy  as  the  Communists. 
Temperatures  ranged  around  -20°  to  -25°,  the 
ground  was  covered  with  ice  and  snow,  and 
knife-edged  winds  slashed  across  the  barren 
landscape.  Using  their  firepower  to  the  best 
advantage,  and  with  excellent  air  support  from 
Marine  and  Navy  planes,  the  division  fought  its 
way  back  to  the  coast,  bringing  its  equipment, 
and  its  wounded  and  dead  (figure  1 1-8).  Marine 
casualties  were  heavy,  but  Chinese  losses  were 
estimated  to  be  eight  times  those  of  the  Marines. 



The  beginning  of  1951  found  the  1st  Marine 
Division  and  1st  Marine  Aircraft  Wing 
redeployed  to  South  Korea  and  integrated  in  the 
8th  Army  and  5th  Air  Force.  Following  a  period 
of  reorganization,  the  8th  Army  resumed  the 
offensive  in  Operations  Killer  and  Ripper,  and 
advanced  steadily  to  the  vicinity  of  the  38th 
parallel.  In  April  and  May,  the  Chinese  struck 
back  in  two  major  efforts.  They  made  some 
penetration,  but  the  8th  Army  held  firm  and 
late  in  May  went  back  on  the  offensive.  With  the 
opening  of  truce  talks,  major  offensive  action  by 
both  sides  ceased  and  the  situation  remained 
substantially  static  thereafter. 


After  Korea,  the  Marine  Corps  maintained  a 
division-wing  team  in  readiness  in  the  Far  East. 
The  division,  starting  in  August  1960,  also  kept 
a  battalion  landing  team  afloat  with  the  7th 
Fleet,  poised  for  action  at  a  moment's  notice.  A 

Marine  brigade,  composed  of  a  regiment  and  an 
aircraft  group  in  Hawaii,  provided  a  backup  to 
the  first  line  of  defense. 

The  principal  role  of  the  Corps  during  the 
period  of  cold  war  has  been  to  provide  a  force  in 
readiness  for  immediate  use  in  crisis  or  disaster 
relief  and  as  part  of  the  Strategic  Reserve. 

In  the  Mediterranean  area  Marines  have  been 
in  the  forefront  helping  to  implement  national 
policy.  As  early  as  1948,  Marine  battalions  were 
serving  afloat  with  the  6th  Fleet.  The  wisdom  of 
this  policy  first  became  evident  in  1956  during 
the  brief  war  which  pitted  Israel,  France,  and 
Britain  against  Egypt.  On  1  and  2  November  of 
that  year,  in  spite  of  the  danger  from  air  raids, 
Marines  landed  at  Alexandria,  Egypt,  to  help 
evacuate  some  1500  American  civilians  and 
other  nationals.  More  vital  to  the  safety  of  the 
free  world  was  the  landing  of  Marines  in 
Lebanon  during  July  1958.  Here  the  prompt 
deployment  of  American's  force  in  readiness 
forestalled  an  attempt  to  overthrow  the  lawful 


Figure  11 -8.- Bitter  weather  as  well  as  elements  of  eight  Chinese  Communist  divisions  lashed  the  1st  Marine  Division 
during  its  breakout  from  the  Chosin  Reservoir  in  December  1950. 

government  and  thwarted  possible  Communist 
penetration  of  that  area. 

Marines  assigned  to  the  7th  Fleet  aided  in 
the  evacuation  of  refugees  from  North  to  South 
Vietnam  in  1954.  In  February  of  the  following 
year,  they  assisted  in  the  evacuation  of  Chinese 
Nationalist  troops  from  the  Tachen  Islands.  The 
winter  "of  1957-1958  saw  Marine  helicopters 
being  employed  in  Ceylon  to  bring  food  and 
medicine  to  those  left  destitute  by  devastating 
floods.  During  the  Chinese  Communist  threat 
against  Quemoy  in  the  fall  of  1958,  a  Marine 
aircraft  group  was  stationed  on  Taiwan  to 
bolster  the  air  defenses  of  that  vital  island.  A 
Marine  task  force  served  ashore  in  Thailand  from 
May  through  August  1962  during  the  continuing 
Laotian  crisis. 

In  the  Cuban  missile  crisis  (October- 
November  1962)  a  sizable  Marine  force  was 
deployed  to  the  Caribbean  from  east  coast 
bases,  while  a  second  force  was  lifted  by  air  and 
sea  from  the  west  coast.  Marine  photo  pilots 
attached  to  a  Navy  photographic  reconnaissance 
squadron  flew  low-level  missions  over  Cuba  that 
yielded  valuable  information  on  the  missile 

Marine  helicopters  began  operating  in  the 
Republic  of  Vietnam  in  April  1962,  providing 
support  and  mobility  to  the  Republic  of 
Vietnam  army  in  its  struggle  with  the 
Communist  Viet  Cong.  This  helicopter  unit  and 
its  supporting  personnel  compiled  an  enviable 
record,  both  in  the  Mekong  Delta  and  the 
mountainous  jungles  of  the  north.  At  the  same 
time,  Marine  officers  and  NCOs  served  as 
advisers  to  the  Vietnamese  Marine  Corps,  which 
quickly  became  the  elite  of  the  Vietnamese 
armed  forces.  When  the  United  States  stepped 
up  its  aid  program  to  that  country  (forming  the 
Military  Assistance  Command,  Vietnam,  as  part 
of  that  assi